Towards Global Mobility

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Tutorial given at Eurescom Summit October 2002

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Towards Global Mobility

  1. 1. Eurescom Summit 2002 – Tutorial A: Towards Global Mobility Josef Noll Telenor, Norway R&D Fellow – Wireless Mobility josef.noll@telenor.com
  2. 2. Outline Trends in Services and User interaction – ”Exactly what I want, when I want it” – Youngster: Developing services for young customers – Need for personalised service, profile and context dependent Wireless Access: the dilemma of radio capacity – Radio capacity and coverage – Trends and technologies in radio transmission WLAN and GSM/UMTS evolutions – Telecom evolution, from 1G to 4G – UMTS, basics, applications and network planning – From WLAN to Cellular Internet Global and Seamless Mobility – Mobility handling: Mobile IP, GSM/UMTS – Seamless Mobility: Personalised access Beyond 3G: “The Era of Personalisation” – B3G: Wireless and Mobile Broadband Access – Key items 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  3. 3. From 1G to 4G 4G ? quot;4Gquot;-specification (2001 ?) 1991: UMTS- 3G: 2002: UMTS roll-out specifications 1982: GSM- 2G: 1990: GSM roll-out specifications 1969: NMT- 1G: 1981: NMT roll-out specifications 1970 1980 1990 2010 2000 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  4. 4. Service development Personlised broadband B3G: wireless services 3G: Multimedia communication Mobile telephony, SMS, FAX, 2G: Data 1G: Mobile telephony 1970 1980 1990 2010 2000 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  5. 5. Trends: My services • Always online • My services are: – Location based Traveling: next petrol station – Context aware Art exhibition: additional information • Examples: – Daily news when I want, not at 19:00h – No football in the news! – Video on my mobile phone 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  6. 6. Trends: My Preferences Interactive game with a computer or G another person G Video on your mobile phone Electronic contact λ Japan: Transmit character information and preferences while walking around. If you meet somebody with similar wishes your ‘toy’ starts ringing. 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  7. 7. IST-Youngster, Context & Community 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  8. 8. My Community: Locating People Application Allows one to determine and display the positions of one or G more Youngster users either at a certain point in time or repeatedly. User permission and accuracy level G Example usages: G – Tom's girlfriend wants to see where Paul currently is. http://www.ist-youngster.org/ 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  9. 9. Context-Aware Reminders Information displayed in certain situations. G Set up by the receiver, by another person, or by an G application (e.g. the intelligent assistant) Examples of context-aware reminders are: G – Appointments, shopping lists, notifications Reminder Templates FriendAlert Alerts you when some members of a community are near-by Ok Back Have a look: http://www.ist-youngster.org/ 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  10. 10. Future Scenario: Personalised & Mobile Application Personalised & Mobile Application Applications User preferences Access network capabilities 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  11. 11. Personal preferences: Pricing for music download Song duration 200 sec High Good Fair Quality 96 64 48 Bit rate (kbit/s) 70 46 35 T-Mobile Basic (Euro) 7,2 4,8 3,6 T-Mobile Pro (Euro) 0,72 0,48 0,36 Desired price (Euro) source: Eurescom P1105 MobilUS 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  12. 12. Example: Next flight home Today: Future: Have to select terminal The system suggest an G G alternative booking: Have to select service: WAP, G ”You will reach the 13:05 WEB flight, should I book you on Have to find the way to ”my G that one?” YES NO bookings” Location service, towards the G airport Access capabilities: WAP, G WEB, SMS Personal preferences: fast G home 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  13. 13. Trend: Smaller terminals Information overload Service for “everybody” Person-to-Person communication WEB page Reduced WEB MMS message page 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  14. 14. Trend: Devices for Applications WAP Smartphone, Palmheld, Handhel Laptop Service phone Communicat Palm, d, Psion usability or iPAQ Excellent Excellent Too big Messaging: Good Excellent and heavy SMS Excellent Messaging: Poor Good Good Excellent Email Average Messaging: Poor Poor Poor + Excellent Email with attachments Web surfing N/A Poor Poor Poor Excellent FTP N/A N/A Poor Poor Good VoIP N/A N/A Poor Poor Good 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  15. 15. Trend: Optimum access for each device Bluetooth UMTS 802.11 access terminals access Hiperlan access Optical Distribution network Distribution Antenna 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  16. 16. Open communication between devices Plain-old phone More devices G Short-range G - processor communicati - communications ons, - Bluetooth, Laptop as Cordless phone SIP/H323 - WLAN, terminal - Hiperlan Mobile phone Seamless G connectivity PDA PC as SIP/H323 Laptop terminal User Workstation Camcorder Microphone Personal Area Interactive TV Network Printer The PAN (Personal Area Network) era has begun! 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  17. 17. Personal Area Network (PAN) Home AN Public Network Interconnectivity Between your devices To your neighbour Create spontaneous networks Create your ”personal sphere” Access everywhere Access from all devices 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  18. 18. Trend: Seamless Connectivity Access and Distribution LMDS or Fibre, Considerations: AN: 802.11a, H/2 802.11a - EDGE Bluetooth, UMTS TDD Hiperlan/2 2.5 G fill-inn Bluetooth - GSM on the net: licensings Private Area Netw. Global Celluar: License free bands DVB (DAB) DECT UMTS (FDD, GPRS, GSM) missing interworking DAB, DVB broadcast, not access 802.11a,b Hiperlan/2 Bluetooth 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  19. 19. Outline Trends in Services and User interaction – ”Exactly what I want, when I want it” – Youngster: Developing services for young customers – Need for personalised service, profile and context dependent Wireless Access: the dilemma of radio capacity – Radio capacity and coverage – Trends and technologies in radio transmission WLAN and GSM/UMTS evolutions – Telecom evolution, from 1G to 4G – UMTS, basics, applications and network planning – From WLAN to Cellular Internet Global and Seamless Mobility – Mobility handling: Mobile IP, GSM/UMTS – Seamless Mobility: Personalised access Beyond 3G: “The Era of Personalisation” – B3G: Wireless and Mobile Broadband Access – Key items 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  20. 20. Radio principles Noise & Interference (e.g. multi-path) cause  P − Delay constraint, Delay jitter, C = W log2 1+  NW Bit error rate    − Bandwidth / throughput 0 − Availability, Reliability, Claude E. Shannon (1916-2001) Precedence (priority) and service interruptions C = Capacity [kbit/s] • Limited cell capacity, e.g. P = Signal Power • UMTS 700 kbit/s – 1 Mbit/s W = Bandwidth • N0 = Noise • 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  21. 21. The fading radio channel – link adaptation 10 0 Signal fade / dB -10 -20 Buildings -30 Rician (k= 10 dB) Rayleigh -40 0 1 2 3 4 5 Relative position to reference / m Fast fading is a result of multipath propagation G G Fast fading is alleviated through the use of Fast transmission power control – Tracks the envelope variations (80 dB on uplink) to ”flatten” the instantaneous received power. source: Anders Spilling, Telenor 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  22. 22. Adaptive modulation example EbNo variasjone med tid 9 16QAM 1011 1001 0001 0011 8 0.9487 7 EbNo / dB 6 1010 1000 0000 0010 0.3162 5 0.3162 0.9487 4 1110 1100 0100 0110 3 QPSK 2 1 1111 1101 0101 0111 0 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 tid / s As the desired signal to noise and interference ratio G increases – can move from QPSK to 16QAM – From 2 bits per symbol to 4 bits per symbol source: Anders Spilling, Telenor 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  23. 23. Dilemma of current Internet protocols: TCP over IP throughput Physical layer TCP % bitrate throughput achieved 2 Mb/s 0.98 Mbit/s 49 IEEE 802.11 11 Mb/s 4.3 Mbit/s 39.1 IEEE 802.11b TCP recovers slowly after o Assume radio errors, 2.3 % o each loss FER for 1400-bytes frames Wireless loss = congestion o TCP throughput from o Required: ”Mobility hints o [Xylomenos2001] for advanced TCP” 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  24. 24. Range and capacity Rmax = log2 (1 + SNR) Unlimited Rate vs. Distance (M=N=1) bandwidth 9 10 systems Real systems SNR = 0dBwith limited 10dB 20dB 30dB 40dB bandwidth 8 10 Max Bit Rate 10 7 10 6 100 1.000 10.000 with SNR=10 Distance Rmax [m] Range 1100 m for 10 Mbit/s 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  25. 25. Trends in Radio Transmission Hybrid Fibre Radio, Software Radio Evolution in Smart Antennas – from SISO to MIMO – from sector antennas to adaptive access Adaptive Access Advances in access schemes, channel and modulation coding – example: OFDM, … – example: MDMA (multi-dimensional multiple access) 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  26. 26. Software Radio & Hybrid Fibre SW-radio basestation: - Centralised installation - Multiple access technologies - Bluetooth, WLAN, DECT, GSM, UMTS access 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  27. 27. The Wireless Channel Historically: Multipath • propagation is a problem (fading) Solution: Spatial diversity with • two antennas or an antenna group 3G systems: Expectations for • base station antenna arrays Recent advances for 3G and beyond: - Multipath propagation can be exploited - Establish multiple parallel channels, simultaneously, same frequency, same transmitted power - Using antenna arrays at both transmitter and receiver Modified from: Reinaldo Valenzuela, Lucent Technology 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  28. 28. Smart Antennas for UMTS 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  29. 29. Lifting the Limits withMIMO Arrays Dual The Road to BLAST SISO multiple input, multiple output single input single output  S C = log 2 1 +  s1 Tx1 Rx1  N s2 Tx2 Rx2  S ... ... C ≈ M log 2 1 +   N sM TxM RxM number of antennas in the smaller of the transmit and receive arrays SIMO, (MISO) single input, multiple output (…) source: Reinaldo Valenzuela, Lucent Technology 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  30. 30. Multiple Antenna Terminals... MIMO Many elements an be integrated on a lap top or palm device source: Reinaldo Valenzuela, Lucent Technology 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  31. 31. Theoretical Performance BLAST: Concept & Theoretical Performance 1000 Single-User Bound Single-User Bound ... B=5 MHz B=5 MHz (Data rate achieved 16 PTT=10W P =10 W with 90% probability) 8 Data Rate (Mbps) 100 BLAST with 1,4,8,16 4 sector antennas at base Same number of omnidirectional antennas at terminal 1 10 Transmit Diversity with 1,4,8 sector antennas at base Single omnidirectional antenna at terminal 1 1 10 0.1 1 10 Range (km) Range (km) source: Reinaldo Valenzuela, Lucent Technology 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  32. 32. Moore’s law in ‘air interface capacity’ Number of transistors Transmission rate on 1,00E+06 1,00E+07 ati cre 1,00E+05 ors st n si 1,00E+06 tio 1,00E+04 n tra a of orm r 1,00E+03 be eed um 1,00E+05 Inf sp N 1,00E+02 dem o M 1,00E+01 1,00E+04 1,00E+00 y Air interface capacit 1,00E-01 1,00E+03 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year ⇒ Air interface capacity is the most valuable resource 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  33. 33. Conclusion for network development Applications and hardware requirements grow faster than modem capabilities UMTS is developed for ”mobility” (v <= 250 km/h), thus sub-optimal for high-bandwidth applications Expected limitations: max network capacity 1 Mbit/s in an UMTS network Trends visible today: Data access (HSCD) mainly from fixed positions (no mobility) Optimum access mode required for each user scenario 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  34. 34. Outline Trends in Services and User interaction – ”Exactly what I want, when I want it” – Youngster: Developing services for young customers – Need for personalised service, profile and context dependent Wireless Access: the dilemma of radio capacity – Radio capacity and coverage – Trends and technologies in radio transmission WLAN and GSM/UMTS evolutions – Telecom evolution, from 1G to 4G – UMTS, basics, applications and network planning – From WLAN to Cellular Internet Global and Seamless Mobility – Mobility handling: Mobile IP, GSM/UMTS – Seamless Mobility: Personalised access Beyond 3G: “The Era of Personalisation” – B3G: Wireless and Mobile Broadband Access – Key items 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  35. 35. UMTS - basics, GSM evolution - applications testing and - network design 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  36. 36. GSM evolution 1990: GSM (9.6 kbit/s) Q4.2001: EDGE (115 - 384 kbit/s) • • Q4.2001: UMTS (64/144 kbit/s - 2 Mbit/s) Q3.99: HSCSD (14.4 - 28/43 - 64 kbit/s) Q1.2001: GPRS (20/30 - 115 kbit/s) HLR MAP A ISUP ISUP MSC G-MSC N-ISDN GSM GSM BSS IP IP Gb SGSN GGSN IP networks GPRS Access network X.25 Core Network X.25 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  37. 37. UMTS phase 2 (release 4, 5) Alternative solutions for GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS based - access access network core network - transport - mobility management UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network ISDN S-UMTS Satellite Other core networks IP-network • IP • ATM BRAN: Hiperlan, -access, X.25 • Hybrid IP/ATM -link Other access networks Phase 1 = Rel.99 fixed or wireless Later phases, Rel.4, Rel.5 All-IP, source: Knut Erik Walter, Telenor MobileIPv6? Rel. 6 with 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  38. 38. UMTS application testing Subjective testing of G Potential tests: applications in a simulated • Audio retrieval radio environment • MPEG-4 video download • IP-based: Web, ftp Error pattern creation for G => Protected channel for high scenarios quality music 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  39. 39. UMTS system behaviour GSM: Interference limited UMTS: Noise limited G each call increases noise level G Capacity vs. Quality G ”soft” capacity, increase capacity by reducing quality • Varying traffic varying cell size • Cell breathing (up to 50 %) 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  40. 40. System level simulations • System level simulation: – Base station, mobile user equipment Cell radius decrease depending G – Propagation model, data mix on – Simulator manager – QoS of application – location – load of network – traffic mix (voice + data) 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  41. 41. System level simulation results Coverage area G Areas with coverage from G two or more cells: Macrodiversity Areas Difficult verification of simulated results => P921 has specified several scenarios and simulation guidelines 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  42. 42. Network planning guidelines Link budget using Results for urban environment, cell G ranges for GSM1800 and UMTS G uplink path loss services G downlink power level at cell border G downlink EIRP/traffic channel G downlink Power/traffic channel G downlink path loss evaluation 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  43. 43. Cell Ranges for UMTS UMTS cell radio compares to Voice: UMTS performs better G G GSM1800 system than GSM 1800 Calculation done for 70% Data: lower coverage of UMTS G G network load (GSM coverage compared to GSM 1800 does not depend on load) 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  44. 44. GSM 1800 (UMTS coverage) Tx power: 25 dBm Tx power: 35 dBm Tx ↑ 10 dB Range ↑ 1.8…2 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility source: Helge Dommarsnes, Telenor Mobil
  45. 45. Challenges in network design Macrodiversity Hierarchical Cell Structures G G Soft Handover 3-sector versus 6-sector G G sites 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  46. 46. UMTS evolution: HSDPA principles Exploit the High-Speed Downlink Shared channels (HS-DSCH) to G gain peak information rate of 10 Mbps Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH) – peak information G rate of 2.3 Mpbs (spreading factor 4, 3 parallel codes) source: Anders Spilling, Telenor 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  47. 47. HSDPA Data Rates (Peak) Chip Rate = 3.84 Mcps Frame Size = 3 slots Modulation 10 codes Turbo coding rate Info Rate Info bits per (Mbps) frame 64QAM 10.8000 21600 3/4 16QAM 7.2000 14400 3/4 16QAM 4.8000 9600 1/2 QPSK 2.4000 4800 1/2 QPSK 1.2000 2400 1/4 Modulation method QPSK, 16QAM and potentially also 64 QAM G – Currently 64 QAM not in Release 5 – 10.8 Mbps achievable with 15 codes and 16QAM. Coding rates 1/4-3/4 (Rel'99 Turbo Encoder + rate matching) G Spreading factor 16 used in above table G source: Anders Spilling, Telenor 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  48. 48. Mobile Internet Developments 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  49. 49. The Internet goes mobile 1996: MobileIP 1999: Cellular Internet Mobile/Cellular Internet 1999: first commercial W-LAN networks 2000: Intranet WLAN access Telenor R&D WLAN, I-cell 2001: diffserv, IPv6, … 2002: IPv4 IPv6 migration high populated areas (inhouse, campus, metropolitan) High speed developments low populated areas IEEE 802.11a, Hiperlan/2 (metropolitan, regional) source: G. Grolms, Telenor R&D 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  50. 50. Mobile Internet roll-out Telenor – hot-spot, 52 hotels – “Wireless Zone” for business users T-Mobile – Starbuck coffee shop (USA, Berlin, London) – 250 hot-spots NTT – 200 (+ 800) hot-spots in Tokyo BT, TeliaSonera, …. – home-run 450 spots (SE), SAS airports – wGate with roaming to GSM (FI) – 4000 spots (UK - planned) 802.11b: 2-11Mbit/s 802.11a: chipset for 54 Mbit/s Hiperlan/2 unplug in 2002, competes with 802.11a source: Breezecom.com 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  51. 51. Abbreviation in LAN systems Frequency Hopping Spread Dynamic Frequency selection G G Spectrum (FHSS) (DFS): 802.11, Bluetooth: jump shift if interference between 79 channels Transmit power control (TPC): G Direct Sequence Spread Link power adaptation G Spectrum (DSSS) QoS support: G 802.11b: Divides bandwidth Priority for real-time into 13 channels (3 non- applications overlapping) Orthogonal Frequency G Division Multiplexing (OFDM): High bitrate modulation, needs good S/N ratio 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  52. 52. PAN/LAN characteristics ISM band 2.4 – 2.485 GHz License exempt band 802.11: DSSS or FHSS, 2 Mbit/s 5 GHz (5,15-5,35 5,47-5,725) G G 802.11b (WiFi): DSSS, 3 802.11a: OFDM, max 54 Mbit/s G G channels (26 MHz), 11, 5, 2 (not Europe) Mbit/s Europe (ERC 1999): G 802.11g: OFDM up to 22 Mbit/s - DFS and TPC required G Bluetooth: 1 MHz channels Hiperlan/2: OFDM, QoS max 54 G G FHSS, max 700 kbit/s Mbit/s HomeRF (= DECT data), 802.11h: 802.11a + DFS, TPC G G - FHSS from 802.11 ----------- both ---------------------- G - DECT voice (TDMA) 802.11d: signal exchange G between access points 802.11e: QoS control G 802.11i: PKI security support G 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  53. 53. LAN-integration: WLAN/WPAN roadmap IEEE 802.11g >54 IEEE 802.11g HIPERLAN/2 IEEE 802.11a HIPERLAN/2 IEEE 802.11a (OFDM) (OFDM) UWB UWB (OFDM/TDD) (OFDM/TDD) (OFDM/TDD) (OFDM/TDD) IEEE 802.11g IEEE 802.11g 22 (DSSS) (DSSS) IEEE 802.15.3 IEEE 802.15.3 IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11b 11 (OQPSK) (OQPSK) (DSSS) (DSSS) Who will dominate? 2 IEEE 802.11Bluetooth 2.0 IEEE 802.11Bluetooth 2.0 (FHSS) (FHSS) WLAN (FHSS) (FHSS) Bluetooth 1.x Bluetooth 1.x WPAN quot;Mobile@Homequot; - konsepter <1 (FHSS) (FHSS) 2001 2003 2006 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility source: Per Hjalmar Lehne, Telenor
  54. 54. PAN: Bluetooth System Worldwide operation G Transmission of voice and data G Small, low cost, low power, G short range radio transceivers Using the license free,ISM-Band 2,4 GHz G Robust, using FHSS at 1600 Hops/s G (3200 Hops/s at Inquiry) 1Mbit raw data rate, GFSK G Output Power 0, 4 or 20 dBm (EIRP) G 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  55. 55. Bluetooth & WLAN: Protocols and profiles G Specifications describe how the technology works, i.e. Bluetooth resp. WLAN protocol architecture G BluetoothProfiles describe how parts of the specifications are used to achieve a specific functionality G WLAN has defined only the specifications (layer 1-3) Source: Lars Svenkerud, Teleaksess 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  56. 56. Bluetooth System – Protocol Stack Telephony Control AT Telephony Object Exchange Control Based on Based on ITU-T Binary Protocol For Q.931 Handles ITU-T V250 and ETSI syncronisation GSM 07.10 signalling for voice and Service Discovery Protocol data calls Link Manager Protocol Discover services offered between Link Set up and units Logical Link Control and Adaption Client-server system configuration Power Audio TCP/UDP/IP is realised in Protocol Segmentation, multiplexing and management reassembling Baseband internet For Authentication Medium Point-to-Point Protocol Access Error For connections to Correction LANs Cable replacement Protocol for RS 232 Flow Control Offer SCO/ACL Based on ETSI 07.10 (60 simultanios connections) Physical Layer Copyright: Lars Erik Baugstø (FoU) 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  57. 57. Profiles => Interoperability Profiler specified in v1.0b Cordless Telephony G Generic Access Profile G Profile Service Discovery G Intercom Profile G Application Profile Generic Object Exchange G Serial Port Profile G Profile Dial-up Networking G Object Push Profile G Profile File Transfer Profile G LAN Access Profile G Synchronization Profile G Headset Profile G Fax Profile G Source: Lars Svenkerud 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  58. 58. New Profiles Car Profile G Personal Area Networking (PAN) profile G Wake-up Profile G Human Interface Device (HID) G over Bluetooth profile Printing Profile G Still Image Profile G Extended Service Discovery Profiles G Local Positioning Profile G Audio/Video Profile G Source: Lars Svenkerud 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  59. 59. Bluetooth, WLAN and UMTS Bluetooth WLAN (802.11, 802.11b) UMTS Data rate 4-700 kbps 4-6 Mbps Up to 384 kbps (10 Mbps) Range 10 m, up to 100 m 100 meter 300 m – 5 km # simultaneous 7 10 – 50 depending on application 10 – 50 (application) users Frequency 2,4 GHz (85 MHz) 2,4 GHz (3 x 26 MHz) 2.1 GHz (45 MHz) band Transmit 1 mW, 2.5 or 100 mW 100 mW 1W power Interfaces ADSL, Ethernet, ISDN, PSTN, Primary Ehernet SS7, IP (All-IP) USB, RS232 Security Medium Low High Mobility Portable Portable Mobile (250 km/h) Support for Yes Only VoIP Yes voice Type of clients Inbuilt in PC, PDA, Mobile Inbuilt in PC, PC-card, CF-card, Mobile Phone, PC-card Phone, PC-card, CF-card, RS-232 dongle and Ethernet Memory Stick (Sony), SSD-card, dongle USB dongle, RS-232 Dongle Power Yes Proprietary solutions Yes (fast) management # of parallel 15 – 50 depending on application 3 3-6 systems Interoperability Yes Through WECA, not through YES standard 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  60. 60. Conclusion: Bluetooth, WLAN and UMTS Bluetooth and WLAN are not competing, but almost G ”complementary” G Bluetooth: Interconnectivity of devices (Mobile Phone, PDA, Camera, Stereo, PC), Voice support, PAN G WLAN: Data connectivity LAN G UMTS: high security, QoS applications WAN WLAN Bluetooth coverage G similar (Bluetooth with 20 dBm) G Interference: – Sharing same radio spectrum (ISM band) – WLAN is more affected than Bluetooth (fast hopping, bandwidth) 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  61. 61. Outline Trends in Services and User interaction – ”Exactly what I want, when I want it” – Youngster: Developing services for young customers – Need for personalised service, profile and context dependent Wireless Access: the dilemma of radio capacity – Radio capacity and coverage – Trends and technologies in radio transmission WLAN and GSM/UMTS evolutions – Telecom evolution, from 1G to 4G – UMTS, basics, applications and network planning – From WLAN to Cellular Internet Global and Seamless Mobility – Mobility handling: Mobile IP, GSM/UMTS – Seamless Mobility: Personalised access Beyond 3G: “The Era of Personalisation” – B3G: Wireless and Mobile Broadband Access – Key items 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  62. 62. Mobility: Classification according to the availability Continuous mobility enables continuous availability of G services while the user moves. Discrete mobility enables the availability of services within G certain areas and for certain access points, e.g home and office, but not while moving from one area to another. Portability is an example of discrete terminal mobility, where G it is only allowed to move a terminal from one plug to another. 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  63. 63. Technology Mobility Management – Micro Mobility and Mobile IP Macro Level Mobility Mobile IP Micro Level Mobility Mobility Micro BACK 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility UP
  64. 64. MobileIP Mobility Mobile IP – the long term vision (UMTS rel. 6) – HA, FA – IPv6 – real-time requirements? Foreign network IP NETWORK Mobile Host Home Agent Correspondent Router 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  65. 65. IN based Mobility IN based roaming – virtual MSN, allocated via D-channel public – data versus voice – ”Open access at home?” – CTP profile (cordless telephony) GSM/GPRS/UMTS GSM/GPRS virtual MSN core network ISDN Blue- NT1 tooth IN home ISDN Blue- NT1 tooth friend/hot-spot 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  66. 66. GSM/GPRS/UMTS Mobility Ericsson product: Mobile@Home Public: Mobile phone Privat/corporate/hot-spot: Bluetooth public access GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS/UMTS core network hot-spot/ corporate BSC Blue- LAN tooth HomeBSC Ethernet home Blue- NT tooth ADSL Ethernet 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  67. 67. Candidate: MobileServiceProfile Ericsson Bluetooth Home Base Station HLR UTRAN MSC Fixed access HLR - home location register network SGSN BSS MSC - mobile switching centre UTRAN - UMTS radio MSC access network GPRS GGSN BSS - Base station Core subsystem tunnel SGSN SGSN - serving GPRS HBSC support node HBS GGSN - gateway Call Apps. GPRS support node Servers Fixed IP Apps. Apps. HBS - Home base IAD access station Router HBSC - Home base network station controller tunnel IP Network Copyright: Ericsson 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  68. 68. B3G element: Seamless & Personalised Access public Mobility: GSM/GPRS/UMTS GSM/GPRS, Mobile IP, Seamless Mobility n.n. Common authentication in the network hot-spot/ BSC corporate HA, FA Wire- LAN less PrivatSupport Ethernet homeNT(1) Wire- less ISDN, Ethernet ADSL 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  69. 69. Outline Trends in Services and User interaction – ”Exactly what I want, when I want it” – Youngster: Developing services for young customers – Need for personalised service, profile and context dependent Wireless Access: the dilemma of radio capacity – Radio capacity and coverage – Trends and technologies in radio transmission WLAN and GSM/UMTS evolutions – Telecom evolution, from 1G to 4G – UMTS, basics, applications and network planning – From WLAN to Cellular Internet Global and Seamless Mobility – Mobility handling: Mobile IP, GSM/UMTS – Seamless Mobility: Personalised access Beyond 3G: “The Era of Personalisation” – B3G: Wireless and Mobile Broadband Access – Key items 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  70. 70. The wireless access SAT broadcast LMDS, DVB, DAB, WLL GSM, Hiperlan, GPRS, WLAN, UMTS, DECT, Hiperlan, Bluetooth DECT ISDN, xDSL CATV, el. power 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  71. 71. Who will dominate the market? Mobile Network operators IT-industry Place in value chain .net functionality = G G (SIM = customer relation) passport.com, hotmail.com G Location services Windows with authentication G mechanisms G One-stop-shopping = seamless connectivity Platform for PC and PDAs, G Intel and TI support Support from: PhoneEdition on PocketPC, G G Nokia, opens 8210 operative wireless digital assistant system (Symbian) Create win-win: Seamless access to personalised services G 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  72. 72. EURESCOM P1046 conclusions UMTS network will not have sufficient bandwidth to support all Next Generation (NG) services Easier access to faster information services at any place – Interworking: WLAN/Bluetooth and UMTS/GSM – Interworking: Broadcast (DAB/DVB) and UMTS/GSM Short term (2001): WEB browsing with WLAN/Bluetooth devices, local mobility Second stage (2003): MobileIP handover Third stage (2004): Integration (tight coupling) of other access networks in UMTS Mobile operators will dominate: – Current place in the value chain where they ”own” the customer relationship – Provider of mobile location services – Corporate customers prefer wireless suppliers that are both Network Provider and Service Provider for major investments www.eurescom.de/public/projects/p1000-series/P1046 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  73. 73. Our position in the value chain Content provider Advertisement Hot spot owner, Local e.g. bus Information - Authentication, Security - Roles, Context - Location - Community Security Generic Content Personal Infrastructure Database profile Supply personalised Dynamic access profile: Portal content - Radio environement - Terminal equipment Filter/ Service/Fixed/ Adjust/ Mobile Operator Adapt Roaming to other networks Customer with wireless access to fixed and mobile mobility networks 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global
  74. 74. Personalised Information Provision News ticker: Soccer Information Accident provider etc Interesting? Profile Information scaling Inform user? database Agenda Terminal, radio 1:0 Personalised capabilities? Service Location Information 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  75. 75. The Era of Personalisation Personalisation Sectors: location & community , o od y untr health & care, tourist, … ur h home family hot-spot y ne …, y co office o car, … …, ghb … m i m sectors can be transferred into “Phases in life” 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  76. 76. What are “phases in life”? Physical - Skeleton strength - Muscle strength - Co-ordination Cognitive - Feelings/Reason - Reality/Fantasy - Individual/Corporate Social - Dependent/ Independent Source: Per Helmersen (Telenor) 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  77. 77. Communication significant phases in life 0-2 years, G G 3-5 years, G 5-9 years, can use communication equipment G 11-14 years, they are equals G 15-19 years, they are unique G 20-29 years, they are independent G 30-54 parents – phases of life=ways of life – new start (the mean age for 2nd marriage is 37 years) 55-79 the new independence G G 80+ old age (same as 30-55 years, grandparents, active seniors, home for the elderly, home care) 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  78. 78. Key elements of Personalisation (operator’s vision) Seamless access ⇒ GSM/UMTS, WLAN, Bluetooth • Personalised access • ⇒ Mobile Phone authentication with help of Bluetooth Personalised services ⇒ Profiles with API support • Solutions for each market segment • - home market - health & care - community (social, local, regional) 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  79. 79. B3G element: Personalised access Personalised access Every customer has a Through SIM-card identification mobile phone The mobile phone is the authentication centre Other devices use the SIM in a distributed network Seamless login 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  80. 80. The vision ahead: An Open Network Data connectivity 1) User roles Voice support User behaviour 2) User profile Remote control 3) Entertainment/Games 4) Open access with Community Location 5) personalised services Context, creation Personalised & Mobile Personalised services in an open network Applications Through user profile ISDN Ethernet / USB Cable Open ADSL PAN Gateway 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  81. 81. Relationship with respect to your profile segmented profile Service A Service B 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  82. 82. ”Public” Access Public Access is everywhere (outside of your home) Vision: Open access network Scenario Description, examples Local Information Limited free info from a Bluetooth Access Point, Public e.g. in museums, for timetables, etc. General Public Access The basic “Web everywhere” example: Internet, web mail, information services, etc. (+) Access to private mail (+) Extra security, access to corporate LAN people Semi Private Access Hotels, sports/social clubs. Limited group of Semi- private Corporate visited Conference rooms (+ whole campus) Corporate Local information (+) Full Internet access Corporate employee Standard access to corporate LAN Private visited Temporary visitor to your home Private Open Privat Everybody who is in range can use the access General Private Priority for permanent residents of house Access 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  83. 83. Open Network Architecture Key item: Open communications between devices Virgate GSM/GPRS + Subscribers’ fixed lines LEX UMTS Millions of fixed lines function as feeder lines for open pico-base stations Personalised and broadband services Supported by seamless authentication based on the Mobile Phone 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  84. 84. Vision versus reality? It works It is simple It is personalised UMTS/ Vehicle 4G: IMT-2000 Bandwidth & Interworking GSM/ DAB GPRS Mobility Walk HIPERLAN DVB DECT IEEE 802.11 Fixed HIPERLINK, LMDS Bluetooth 200 kbit/s 2 Mbit/s 20 155 Mbit/s 20 kbit/s Bandwidth source: O. Røstbakken, Telenor R&D 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  85. 85. The B3G-terminal? 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  86. 86. Service Network Open Services Access Ubiquitous Services Network Cyberworld 2G/GPRS Packet and Packet switched Community Personal Services circuit switched only Core Network IP Backbone Programmable UMTS R5 Networks UMTS QoS Modular Mobility Protocols Access Network WLAN ++ Ubiquitous IP Access New Cellular access WLAN PAN Ad Hoc GERAN MSS HAS Radio Technology MIMO UWB SW Radio CDMA WRC’03 OFDM WRC’06 TDMA Terminal reconfigurability Technology Multi- SW mode Radio Single- PAN…wearables, mode open architecture(s) 2001 2005 2008/2010
  87. 87. Beyond 3G – keywords needs, market trends, business models GUser Service Aspects Open Services Access Ubiquitous Services GService architectures, service elements, - Network Cyberworld 2G/GPRS creation, -provision and Community Personal Packet switched –discovery Packet and Services circuit switched only GNext generation networks and network Core Network integration IP Backbone Programmable UMTS R5 Networks GSelf configuringQoS wireless networks and ad- UMTS Mobility Modular Protocols hoc networking Access Network WLAN ++ GFuture access networks Ubiquitous IP Access New Cellular access WLAN GInnovative radio interfaces, smart spectrum PAN Ad Hoc GERAN and antennas MSS HAS Radio GMobile security architecture Technology MIMO SW Radio UWB GVisionary framework, roadmaps, reference CDMA WRC’03 OFDM WRC’06 models and public opinion TDMA GPilot system development, validation and Terminal Multi- reconfigurability SW Technology mode field trials Radio Single- PAN, wearables, open mode architecture(s) 2000 Josef Noll 2005 2010 18.10.2002 Towards global mobility
  88. 88. Beyond 3G – players and relations WWRF EURESCOM WWRF: Wireless World G Research Forum P1145 steering board WWRI: Wireless World G P1203 Research Initiative – common WWRI EURESCOM/WWRF IST ideas project WWIP: Expression of Interest WWIP B3G G ideas (EoI) from WWRF co-operation B3G: EoI from EURESCOM G WWI: Wireless World Initiative G WWI: Systems beyond 3G Suggestion for 6th framework ystem radio network services smart life view 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  89. 89. WWI - structure Smart Mobile Service & Ambient New B3G System view Life Applications Networks Radio Management Strategic Integrated projects project 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility
  90. 90. Conclusions Radio is the key success factors for an operator “Always best connected”: Person-to-Person communication and personalised services Operators have key-elements of personalised services – Seamless access Common authentication in the network – Personalised access Through SIM-card identification – Personalised services in an open network Through user profile Combine the best: Authentication by SIM and wireless access from all networks Requires … much more than just co-operation between fixed and mobile seamless connectivity between PAN, LAN and GSM/UMTS one personal WEB page 18.10.2002 Josef Noll Towards global mobility

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