Near field communication and RFID - opening for new business
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Near field communication and RFID - opening for new business

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Tutorial given at Eurescom Summit April 2005

Tutorial given at Eurescom Summit April 2005

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Near field communication and RFID - opening for new business Near field communication and RFID - opening for new business Presentation Transcript

  • Near field communication and RFID – opening for new business Josef Noll1, Juan Carlos Lopez Calvet, Telenor R&D, , N-1331 Fornebu josef@unik.no, juan.calvet@telenor.com 1 from1.6.2005 Prof. stip. University Graduate Studies (UniK) N-2027 Kjeller Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 1
  • Agenda 0900 Welcome – interests – The upcoming digital world – need for seamless authentication 0920 RFID – the means for – RFID basics, frequencies, … authentication – Applications: Sports, etc. 0950 Q & A 1010 RFID & NFC: – NFC technology technology and scenarios – Scenarios (travel scenario, DRM, 1045 Q & A Information retrieval) – State of the art 1100 deep breath – break 1110 demonstrations – Authentication – your own phone 1200 end of tutorial – Infokiosk – imagine the world – Payment and ticketing (Giesecke & Devrient) – NFC and mobile Commerce (Nokia/Telenor) Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 2
  • Telenor R&D Tromsø (17) Important contributor to innovation and value creation in Telenor Demonstrating: “Ideas that simplify Norway – what happened? Trondheim (23) Fornebu (170) International: NO, SE, DK, Hungary, Austria, Montenegro, Malaysia, Ukraina, Bangladesh, Thailand, Russland Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 3
  • Agenda 0900 Welcome – interests 0920 RFID – the means for authentication 0950 Q & A 1010 RFID & NFC: –The upcoming digital world – need for seamless authentication technology and scenarios – RFID basics, frequencies, … 1045 Q & A – Applications: Sports, etc. 1100 deep breath – break 1110 demonstrations 1200 end of tutorial Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 4
  • Service development Personalised broadband B3G: wireless services 3G: Multimedia communication Mobile telephony, SMS, FAX, 2G: Data 1G: Mobile telephony 1970 1980 1990 2010 2000 Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 5
  • Service Network Open Services Access Ubiquitous Services Network Cyberworld 2G/GPRS Packet and Packet switched Community Personal Services circuit switched only Core Network IP Backbone Programmable UMTS R5 Networks UMTS QoS Modular Mobility Protocols Access Network WLAN ++ Ubiquitous IP Access New Cellular access WLAN PAN Ad Hoc GERAN MSS HAS Radio Technology MIMO UWB SW Radio CDMA WRC’03 OFDM WRC’06 TDMA Terminal reconfigurability Technology SW Multi- Radio mode Single- PAN…wearables, mode open architecture(s) 2001 26.4.2005 2005 2008/2010 Josef Noll, RFID - NFC tutorial 6 Source: Eurescom P1145
  • Keep customers: Enable the Open Access Network Open access network GSM/GPRS + Subscribers’ fixed lines fixed UMTS Millions of fixed lines function as feeder lines for open pico-base stations Personalised and broadband services Supported by seamless authentication based on the Mobile Phone Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 7
  • Future Service composition (transparent for the end customer) Interface My Next Generation Applications: Company App App App – Customized services Support 1 2 3 – Complex to manage Comp. WEB SAP – High flexibility Interface – Short time to market Interface platform – Complex Telecom-IT integration Telecom Alternative Telecom challenges Operator Roaming Location Security Personal Home Work – Support the customer: Profile Friend Train security, personalisation Telecom access Hotel Car – Join forces with others – Adaptive & composed services Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 8
  • Need for an identifier Virtual world: email, web Real world: see Username, passwd and/or talk SIM Voice PKI Face Service world (between providers) Identity management Service level agreement (SLA) Trust relation Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 9
  • Local interactions are a natural step toward multi-radio access of complementing radio technologies GPRS Cellular Access Hot Spot Access EDGE WCDMA WLAN quot;personal, quot;richest available HSDPA trustworthy, content, browsing Cdma2000 1x seamless global just for the fun of itquot; roamingquot; CDMA 1x EV_DV Proximity world: Broadcasting world: local services mass media BT personal area DVB-H TV RFID “local interactions, service “CNN news, Sugar Bowl FM radio discovery & access, on the roadquot; ticketing quot; Visual radio Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 10 Source: Andreas Lundin, Nokia
  • Agenda 0900 Welcome – interests 0920 RFID – the means for authentication 0950 Q & A 1010 RFID & NFC: –The upcoming digital world – need for seamless authentication technology and scenarios – RFID basics, frequencies, … 1045 Q & A – Applications: Sports, etc. 1100 deep breath – break 1110 demonstrations 1200 end of tutorial Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 11
  • What is RFID? Stands for Radio Frequency Identification Mostly used for Access Control and Vehicle Immobilizer The data carrier is generally called a “Tag” and attached to an item or location Tags are passive (battery-less), in sticker or disc format Radio frequency 13.56 Mhz globally the most widely used for RFID The data gatherer is termed a “Reader”, e.g. integrated to Nokia 5140 phone Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 12 Source: Andreas Lundin, Nokia
  • RFID Tag (Transponder) Consist of microchip that stores data and antenna Active transponders have on-tag battery Passive transponders obtain all power from the interrogation signal of reader Active and passive only communicate when interrogate by transceiver Available in all forms Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 13
  • 3 Some technology RFID – available on tape Induction coile The chip Price per. RFID tag: down to 0.04 € Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 14 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • RFID Reader (Transceiver) Consist of a RF module, a control unit, and a coupling element to interrogate tags via RF communication Also have secondary interface to communicate with backend systems Reads tags located in hostile environment and are obscured from view Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 15
  • Example RFID Readers Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 16 Source: Andreas Lundin, Nokia
  • RFID Tag Average Selling Price 0,60 0,50 USD per tag 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,10 0,00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 17 Source: Andreas Lundin, Nokia
  • RFID – communication modes RFID tag: - microchip attached to an antenna - sends signals to a reader. - contains a unique serial number, but may have other information, such as a customers' account number. Reader (passiv RFID): - Inductor to create electromagnetic Propagation Inductive field in tag Coupling Coupling - Receiver for radio response from tag (ROM-value: up to 600 bytes, typical 64-128 bits Aktive (own power) Range: ad lib (no limit) Passive (inductive) Range: from mm to some metres Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 18 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • Security: Magnetic Field Power drop off Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 19 Source: Auracomm.com
  • Tag principles - own processor -w/ EEPROM / flash -ROM & RAM RFID-tag Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 20 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • Principle function – passive RFID 1. RFID comes close to RFID-tag a contact point 3. Coil generates power for the chip 2. Contact point induces (which starts magnetic field immediately) (to the magnetic coil) To backend 4. Chip generates RF system response (RFID) Reader Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 21 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • Frequency area - applications Frequency Band Characteristics Typical Applications Low Short to medium read range Access control 100-500 kHz Inexpensive Animal identification low reading speed Inventory control Car immobiliser Intermediate Short to medium read range Access control 10-15 MHz Smart cards potentially inexpensive medium reading speed High Long read range Railroad car monitoring Toll collection systems 850-950 MHz High reading speed 2.4-5.8 GHz (*) Line of sight required Expensive (*) 2 megabits per second data rates may be achieved, with added noise immunity provided by the spread spectrum modulation approach. Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 22 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • Agenda 0900 Welcome – interests 0920 RFID – the means for authentication 0950 Q & A 1010 RFID & NFC: –The upcoming digital world – need for seamless authentication technology and scenarios – RFID basics, frequencies, … 1045 Q & A – Applications: Sports, etc. 1100 deep breath – break – Potential Risks 1110 demonstrations 1200 end of tutorial Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 23
  • Applications - steadily increasing… Reality: Brand Protection - Identification of animals: cats, horses (value, Logistics Anti counterfeiting identity), …, salmon (origin), farms (feeding) Positioning - Logistic: Transport, parcels (DHL), bagage (airports), Locating stocks Talking medicines for the blind Auto rejecting wrong parts - Purchase: Wal-Mart, Gillette, Bennetton (automatic Transactions cashier) Merchandising - Loan: library Entertainment - Traffic: rush hour charging, traffic light priority, bus Secure Access eCommerce fulfilment information in Edingburgh Controlling grey markets - Border control (USA-Canada) Real time theft detection - Credit card: alternative to magnetic stripe, AMEX & Real time tampering detection The Internet of Things MasterCard WWW.PAYPASS.COM Fast Track - Sports: Boston Marathon, Birkebeiner Behaviour monitoring - Theft alarm: clothes, cars,.., car key/start control Market research - Security: Admission control Virtual queuing Automated diagnostics Automated performance record And more... Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 24 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • Sports & Money The Boston Marathon RFID-tag Real-time Tracking of Runners -every 5 km -introduced in 1999 http://www.ti.com/tiris/docs/solutions/sports.shtml & http://www.championchip.com/chips/ Money identification: Euro bank notes to embed RFID chips by 2005 http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20011219S0016 Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 25 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • Credit card -developments towards RFID Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 26 Source: Mastercard
  • Mastercard PayPass www.paypass.com Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 27
  • Agenda 0900 Welcome – interests 0920 RFID – the means for authentication 0950 Q & A 1010 RFID & NFC: –The upcoming digital world – need for seamless authentication technology and scenarios – RFID basics, frequencies, … 1045 Q & A – Applications: Sports, etc. 1100 deep breath – break – Potential Risks 1110 demonstrations 1200 end of tutorial Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 28
  • Potential Security Problems 1. Authentication: Cloning – theft of RFID 2. Confidentiallity – Uncontrolled surveillance Security problem 1: RFID is easy to clone WARNING - hide a reader in a lift door, a chair, or other places you come close Read respons and programme a separate tag with same RFID id. The user can’t know where reading took place. Difficult to trace later on Security problem 2: Uncontrolled Surveillance WARNING -With hidden tags in clothes, money, credit card the user has no longer control when/where/how he can be detected. Organisations are active to stop RFID. Ref: www.stop-rfid.org Potential restrictions on the way in the USA. Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 29 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • Vulnerability Security in RFID is weak if not enhanced by an extra layer, e.g. PKI (encryption is not resistant against replay, if content is not shifted) Remember: JQLOSXR& HYLWFXGQ, JQLOSXR& QRLWDJDSRU3 Controlled case Reader Uncontrolled reader Reading up to several cm This is also recognised by the public: www.stoprfid.org Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 30 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • Enhancement RFID security can be enhanced: - ”on/off” switch if the circuit is activated - under user’s control Suggestion: Combination with SIM/PKI (two factor authentication) a) RFID = trigger b) RFID signal routes to SIM for explicit verification Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 31 Source: Tor Hjalmar Johannessen, Telenor
  • Boycott Gillette Products! Click for details. Others: - Wal-Mart -Benetton: http://boycottbenetton.or Benetton was considering putting RFID tracking chip in their clothing that can be read from a distance and used to monitor the people wearing them. Annet: http://www.epic.org/privacy/rfid/ Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 32 Source: www.stop-rfid.org
  • Agenda – Speed? 0900 Welcome – interests – Understanding? 0920 RFID – the means for … – authentication - I want to hear more of… 0950 Q & A 1010 RFID & NFC: technology and scenarios 1045 Q & A 1100 deep breath – break 1110 demonstrations 1200 end of tutorial Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 33
  • Agenda 0900 Welcome – interests 0920 RFID – the means for authentication 0950 Q & A 1010 RFID & NFC: – NFC technology technology and scenarios – Scenarios (travel scenario, DRM, 1045 Q & A Information retrieval) – State of the art 1100 deep breath – break 1110 demonstrations 1200 end of tutorial Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 34
  • Future scenario: „My services at home“ 1. 5. eGovernment, el. signature 2. 3. 4.Status of my family Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 35
  • Security in the virtual world Examples: Security Requirement mHandel, Have VPN to know Need Intranet, email, to know Admittance Network access Nice to know Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 36
  • Security infrastructure Security depends on application – Nice to know: WLAN network access – Need to know: email, Intranett – Have to know: VPN, (eCommerce) Higher level require more than just username & password http://www.openauthentication.org/ suggests 3 methods – SIM authentication (GSM, EAP-SIM,…) – Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) – One-Time-Password (OTP) In-line with requirements from Norwegian government for eSignature Depending on application: username & password or PKI The Mobile phone has all three: SIM, PKI, and OTP Challenge: Usability and exchange of credentials to “my working devices” Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 37
  • The only thing you need: Your Mobile Phone SIM with RFID & PKI Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 38
  • Four-in-one: Your mobile integrates them all RFID, * SIM & PKI Examples: & Security Requirement mHandel, Have VPN to know * RFID & Need Intranet, email, SIM to know Admittance passwd & *& RFID Network access Nice to know (& SIM) *Patent pending Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 39
  • Seamless authentication Service Home access, Physical VPN access .mp3, .jpg access Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 40
  • Timeline: Phone with RFID & PKI Near Field Communication SIM card with integrated RFID (NFC) Prototypes available from: Standardisation of Philips, – Giesecke & Devrient: Nokia, Sony, … demonstrated on Siemens Phones with RFID chip phones – Gemplus: both on one chip, Phone status: (terminated) NFC Nokia: on stock, Siemens: prototypes Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 41
  • Near Field Communication (NFC) is a touch- based RFID technology • NFC works in the globally available 13.56 MHz band Technology • The effective working distance is up to a few centimeters • Based on ISO 18092 including ISO14443A MiFare and FeliCa standards, ie compatible with the most broadly established smart card infrastructure covering >80% of the market • Tags in smart objects are powered by the radio signal of the reader, and do not require any battery or other source of Tags power • The tags contain some memory that can store URLs, SMS and similar information • Costs currently a few ten EUR cents and decreasing rapidly • Devices do not contain tags, but can communicate using the Devices same interface • Devices can not only read tags, but also write to enabled tags Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 42 Sources: Nokia, Froster & Sullivan; Forrester
  • NFC changes the role of the mobile operator The mobile operator is the communication provider – Everybody has a mobile phone – People know that they can reach me – and not my parents – Companies have identified the value of personal phones and change their infrastructure – The phone carries all my contacts – Connected 24/7 (all the time, not just 4 h a day) From access to communication – Provide communication: voice, SMS, MMS, IM, email,…. – Seamless login (wap.telenormobil.no) – my email, last 10 visited Provide presence and community services Provide authentication and security Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 43
  • Near field communication (NFC) Based on RFID technology at 13.56 ECMA-340, ISO/IEC 18092 & MHz ECMA-352, …standards Typical operating distance 10 cm Powered and non-self powered Compatible with RFID devices Data rate today up to 424 kbit/s Philips and Sony Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 44
  • NFC applications Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 45 Source: ecma, tc32-tg19-205-013.pdf
  • Near field communication (NFC) - Applications and Compatibility Applications Transmit pictures from Camera to PC or TV Download applications or games Configure communication parameters in e.g. home network Smart card compatibility (Philip’s MIFARE and Sony’s Felica) Secure NFC (NFC + smart card) Active or passive operation Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 46
  • “How does it work?” Nokia Field Force Solutions http://www.nokia.com/nokia/0,,70857,00.html Better service idea? Click to start flash Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 47
  • NFC standardisation ECMA-340 Specifies the RF signal interface Initialisation, anti- collision and protocols Communication mode ECMA 352 (v1, Dec 2003) selection mechanism Selects communication modes: NFC, PCD, and VCD Enables communication in that mode Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 48
  • Near Field Communication Interface Protocol (NFCIP) - finalised Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 49
  • NFCIP-2 Interface and protocol (ISO/IEC 21481) Interface Standards ISO/IEC 14443 ISO/IEC 15693 ECMA-340 PCD mode VCD mode (MIFARE, FeliCa) (facility access) Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 50
  • NFC Interface and Protocol Summary Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 51
  • ECMA: NFC work items & future plans Work items ECMA-356: RF interface tests for ECMA-340 devices ECMA-362: Protocol Test Methods Future working items A mapping of NFC to other communication protocols including the Internet Protocol (IP), GSM and Bluetooth – Advanced Logical Link Control with addressing and segmentation support Support for Data Link and end-to-end security and key management Air-to-wired interface specification Application extensions in NFCIP-1 – Power control as an example application extension Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 52
  • Agenda 0900 Welcome – interests 0920 RFID – the means for authentication 0950 Q & A 1010 RFID & NFC: – NFC technology technology and scenarios – Scenarios (travel scenario, DRM, 1045 Q & A Information retrieval) – State of the art 1100 deep breath – break 1110 demonstrations 1200 end of tutorial Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 53
  • Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 54
  • Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 55 Source: GemPlus
  • RFID payment usage coffee machines in Telenor R&D RFID card in 2005 Tests in OSL and Arlanda RFID cards Think Planned Q4.2005, Univ. Tromsø (N) Payment on coffee machine Payment Entrance to door B6e Entrance Electronic access (VPN) - Telenor Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 56
  • NFC – near field communication in praxis [copyright: www.nfc-forum.org] - Example: travelling Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 57
  • NFC – near field communication in praxis [copyright: www.nfc-forum.org] - Example: streaming DRM Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 58
  • NFC – near field communication in praxis [copyright: www.nfc-forum.org] - Example: Poster Information Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 59
  • SIM City Platform Banks Ticketing Payment ID Service Providers Send Telenor CPA Ticket Buy Ticket Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 60
  • Conclusions “The last time we were connected by a wire was at birth!” [Motorola] No cable, that’s the challenge – Various radio systems: GSM, UMTS; WLAN, Bluetooth, DVB, … – Limitations: battery, integration All services from your mobile Your mobile is the authentication centre Telecom as authentication provider Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 61
  • Agenda 0900 Welcome – interests 0920 RFID – the means for authentication 0950 Q & A 1010 RFID & NFC: – NFC technology? technology and scenarios – State of the art? 1045 Q & A –… 1100 deep breath – break 1110 demonstrations 1200 end of tutorial Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 62
  • Agenda 0900 Welcome – interests 0920 RFID – the means for – Authentication – your own phone authentication – Infokiosk – imagine the world 0950 Q & A – Payment and ticketing (Giesecke 1010 RFID & NFC: & Devrient) technology and scenarios – NFC and mobile Commerce (Nokia/Telenor) 1045 Q & A 1100 deep breath – break 1110 demonstrations 1200 end of tutorial Josef Noll, 26.4.2005 RFID - NFC tutorial 63