Ch 22
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Ch 22






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    Ch 22 Ch 22 Presentation Transcript

    • CH. 22.1 Enlightenment and Revolution: The Scientific Revolution
    • How The Scientific Revolution Started
    • The Roots of Modern Science
      • Renaissance inspired curiosity
      • This led to the Reformation
      • The Reformation and the challenge to authority, helped start the Scientific Revolution.
    • Science: The Medieval View
      • Remember the Earth-at-the-center-of-the-Universe theory?
      • Aristotle, the greatest scientist until the 1500’s, had supported this idea.
      • After all, it seemed logical. The Sun moves and we don’t.
    • A New Way of Thinking
      • Scientific Revolution : Beginning in the mid 1500’s, new scientific ideas would be based upon careful observation.
        • A willingness to question accepted beliefs
      • Newfound manuscripts launched new ideas
      • European exploration fueled scientific research.
        • Used stars to guide ships
          • Needed better instruments and geographic measurements.
      • When they started looking around, they found their observations did not match the ancient beliefs.
    • Geocentric vs. Heliocentric
      • Geo=Earth
      • Helio= Sun
      • Centric=Center
      • Nicolaus Copernicus first started the concept.
      • However, his theory could not perfectly explain why the planets behaved the way they did.
      • Johannes Kepler’s mathematic laws showed the planets moved in elliptical patterns, not circular, like proposed by Copernicus.
    • Aristotle vs. Galileo
      • Aristotle
        • Believed a pendulum slowed down as it approached its resting place
        • Believed heavier objects fell faster than smaller ones
        • Earth was center of universe
      • Galileo
        • Showed a pendulum does not slow down. Called the Law of the Pendulum
        • Showed that all objects fall at the same speed.
        • With a homemade telescope, monitored the movement of the stars to show the Sun was the center of the universe
    • Conflict with the Church
      • Galileo was urged by the church not to pursue his ideas about the universe
      • He did anyway, in a book called Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
      • Was threatened by the Church and forced to deny is ideas he knew to be true
      • Sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life.
      • Later, the Church issued an apology to Galileo, saying they were wrong to suppress his scientific findings.
      • IN 1992!!!!!
    • The Scientific Method
      • Find a problem
      • Form a hypothesis (prediction) about that problem
      • Observe the problem through experimentation or data collection
      • See if observation proves or disproves the hypothesis
      • Repeat process many times
    • Observation vs. Assumption
      • What we see or believe isn’t always what is going on.
        • “ I’d help someone who was in trouble”
        • “ Eyewitness accounts are reliable”
        • “ I’d never hurt another human just because someone told me to”
    • Some Revolutionaries
      • Francis Bacon
        • English politician and writer
        • Believed science could improve people’s lives
        • Criticized peoples acceptance of Aristotle’s ideas
      • Rene Descartes
        • Rejected old assumptions and teachings
        • Accept only things learned through observation
        • Knew only one thing for certain: “I think, therefore I am.”
        • Moved on from there.
    • Isaac Newton
      • Brought together the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under one unifying theory.
      • The Theory of Motion
        • All things are affected by a force, gravity
        • That force ruled the planets, pendulum, and all matter on Earth and Space
        • Every object attracts every other object. The degree of attraction depends on the mass of that object and the distance between the objects.
      • His book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , described the universe as a giant clock.
        • All its parts worked together perfectly in ways that could be described by mathematics.
        • Believed God was the creator of this orderly universe, the clockmaker who had set everything in motion
    • The Revolution Spreads
      • Zacharias Jannsen:
        • 1 st microscope
      • Anton van Leeuwenhoek:
        • Observed bacteria under a microscope
        • Proved tiny organisms did not just spontaneously appear, as previously thought
      • Evangelista Torricelli
        • 1 st mercury barometer
      • Gabriel Fahrenheit and Anders Celsius
        • The mercury thermometer, and their respective measurements
    • The Revolution Spreads
      • Andreas Vesalius
        • Dissected cadavers to get a better understanding of the inner human body.
      • William Harvey
        • The Heart and Blood Vessels
      • Edward Jenner
        • Vaccine for smallpox using cowpox vs. smallpox
      • Robert Boyle
        • The founder of modern chemistry