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The deck for the presentation on Remix Culture I gave to SVA (School of Visual Arts) grad seminar on 11.04.10.

The deck for the presentation on Remix Culture I gave to SVA (School of Visual Arts) grad seminar on 11.04.10.

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Remix culture Remix culture Presentation Transcript

  • Remix Culture
    Tom Tenney
    http://inc.ongruo.us
    11.4.10
  • What It’s Not
    Piracy
  • What It’s Not
    Piracy
    Anti-Copyright
  • What It’s Not
    Piracy
    Anti-Copyright
    Plagiarism
  • New York TimesFebruary 27, 2010
  • New York TimesFebruary 27, 2010
  • So What Is It?
    • Calls for the restoration of copyright as a contract for a limited monopoly on work so that both artists and culture benefit from creative works.
  • So What Is It?
    • Calls for the restoration of copyright as a contract for a limited monopoly on work so that both artists and culture benefit from creative works.
    • Argues for citizens and consumers to have permission become ACTIVE participants in their culture, that means using it's artifacts in order to comment, critique, create and build upon what has gone before.
  • Copyright
    A Brief History
  • Statute of Anne – England, 1709
  • Statute of Anne – England, 1709
    AKA The Copyright Act of 1709
  • Statute of Anne – England, 1709
    AKA The Copyright Act of 1709
    AKA An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned.
  • Statute of Anne – England, 1709
    • First Copyright Statute
    • Granted publishers legal protection for 14 years, renewable for another 14.
    • First law to acknowledge authorship, although copyright was primarily a concern for the publishers.
  • US Copyright Law
    First law (1790) allowed for 14 years, renewable for another 14.
    Purpose, according to US Constitution, was “to promote the progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive Right to their Writings and Discoveries.”
  • US Copyright Law
    Its purpose was to strike a balance between:
    Encouraging creativity by giving exclusive rights to creations.
  • US Copyright Law
    Its purpose was to strike a balance between:
    Encouraging creativity by giving exclusive rights to creations.
    Giving the public the freest possible access to creative works and ideas.
  • US Copyright Law2 Central Ideas
    Idea/Expression Dichotomy
    Copyright Protects an ideas expression, but not the idea itself.
    Codified in 1976: “In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated or embodied in such work.”
  • US Copyright Law2 Central Ideas
    FAIR USE (Sect. 107)
    Also codified in 1976
    Provides exception for exclusive rights in certain cases.
    “For purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research.”
  • US Copyright Law2 Central Ideas
    FAIR USE (Sect. 107)
    Fair use is judged by certain criteria:
    Purpose and Character of Use (commercial or educational/nonprofit)
    Nature of copyrighted work
    Portion used in relation to work as a whole.
    Effect of the use on potential market for the work.
  • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
    1831 – 28 years with 14-year renewal
  • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
    1831 – 28 years with 14-year renewal
    1909 – 28 years with 28-year renewal
  • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
    1831 – 28 years with 14-year renewal
    1909 – 28 years with 28-year renewal
    1976 – 75 years (corporate) or life of author + 50 years
  • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
    1831 – 28 years with 14-year renewal
    1909 – 28 years with 28-year renewal
    1976 – 75 years (corporate) or life of author + 50 years
    1998 – Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act
    Life of author + 75 years or:
    Corporate Authorship: 120 years after creation or 95 years after publication
  • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
    And Finally….
  • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
    The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
    (1998)
  • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
    The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
    2 Major Provisions
  • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
    The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
    2 Major Provisions
    Anti-Circumvention:Criminalizes production of any technologies which interfere with Digital Rights Management (DRM)
  • US Copyright LawKey Changes since 1790
    The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
    2 Major Provisions
    Anti-Circumvention:Criminalizes production of any technologies which interfere with Digital Rights Management (DRM)
    Infringement Liability Limitation:
    Creates safe harbor for service providers (OSPs, ISPs)
    Who respond to takedown notices from copyright
    holders. (Also provides for counter-notification,
    although this is often not in the OSP’s interest)
  • Roots of Remix:Appropriation in Art, Film, and Music
  • Roots of Remix:
    Every major school of art, and (arguably) every artist, has used creative appropriation in some form in creating their work.
  • Roots of Remix:
    DADA:
    John Heartfield
    Marcel Duchamp
    Hanna Hoch
  • Roots of Remix:
    POP:
    Roy Lichtenstein
    Andy Warhol
    Tom Wesselmann
    For more examples, watch this short video
  • Roots of Remix:
    Film: 1928
    Steamboat Bill, Jr.
    Steamboat Willie
  • Roots of Remix:
    Film: 1936
    Joseph Cornell: Rose Hobart (clip)
  • Roots of Remix:
    Film: 2010
    Sex & The Remix
    Helping Johnny Remember
    Elisa Kreisinger
    Ashleigh Nankivell
  • Roots of Remix:
    Film: 2010
    Kenneth Tin-Kin Hung: In G.O.D. We Trust
  • Roots of Remix:
    Music: 1991
    Negativland: U2
  • Roots of Remix:
    Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
    DJ KoolHerc
    • Jamaica  Bronx, 1967
    • Brought “versioning” from Jamaica
    • Pioneered looping Break Beats at block parties
    • Birth of Rap (Party MCs) and B-boys/B-girls (aka break dancers)
  • Roots of Remix:
    Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
    Grandmaster Flash
    • 1981: “The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel”
    • First documented use of ‘scratching’
    • The single sampled:
    • “Rapture” (Blondie)
    • “Apache” (Michael Viner)
    • “Another One Bites the Dust” (Queen)
    • “Good Times” (Chic)
    • “Freedom” (The Furious Five)
    Listen
  • Roots of Remix:
    Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
    The Beastie Boys
    • 1989: “Paul’s Boutique”
    • Record contained 105 samples
    • 24 Samples on the last track alone
    Listen
  • Roots of Remix:
    Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
    2 Landmark Cases
    1991: Biz Markie
    1989: 2 Live Crew
    “Alone Again”
    “Pretty Woman”
  • Roots of Remix:
    Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
    2 Landmark Cases: Rulings
    2 Live Crew
    Campbell vs. Acuff-Rose Music
    The Supreme Court found that the song was parody, and thus protected under fair use.
    Biz Markie
    Grand Upright Music vs. Warner Bros. Records
    US District Court found that the song infringed the original artist’s copyright, and ordered that all future music samples be cleared for use before publishing.
  • Roots of Remix:
    Music: Hip-Hop/Sampling
    2010: Girl Talk
    • Music is comprised almost entirely of samples.
    • His 2008 album “Feed the Animals” has a total of 322 samples
    • Offers his records online on a “pay-what-you-like” basis.
  • AUTHORSHIP
  • Remix Culture Today
  • Remix Culture Today
    Lawrence Lessig
    Books:
    • Remix (2008)
    • Free Culture (2005)
    • The Future of Ideas (2002)
    • Code (2000)
    www.lessig.org
  • Remix Culture Today
    Cory Doctorow
    Books:
    • Content (2008)
    • For the Win (2010)
    • Makers (2009)
    • Down & Out in the Magic Kingdom (2003)
    www.craphound.com
    www.boingboing.net
  • Remix Culture Today
    Henry Jenkins
    Books:
    • Convergence Culture (2008)
    • Fans, Bloggers & Gamers (2006)
    • The Wow Climax (2006)
    • Textual Poachers (1992)
    www.henryjenkins.org
  • Remix Culture Today
    Creative Commons
    A nonprofit organization working to increase the amount of creativity (cultural, educational, and scientific content) in “the commons” — the body of work that is available to the public for free and legal sharing, use, repurposing, and remixing.
    • License Your Work
    • Find Licensed Work
    www.creativecommons.org
  • Remix Culture Today
    Electronic Frontier Foundation
    • Founded in 1990
    • Coalition of lawyers, analysts, activists and technologists
    • Actively defends:
    • Free Speech
    • Privacy
    • Innovation
    • User Rights
    www.eff.org
  • Remix Culture Today
    Open Video Alliance – openvideoalliance.org
    • A coalition of organizations and individuals devoted to free and open technologies, policies and practices in online video.
    • Holds Open Video Conference every year
    Organization for Transformative Works
    transformativeworks.org
    • A nonprofit organization run by and for fans to provide access to and preserve the history of fan works and fan culture.
  • Remix Culture Today
    RE/Mixed Media Festival 2011
    • Musicians
    • Painters
    • Photographers
    • Filmmakers
    • Sound Artists
    • Fashion
    Spring, 2011
    www.remixedmedia.org
    www.lofinyc.org (2010 site)
    info@remixedmedia.org