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Published in: Spiritual
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Transcript

  • 1. England and France Develop
  • 2.
    • Objectives:
    • Know the what the Norman conquest was, the players involved, and its importance (need to know what the Battle of Hastings is, but don’t need to know the details).
    • Need to know what the Magna Carta was, what it did, and why it was important.
  • 3. Here’s the situation: England’s king, Edward the Confessor, an Anglo-Saxon (Germanic), dies in 1066. He has no heir. There’s a power vacuum and several people who want to fill it. King Edward, aka Saint Edward the Confessor: patron saint of kings, difficult marriages, and separated spouses.
  • 4.
    • Edward’s cousin, William of Normandy, wants the throne
    • The Normans (Normandy) were derived from the Vikings but were pretty much French by this point.
    • Another contender was Harold Godwinson, another Anglo-Saxon and Edward’s brother-in-law, who was effectively ruling England in Edward’s latter weak days.
    • William crossed the English Channel and invaded England.
    • Harold rushes south to defend England.
    • They meet at what will become known as the Battle of Hastings in 1066, one of the most important in English history .
  • 5. At Hastings, the English infantry form a defensive line and occupy the high ground against the Norman cavalry and archers. The initial archer volleys do nothing.
  • 6. The Normans nearly eat it when the English come rampaging down the hill and almost turn William’s left flank.
  • 7. William’s cavalry, though, rushes in and cuts off the English attackers.
  • 8.
    • Instead of trying the break through the English line, the Normans compel the English to break it themselves. The Norman cavalry would come up, attack the line for a little bit, and then do a feigned retreat.
    • The English were all too eager to break their line and chase down what they thought was a retreating enemy.
  • 9.
    • When the English would break the lines and try chasing down the Normans, the Normans would wheel around and cut down the English. They did this several times.
    • Not only did this tactic get rid of English defenders, but it also opened up gaps in the defensive line that the Normans started exploiting.
  • 10. According to legend, Harold dies from an arrow through his right eye. This comes mainly from the Bayeux Tapestry, which is supposed to depict the events.
  • 11.
    • The end result is that William conquers England and becomes known as William the Conqueror .
  • 12.
    • Fast-forward a little bit. King Richard the Lionheart (yes, the crusader) dies in 1199 and his brother John takes the throne.
    • King John wasn’t a great king. He lost English-held lands in France and raised taxes .
    • Eventually his nobles had enough of him and rebelled . They forced him to sign an agreement in 1215 that was the Magna Carta****************** .
    • The MC granted certain rights, like a trial by jury, no taxation with representation
    • Establishes a committee of 25 barons who could overrule the king
    • John signed it under duress but never intended to keep his promise. He started a civil war and died during it. The MC was reissued to subsequent kings.
  • 13. The Magna Carta
  • 14.
    • Out of the Magna Carta came the first (Model) Parliament in 1295
    • King Edward I (Edward Longshanks – the guy who killed Braveheart William Wallace) called two burgesses and two knights from every borough (district, kinda) as well as earls, barons, and Church authorities.
    • They served as a council and to approve new taxes and subsequent kings followed the precedent and called parliament from time to time to approve new taxes.
    • Over time, the groups separated themselves with the knights and burgesses becoming the House of Commons and the nobles and bishops becoming the House of Lords.

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