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Roots of french revolution
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Roots of french revolution

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  • 1. Long Range Reasons Short Range Reasons 1. Fr still Feudal society 1. Louis’ spending 2. Enlightenment 2. Queens’ gambling 1 3. Scientific Rev mil a year 4. Cost of land 3. Collapse of all govt. 5. Cost of food finances 6. Low wages 7. American RevFrench Revolution
  • 2. There are 3 “acts” that started the revolution 1. Refusal of nobility to pay taxes 2. Forming of Natl. Assembly and “Tennis” court oath 3. Storming of BastilleRoots of French revolution
  • 3. The following slides describe the early rumblings of French difficulties of “classes” in the beginnings of the French Revolution.There were 3 “Estates” in France.Roots of French revolution
  • 4. 1st Estate aka Clergy Less than 1% of pop Owned 10% of land Exempt from natl. French taxRoots of French revolution
  • 5. 2nd Estate aka Govt. officials Less than 2% of pop Owned 20% of land Exempt from Fr natl taxRoots of French revolution
  • 6. 3rd Estate aka Common Folk 97% of pop ◦ 80% peasants; 17% middle class Includes Bourgeoisie Paid almost 100% of Fr taxesRoots of French revolution
  • 7. 3rd Estate the Bourgeoisie  The middle class  Doctors; lawyers; merchants  No voice in govt  Wanted higher social statusRoots of French revolution
  • 8. 3rd Estate Peasants  Struggled to survive  Paid fees to use: mills, ovens, wine press  ½ salary went to fees, tithesRoots of the French Revolution
  • 9. Louis needs money Wants to tax the 1st/2nd estates ◦ Uh – they control tax laws Calls 3 estates to Versailles ◦ tax reform Called meeting of Estates General ◦ first time called in 175 yearsRoots of the French Revolution
  • 10. May 5, 1789 1st/2nd estates have 300 each 3rd have 600 total But only 1 vote for each estate Basically 3rd estate screwedMeeting of Estates General
  • 11. 3rd estate makes waves  Want all delegates to have 1 vote each  King says no – stay with old ways  June 17, 1789 ◦ 3rd estate recreates itself into a “National Assembly” ◦ Own constitution ◦ Tennis court oathMeeting of Estates General
  • 12.  National assembly ◦ 3 days later find themselves locked out The Tennis Court Oath ◦ Pledge not to leave until all 3 estates draft new constitutionThe Tennis Court Oath
  • 13. July 14, 1789  Louis doesn’t trust his troops ◦ Swiss guards protect him  Moves Swiss troops to Versailles and Paris ◦ Mass fear that he is stopping National Assembly and the Rev  Rumors Rumors ◦ The Bastille holds 20,000 lbs of gun powder ◦ Mobs “storm” it to protect the NA and RevStorming of the Bastille
  • 14.  More Rumors ◦ Nobles hiring outlaws  Peasants Becoming Outlaws ◦ Break into nobles’ manors  Get Louis!!! ◦ Peasants march on Versailles ◦ Louis “leaves” to ParisA Great Fear
  • 15.  The Rights of Man ◦ Like our DOI ◦ “Men are born free and remain free”  State Controlled Church ◦ All lands confiscated – hey need $  National Assembly (NA) ◦ Creates constitution – forces Louis to signAssembly Reforms France
  • 16.  Louis and Family ◦ Change clothes with servants ◦ Make break for Austria  Pictures Pictures ◦ Apparently they recognize him from the money pic ◦ Oh and the royal seal on the carriage  Legislative Assembly (NA) ◦ King is no longer ◦ Call for his execution (Marie also)Louis Tries to Escape
  • 17.  January 21, 1793 ◦ “Citizen” Louis is marched to scaffold Courage and dignity ◦ “I am innocent and shall die without fear. I would hope that my death might bring happiness to the French” Blood Blood ◦ His head is held up ◦ Silence at first – then cheers ◦ Dipping of handkerchiefsPoor Poor Louis
  • 18.  October 16, 1793 ◦ Marie’s untimely death  Fashion to the end ◦ Wore the same black dress she wore at trial ◦ Wore it for 2 months ◦ Not allowed to wear at execution – fear of sympathyPoor Poor Marie
  • 19.  Humane? ◦ Dr. Joseph Guillotine supported it as being “humane” ◦ Actually was compared to other ways Equality ◦ Instead of nobles getting axed and the poor being hung ◦ Made execution almost production line styleThe Guillotine
  • 20.  September 1793 to 1794 ◦ 40,000 executed ◦ Radicals take over NA and want reforms Not radical enough? ◦ 18 yo boy executed for cutting tree down ◦ Bartender executed for selling sour wine Led by RobespierreThe Reign of Terror
  • 21.  Wild Man ◦ Tries to eliminate religion ◦ Creates the Cult of the Supreme Being ◦ Calls for many more executions Radicals fear the Radical ◦ He is arrested and executedRobespierre

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