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D9 - Tim Cain (Southampton & UCET research award winner): The Southampton Music Action Research Programme
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D9 - Tim Cain (Southampton & UCET research award winner): The Southampton Music Action Research Programme

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D9 - Tim Cain (Southampton & UCET research award winner): The Southampton Music Action Research Programme

D9 - Tim Cain (Southampton & UCET research award winner): The Southampton Music Action Research Programme

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  • Please use the dd month yyyy format for the date for example 11 January 2008. The main title can be one or two lines long.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • Tables use horizontal rules to separate elements as shown. Some additional instructions are given above.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • If using a school logo, make sure that if you have a long page title, it does not encroach on the logo. Allow about 2cm around the logo. Run the page title onto two lines if necessary.
  • Please use the dd month yyyy format for the date for example 11 January 2008. The main title can be one or two lines long.
  • Please use the dd month yyyy format for the date for example 11 January 2008. The main title can be one or two lines long.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Teachers’ action research and the generation of knowledge The Southampton Music Action Research Project, 2007-08 Tim Cain UCET Annual Conference , Nov 10, 2009
    • 2. Not ‘proper research’
      • Teachers’ action research tends to exist in the margins (Zeichner, 1995)
      • This description rings true in the field of music education.
      • ‘ I know it’s not proper research but …’ (Clayton & O’Brien et al., 2008).
    • 3. First Generation research
      • Positivist and post-positivist
      • The world can be known objectively
      • Knowledge is obtained empirically and logically (i.e. by answering questions like
      • “ what are the causes of . . .?”)
      • Disciplinary roots in psychology
      • Methods include Randomised, controlled trials; experiments and quasi
      • experiments, surveys, tests, mostly quantitative
    • 4. Second Generation research
      • Interpretativist, constuctivist, phenomenological, hermeneutic
      • No objective standpoint
      • Research into lived experience; subjective meanings uncovered by
      • ethnographical means – disciplinary roots in anthropology
      • Phenomena studied in contexts
      • Ethnographies, case studies, “thick description”; mostly qualitative
    • 5. Third Generation research
      • Critical theory, action research/practitioner research
      • Insider research
      • Aims to change the world by understanding it and vice-versa
      • Primacy of practical knowledge, supported by experiential, presentational &
      • propositional knowledge
      • “ the word ‘prove’ does not exist in Action Research” (McNiff, 2002)
    • 6. Types of action research
      • Experimental action research (broadly positivist)
      • inductive action research (interpretivist),
      • participatory action research (a limited form of participation)
      • participatory research practices (underpinned by critical theory)
      • deconstructive action research practice (a postmodernist, anti-essentialist stance)
      • A previous study produced ‘27 different “flavours” of action research’ (Cassell & Johnson, 2006)
    • 7. Action research
      • Plan > act > evaluate (“observe”) > reflect > plan . . . (etc.) spiral
      • Starts with questions like, “How can I improve what I am doing?” (Whitehead)
      • A natural extension of a teacher’s work (with emphasis on data & reflection)
      • Generates experiential, presentational, propositional and practical knowledge
      • (Heron & Reason, 1997)
    • 8. Foster (1999): 25 teachers’ studies
      • Most studies related to important educational concerns
      • reports contained ‘significant omissions and ambiguities’
      • ‘ researchers appeared unable to distance themselves from their preconceived views about effective practice’
      • insufficient evidence presented to support claims
      • significant doubts about the validity of evidence
      • ‘ a minority … could not be characterized as research’
    • 9. Furlong & Sainsbury (2005): 100 studies
      • taking part in action research was a valuable form of continuing professional development
      • teachers becoming more confident, more knowledgeable, collecting and using evidence, and learning about their own learning
      • For many, the research led to ‘informed reflection’
      • impacts on practice: schools, teaching, children and occasionally, parents
      • significant impact on the morale
      • ‘ the outcomes are often hard to disentangle from the development of the people … not always based on rigorous evidence’
    • 10. Bartlett & Burton (2006): a research group
      • an under-developed use of research conventions, including systematic data collection and ‘the issue of validity’
      • more awareness of the complex nature of what is often treated superficially during in-service training
      • began to seek out the relevant associated literature
      • able to evaluate suggested innovations
      • Validity ‘strengthened through peer examination and discussion’
    • 11. Knowledge
      • Foster (1999): the production of knowledge is the ‘primary goal’ of research, which teachers’ action research fails to achieve
      • Furlong and Sainsbury (2005): research outcomes are ‘hard to disentangle’ from the teacher-researchers’ professional development.
      • Lytle & Cochran-Smith (1998) the knowledge question is, ‘the question that persists’
    • 12. Knowledge
      • Garvey & Williamson (2002) ‘Big K’ and ‘Little K’ knowledge:
      • Big K knowledge develops ‘cumulatively … is consolidated and made explicit in books, journals and encyclopedias … is passed from one generation to the next through the institutions of formal education … is no longer the property of individual minds’, ‘is driven forward by research and development on a global scale’
      • Little K knowledge, ‘is the knowledge that individuals possess for themselves … [it] reflects their experience of work and understanding … is firmly anchored in the realm of individual education and experience’
    • 13. Research
      • AIM
      • to investigate how music teachers use educational action research as a
      • means of improving class music teaching in Secondary schools
      • QUESTIONS
      • How do Secondary school music teachers undertake action research?
      • What knowledge is created in the process?
    • 14. Action *This planned event did not happen Nov 1, 2007 Project teachers learnt what action research is, how it is carried out and how it differs from other sorts of research Nov – Dec, 2007 Project teachers carried out project in schools Entered plans into wiki Jan – Jun, 2008 Projects continued in school Visit by LA adviser (in some LAs) Project teachers visits to each other* Jun 18, 2008 Teachers presented research projects to each other July 4, 2008 I presented preliminary findings 2 other presentations Teachers evaluated the project as a whole
    • 15. Projects
      • Involving TAs  by Liz O'Connell: what happened when Teaching Assistants became involved in planning and teaching music.
      • KS3 Composing by Jason Edgell: what happened when Y8 pupils were given several chances to record their compositions.
      • KS3 Feedback by Sarah Moore: how pupils understood the feedback, given them in music lessons, and how this was improved.
      • GCSE Listening by Nikki Budd: how Y11 pupils used non-musical stimuli to develop their understanding of music from different eras.
    • 16. Projects
      • Vocational Relevance by Sally Wilcocks: how music lessons became more relevant through  bringing the music industry into the classroom.
      • Open all hours? by Philip Dowd: how pupils moved from skills-based learning to ideas-based learning.
      • Creative Skills by Rheann Long: how three Y8 pupils became more creative through imaginative approaches to performing tasks.
      • Projects are at www.practitionerresearchinmusiceducation.org
    • 17.  
    • 18.  
    • 19. Finding a research problem
      • teachers started by identifying a problem
      • National programmes influenced Philip, Sarah and Rheann and Nikki
      • Whole-school matters influenced Sally, Liz and Jason
      • The topics chosen by the teachers were about meeting professional expectations, rather
      • than questioning or opposing such expectations
    • 20. Structuring the research
      • 2 undertook a ‘reconnaissance’ phase, the others did not
      • 3 created a plan and implemented it, evaluating the implementation
      • 1 had three separate parts, with a single, overarching aim
      • Collaboration: pupil voice, guest speakers, involvement of other adults
      • 3 employed a cyclical structure, altering their plans as their projects developed, in response to their emerging findings.
    • 21. Data
      • In planning, 2 identified the evidence that might demonstrate improvement
      • Collected data included: questionnaires; interviews; recordings of work; pupils’ written work; assessments of pupils’ work; photographs & video; observation & diary
      • Awareness of validity issues
    • 22. Consequences
      • improvements in the quality of pupils’ work
      • improved enjoyment, attendance and engagement in extra-curricular music
      • improved confidence and concentration
      • projects increased teachers’ self-awareness
    • 23. Reporting
      • Initial plans & reasons written on wiki
      • 1 wrote & edited directly to the website
      • 1 co-written with me
      • Most gave a verbal presentation which I recorded, transcribed and uploaded
      • All structured as ‘narratives of personal experience’ (Strand, 2009)
      • Considerable interest in each others’ projects (but tended to think of their own projects as ‘obvious’)
    • 24. Knowledge
      • Experiential (‘I certainly have a much clearer idea about the strengths and weaknesses of those students’) and self-awareness
      • Presentational (Liz’s planning document, Rheann’s scaffolding worksheet and Sarah’s feedback diaries and prompt cards)
      • Propositional (see handout)
      • Practical (demonstrated in teachers’ stories about their teaching, such as Sally presenting a real-life task as, ‘you are a music producer and you have been sent this track; you have to mix it and send it back to the band so it gets released’
      • ‘ Little K’: generated by reflective processes, drew on data, lacked scientific rigour, stored in narratives of individual experience, not generalisable
    • 25. Issues to explore
      • Teachers claimed to have learned from each other, (‘listening to others was the best bit’ and ‘[my project] made a difference, not just to me but to others’)
      • Big K knowledge not always propositional (Kodaly, Orff, Suzuki)
      • How might knowledge, generated by teachers’ action research, become ‘Big K’?
    • 26. How do Secondary school music teachers undertake action research? The Southampton Music Action Research Project, 2007-08 Tim Cain: [email_address] Nov 9, 2009
    • 27. Teachers’ action research and the generation of knowledge The Southampton Music Action Research Project, 2007-08 Tim Cain UCET Annual Conference , Nov 10, 2009