Know the what the Norman conquest was, the players involved, and its importance (need to know what the Battle of Hastings is, but don’t need to know the details).
Need to know what the Magna Carta was, what it did, and why it was important.
Here’s the situation: England’s king, Edward the Confessor, an Anglo-Saxon (Germanic), dies in 1066. He has no heir. There’s a power vacuum and several people who want to fill it. King Edward, aka Saint Edward the Confessor: patron saint of kings, difficult marriages, and separated spouses.
Instead of trying the break through the English line, the Normans compel the English to break it themselves. The Norman cavalry would come up, attack the line for a little bit, and then do a feigned retreat.
The English were all too eager to break their line and chase down what they thought was a retreating enemy.
Out of the Magna Carta came the first (Model) Parliament in 1295
King Edward I (Edward Longshanks – the guy who killed Braveheart William Wallace) called two burgesses and two knights from every borough (district, kinda) as well as earls, barons, and Church authorities.
They served as a council and to approve new taxes and subsequent kings followed the precedent and called parliament from time to time to approve new taxes.
Over time, the groups separated themselves with the knights and burgesses becoming the House of Commons and the nobles and bishops becoming the House of Lords.