Strength Training Basics Part 1


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This presentation is the first of a two part strength training series in which I cover: the major muscle groups, basic anatomical motions, and basic exercises for each area of the body.

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Strength Training Basics Part 1

  1. 1. Strength Training Basics Part 1 Brian Ayers, CSCS Total Transformations, LLC
  2. 2. Terms of Anatomical Position <ul><li>Midline: The invisible line that divides the body or a single body part in half down the center. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior: The surface of the body that would be considered the front. </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior: The surface of the body that would be considered the back. </li></ul><ul><li>Medial: The surface that is closer to the midline of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral: The surface that is further from the midline of the body. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Three Movement Planes <ul><li>Sagittal Plane (where most basic exercises occur) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary movements include Flexion and Extension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontal Plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary movements include Abduction, Adduction, and Lateral Flexion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transverse Plane (where only rotational exercises occur) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary movements include Pronation, Supination, and any rotation about a vertical axis. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Description of Movement <ul><li>Flexion : Decreasing the angle of a given joint. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension : Returning a joint from flexion. </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction : Movement away from the midline in the frontal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction : Movement toward the midline in the frontal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation : Movement counterclockwise or clockwise about a vertical axis. In the case of the forearm it is called supination and pronation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The 6 Main Muscle Groups <ul><li>Chest – Pectoralis Major/Minor </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulders – Deltoid, Rotator Cuff (stabilizer), Trapezius </li></ul><ul><li>Back – Lats, Rhomboids </li></ul><ul><li>Arms – Biceps, Triceps, Forearms </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk – Abdominals, Obliques, Low-back </li></ul><ul><li>Legs – Quads, Hamstrings, Glutes, Calves </li></ul>
  6. 6. Primary Chest Movements <ul><li>The chest muscles only move the shoulder joint in the Sagittal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>The two basic movements that the chest is responsible for are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Flexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Adduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both movements can be performed at different angles to target specific areas. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chest Exercises <ul><li>Horizontal flexion is accomplished through the chest press. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal Adduction is accomplished through the chest fly. </li></ul><ul><li>External resistance can be incorporated in the form of fixed machines, dumbbells, or cables. </li></ul><ul><li>The different angles and target areas include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incline Press/Fly: targets the upper chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat Press/Fly: targets the middle chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline Press/Fly: targets the middle & lower chest </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Primary Shoulder Movements <ul><li>The shoulder muscles move the shoulder joint primarily in the frontal plane, but also in the Sagittal plane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal Plane Movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical Flexion – Deltoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abduction – Deltoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical Scapular Flexion - Trapezius </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagittal Plane Movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior Flexion – Anterior Deltoid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior Hyperextension – Rear Deltoid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Shoulder Exercises
  10. 10. Primary Back Movements <ul><li>The muscles of the back perform two major movements of the shoulder joint one in the frontal plane and one in the Sagittal plane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Lats are responsible for frontal plane movements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder Adduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rhomboids are responsible for Sagittal plane movements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder Horizontal Hyperextension </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Back Exercises
  12. 12. Primary Arm Movements <ul><li>The arm muscles move the elbow joint in the Sagittal plane and wrist joint in the Sagittal and transverse planes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The biceps is responsible for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow Flexion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The triceps is responsible for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow Extension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The muscles of the forearm are responsible for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrist Flexion, Extension, Pronation, & Supination </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Arm Exercises
  14. 14. Primary Leg Movements <ul><li>The leg muscles operate to move the hip, knee, and ankle in the frontal and Sagittal planes, and to some degree the hip in the transverse plane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quads are responsible for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knee Extension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Hip Flexion ( small degree ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hamstrings are responsible for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knee Flexion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Hip Extension ( small degree ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The glutes are responsible for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Hip Extension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The calve muscles are responsible for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary ankle Extension </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Leg Exercises
  16. 16. Primary Trunk Movements <ul><li>The trunk muscles move the trunk freely in all three planes of movement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sagittal Plane: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trunk Flexion – Abdominals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trunk Extension – Low Back Muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Frontal Plane: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trunk Lateral Flexion – Obliques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Transverse Plane: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trunk Rotation – Obliques/Abdominals/Low Back </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Trunk Exercises
  18. 18. * Essentials of Integrated Training Part 8: St rength Training   By Mike Clark   Table 1 - Adaptive Benefits from Strength Training <ul><ul><li>Improved cardiovascular efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficial endocrine and serum lipid adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased lean body mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased body fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased metabolic efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased tissue tensile strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased bone density  </li></ul></ul>