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Remix culture

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The deck for the presentation on Remix Culture I gave to SVA (School of Visual Arts) grad seminar on 11.04.10.

The deck for the presentation on Remix Culture I gave to SVA (School of Visual Arts) grad seminar on 11.04.10.

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    Remix culture Remix culture Presentation Transcript

    • Remix Culture
      Tom Tenney
      http://inc.ongruo.us
      11.4.10
    • What It’s Not
      Piracy
    • What It’s Not
      Piracy
      Anti-Copyright
    • What It’s Not
      Piracy
      Anti-Copyright
      Plagiarism
    • New York TimesFebruary 27, 2010
    • New York TimesFebruary 27, 2010
    • So What Is It?
      • Calls for the restoration of copyright as a contract for a limited monopoly on work so that both artists and culture benefit from creative works.
    • So What Is It?
      • Calls for the restoration of copyright as a contract for a limited monopoly on work so that both artists and culture benefit from creative works.
      • Argues for citizens and consumers to have permission become ACTIVE participants in their culture, that means using it's artifacts in order to comment, critique, create and build upon what has gone before.
    • Copyright
      A Brief History
    • Statute of Anne – England, 1709
    • Statute of Anne – England, 1709
      AKA The Copyright Act of 1709
    • Statute of Anne – England, 1709
      AKA The Copyright Act of 1709
      AKA An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned.
    • Statute of Anne – England, 1709
      • First Copyright Statute
      • Granted publishers legal protection for 14 years, renewable for another 14.
      • First law to acknowledge authorship, although copyright was primarily a concern for the publishers.
    • US Copyright Law
      First law (1790) allowed for 14 years, renewable for another 14.
      Purpose, according to US Constitution, was “to promote the progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive Right to their Writings and Discoveries.”
    • US Copyright Law
      Its purpose was to strike a balance between:
      Encouraging creativity by giving exclusive rights to creations.
    • US Copyright Law
      Its purpose was to strike a balance between:
      Encouraging creativity by giving exclusive rights to creations.
      Giving the public the freest possible access to creative works and ideas.
    • US Copyright Law2 Central Ideas
      Idea/Expression Dichotomy
      Copyright Protects an ideas expression, but not the idea itself.
      Codified in 1976: “In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated or embodied in such work.”
    • US Copyright Law2 Central Ideas
      FAIR USE (Sect. 107)
      Also codified in 1976
      Provides exception for exclusive rights in certain cases.
      “For purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research.”
    • US Copyright Law2 Central Ideas
      FAIR USE (Sect. 107)
      Fair use is judged by certain criteria:
      Purpose and Character of Use (commercial or educational/nonprofit)
      Nature of copyrighted work
      Portion used in relation to work as a whole.
      Effect of the use on potential market for the work.
    • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
      1831 – 28 years with 14-year renewal
    • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
      1831 – 28 years with 14-year renewal
      1909 – 28 years with 28-year renewal
    • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
      1831 – 28 years with 14-year renewal
      1909 – 28 years with 28-year renewal
      1976 – 75 years (corporate) or life of author + 50 years
    • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
      1831 – 28 years with 14-year renewal
      1909 – 28 years with 28-year renewal
      1976 – 75 years (corporate) or life of author + 50 years
      1998 – Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act
      Life of author + 75 years or:
      Corporate Authorship: 120 years after creation or 95 years after publication
    • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
      And Finally….
    • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
      The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
      (1998)
    • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
      The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
      2 Major Provisions
    • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
      The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
      2 Major Provisions
      Anti-Circumvention:Criminalizes production of any technologies which interfere with Digital Rights Management (DRM)
    • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
      The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
      2 Major Provisions
      Anti-Circumvention:Criminalizes production of any technologies which interfere with Digital Rights Management (DRM)
      Infringement Liability Limitation:
      Creates safe harbor for service providers (OSPs, ISPs)
      Who respond to takedown notices from copyright
      holders. (Also provides for counter-notification,
      although this is often not in the OSP’s interest)
    • Roots of Remix:Appropriation in Art, Film, and Music
    • Roots of Remix:
      Every major school of art, and (arguably) every artist, has used creative appropriation in some form in creating their work.
    • Roots of Remix:
      DADA:
      John Heartfield
      Marcel Duchamp
      Hanna Hoch
    • Roots of Remix:
      POP:
      Roy Lichtenstein
      Andy Warhol
      Tom Wesselmann
      For more examples, watch this short video
    • Roots of Remix:
      Film: 1928
      Steamboat Bill, Jr.
      Steamboat Willie
    • Roots of Remix:
      Film: 1936
      Joseph Cornell: Rose Hobart (clip)
    • Roots of Remix:
      Film: 2010
      Sex & The Remix
      Helping Johnny Remember
      Elisa Kreisinger
      Ashleigh Nankivell
    • Roots of Remix:
      Film: 2010
      Kenneth Tin-Kin Hung: In G.O.D. We Trust
    • Roots of Remix:
      Music: 1991
      Negativland: U2
    • Roots of Remix:
      Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
      DJ KoolHerc
      • Jamaica  Bronx, 1967
      • Brought “versioning” from Jamaica
      • Pioneered looping Break Beats at block parties
      • Birth of Rap (Party MCs) and B-boys/B-girls (aka break dancers)
    • Roots of Remix:
      Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
      Grandmaster Flash
      • 1981: “The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel”
      • First documented use of ‘scratching’
      • The single sampled:
      • “Rapture” (Blondie)
      • “Apache” (Michael Viner)
      • “Another One Bites the Dust” (Queen)
      • “Good Times” (Chic)
      • “Freedom” (The Furious Five)
      Listen
    • Roots of Remix:
      Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
      The Beastie Boys
      • 1989: “Paul’s Boutique”
      • Record contained 105 samples
      • 24 Samples on the last track alone
      Listen
    • Roots of Remix:
      Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
      2 Landmark Cases
      1991: Biz Markie
      1989: 2 Live Crew
      “Alone Again”
      “Pretty Woman”
    • Roots of Remix:
      Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
      2 Landmark Cases: Rulings
      2 Live Crew
      Campbell vs. Acuff-Rose Music
      The Supreme Court found that the song was parody, and thus protected under fair use.
      Biz Markie
      Grand Upright Music vs. Warner Bros. Records
      US District Court found that the song infringed the original artist’s copyright, and ordered that all future music samples be cleared for use before publishing.
    • Roots of Remix:
      Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
      2010: Girl Talk
      • Music is comprised almost entirely of samples.
      • His 2008 album “Feed the Animals” has a total of 322 samples
      • Offers his records online on a “pay-what-you-like” basis.
    • AUTHORSHIP
    • Remix Culture Today
    • Remix Culture Today
      Lawrence Lessig
      Books:
      • Remix (2008)
      • Free Culture (2005)
      • The Future of Ideas (2002)
      • Code (2000)
      www.lessig.org
    • Remix Culture Today
      Cory Doctorow
      Books:
      • Content (2008)
      • For the Win (2010)
      • Makers (2009)
      • Down & Out in the Magic Kingdom (2003)
      www.craphound.com
      www.boingboing.net
    • Remix Culture Today
      Henry Jenkins
      Books:
      • Convergence Culture (2008)
      • Fans, Bloggers & Gamers (2006)
      • The Wow Climax (2006)
      • Textual Poachers (1992)
      www.henryjenkins.org
    • Remix Culture Today
      Creative Commons
      A nonprofit organization working to increase the amount of creativity (cultural, educational, and scientific content) in “the commons” — the body of work that is available to the public for free and legal sharing, use, repurposing, and remixing.
      • License Your Work
      • Find Licensed Work
      www.creativecommons.org
    • Remix Culture Today
      Electronic Frontier Foundation
      • Founded in 1990
      • Coalition of lawyers, analysts, activists and technologists
      • Actively defends:
      • Free Speech
      • Privacy
      • Innovation
      • User Rights
      www.eff.org
    • Remix Culture Today
      Open Video Alliance – openvideoalliance.org
      • A coalition of organizations and individuals devoted to free and open technologies, policies and practices in online video.
      • Holds Open Video Conference every year
      Organization for Transformative Works
      transformativeworks.org
      • A nonprofit organization run by and for fans to provide access to and preserve the history of fan works and fan culture.
    • Remix Culture Today
      RE/Mixed Media Festival 2011
      • Musicians
      • Painters
      • Photographers
      • Filmmakers
      • Sound Artists
      • Fashion
      Spring, 2011
      www.remixedmedia.org
      www.lofinyc.org (2010 site)
      info@remixedmedia.org