Church Reform1


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Church Reform1

  1. 2. <ul><li>The Roman Empire is gone; small kingdoms take its place; King Clovis converts to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>New invasions cause chaos throughout Europe; people look to local rulers for protection (starts feudalism); you can get protection but you have to work </li></ul><ul><li>Private armies are created by feudal lords (knights) </li></ul><ul><li>Church is starting to resent the lay investiture process </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Oh you priests!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Catholic Church maybe wasn’t as healthy and upstanding as it needed to be. </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 main problems of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Rural priests and bishops were marrying, having kids, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Lay investiture – Kings appointing local bishops and priests </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of simony, which is selling church offices. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The Church needs some changes!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>This came from the Abbey of Cluny, </li></ul><ul><li>Benedictine monastery founded in 910. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>The founding of the Abby of Cluney sparked new faith in the Church. </li></ul><ul><li>Also opened up “branch” monasteries around western Europe </li></ul>
  5. 6. When the main church was completed in 1131, it remained, at 555 feet in length and, with other complex buildings, covering 25 acres, the largest building in Europe until St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican was rebuilt in the 1500’s.
  6. 7. <ul><li>Unfortunately, much of the original structure was destroyed during the French Revolution in 1790. All that’s left is most of a tower and part of the building. </li></ul><ul><li>Also had a remarkable library. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Pope Gregory VII reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Reasserted celibacy </li></ul><ul><li>Hated simony </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly defined Church’s position on lay invenstiture </li></ul><ul><li>Also strengthened the position of the Pope </li></ul>
  8. 10. St. Francis, aka Dr. Doolittle
  9. 19. <ul><li>Cathedrals </li></ul><ul><li>From the Greek καθέδρα – seat – </li></ul><ul><li>Indicating the building is the seat of the bishop </li></ul><ul><li>Very large, ornate, beautiful, amazing </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to make you feel “small” and in awe </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by the wealthy – wanting to leave their mark or improve chances with God </li></ul>
  10. 20. <ul><li>While you might think the form of the cathedral would have borrowed from Roman temples, you’d be wrong. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman temples weren’t built to be large meeting places like churches needed to be. So cathedrals borrowed from the Romans’ large meeting places instead. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The early cathedrals were built in the Romanesque style. These appeared massive and heavy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s because they had to be. The large buildings had large heavy roofs that required thick walls with few small windows in order to handle the weight. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The later Gothic style, though, introduced architectural innovations to distribute the weight through other means, opening up large spaces in the walls for amazing windows. </li></ul>
  11. 21. <ul><li>The two big innovations were ribbed vaults and flying buttresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A vault is the arched shaped that helps hold up the roof. The Romanesque cathedrals used barrel vaults. These were simple arch-type structures. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 22. <ul><ul><li>The ribbed vault provides what literally looks like a rib. This is more efficient and does a better job of distributing the weight to the wall. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 23. <ul><ul><li>Here’s a comparison of the barrel vault of the Roomanesque Saint-Sernin Cathedral in Toulouse with the ribbed vault of the Gothic Amiens Cathedral </li></ul></ul>
  14. 24. <ul><li>Flying buttress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The flying buttress was an external structure – a bit like an external half-arch. The weight of the roof and walls was distribute outwards to these buttresses. This took the weight-bearing responsibility away from the walls themselves and allowed for the big open spaces for windows. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 26. <ul><ul><li>Compare these cross-sections of Saint-Sernin and Amiens. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 28. <ul><li>Here’s the difference it makes to the interior lighting: </li></ul>
  17. 30. <ul><li>The later Gothic cathedrals also tended to have tall spires on the towers and pinnacles on top of the buttresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a comparison the floor plans of Saint-Sernin and Amiens. </li></ul>
  18. 31. <ul><li>And finally, here’s a comparison of the exteriors. </li></ul>
  19. 36. Here are other examples of Romanesque styles.
  20. 37. <ul><li>Now, Gothic: </li></ul>
  21. 39. <ul><li>Cathedrals were usually oriented along an east-west axis. The main entrance was on the west end while the liturgical stuff (altar, bishop’s throne, etc.) was located in the east end. They had the shape of a Latin cross. </li></ul>Nave Narthex Aisles separated by arcades Transept Choir Apse
  22. 40. <ul><li>Here’s an assortment of pictures of the most well-known Gothic cathedral: Notre Dame de Paris </li></ul>
  23. 50. <ul><li>Lasted from 11 th to 13 th centuries, European Christians carried out military expeditions to “regain” the holy land from the Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Big push to start them when Muslim Turks invaded Byzantine </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Urban II responds and not just for religion </li></ul><ul><li>He sees opt. to have political and papal power over Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Promises: </li></ul><ul><li>“ All who die…if by land or sea, in battle against pagans, will have immediate forgiveness of sins…and receive golden ticket to heaven” </li></ul><ul><li>Rally cry is “It is the will of God” or “ Deus vult”!! </li></ul>
  24. 51. <ul><ul><li>Some just wanted to make a name and fortune </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good opportunity since there wasn’t one at home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Crusaders who volunteered were peasants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian merchant cities controlled all the major ports and Mediterranean shipping were all in favor of it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were cleaning up by transporting all these Crusaders, supplying them with food and arms, getting trade routes, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There’s good money to be made in war. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 52. “’ The bearer of this ticket will go to heaven if you get slaughtered on a Crusade!’ Awesome! I’m gonna be a knight!”
  26. 53. Deus vult!! Not really!
  27. 54. <ul><li>D:Animationswhs344.htm </li></ul>
  28. 55. 1096-1099 Muslim Turks invade Byzantine and take control of Anatolia and Holy Land Pope Urban II, French warriors, Italian merchants Creations of 4 Latin states, Italians grew wealthy, 1140’s Muslims begin to attack 1189-1192 Muslims attack Latin states Jerusalem falls to Muslim forces in 1187 Saladin dies, retake Jerusalem and Italian merchants want to eliminate Byzantine competition 1147-1149 <ul><li>King Louis VII of France </li></ul><ul><li>Saladin </li></ul><ul><li>Saladin </li></ul><ul><li>Fredrick </li></ul><ul><li>Barbarbossa </li></ul><ul><li>Richard the Lion </li></ul><ul><li>Hearted </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip II of France </li></ul>Pope Innocent III, 1202-1204 Total failure, loss of many lives Sea battles won, land battles lost. Richard negotiates w/ Saladin – now Christians can “visit” Jerusalem Total failure Years Causes Main Peoples Long Term Effects 1 st Crusade 2 nd Crusade 3 rd Crusade 4 th Crusade
  29. 56. <ul><li>One of the Crusader leaders said: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now that our men had possession of the walls and towers, wonderful sights were to be seen. Some of our men (and this was merciful) cut off the heads of their enemies; others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into the flames. Piles of heads, hands and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick one's way over the bodies of men and horses. But these were small matters compared with what happened in the Temple of Solomon, a place where religious services are normally chanted. What happened there? If I tell the truth, you would not believe it. Suffice to say that, in the Temple and Porch of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins. Indeed, it was a just and splendid judgment of God that this place should be filled with the blood of the unbelievers, since it had suffered so long from their blasphemies. The city was filled with corpses and blood. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 57. <ul><li>Some Crusaders cut open the stomachs of the Muslims because they were told they had swallowed their gold. They even kept watch over the burning body piles, waiting for the molten gold to stream out. </li></ul><ul><li>The massacre was as much policy as bloodthirstiness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Crusaders’ minds, the city had to be purged of all pagan and heretical influences and recreated as a Latin Christian city. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As far as the Crusaders were concerned, “Deus vult,” – “God wills it.” </li></ul></ul>
  31. 58. <ul><li>Benefited Italian merchants get SUPER wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Trade increased (again) with the East </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Death (plague) </li></ul><ul><li>Ended Feudalism started nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened all monarchies/weakened the Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and mathematics, e.g. algebra </li></ul><ul><li>The “meanness” towards Muslims and Jews </li></ul>