The foreign policy during henry truman's adminstration

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The foreign policy during henry truman's adminstration

  1. 1. AN Y M IC U L R O T N P E O N H TI IG T RA E G T R IN S IN S M TA O R AF U INI ID NJ TA | K DA PAJ NA LI D M RO KA | UR D KA JIT A ER M SI | AD AHM H R DA VE
  2. 2. • Truman was left with many options in ending war with Japan• Attack on Japanese mainland would produce thousands of casualties• Japanese flatly rejected Potsdam Declaration
  3. 3. The “Big Three”meet to discusspostwar Europe
  4. 4. Nuremburg Trials From Left to Right:Sir Norman Birkett & Sir Geoffrey Lawrence – Britain’s Main and Alternate Judges
  5. 5. Tokyo Trials“The following acts, or any of them, are crimes coming within thejurisdiction of the Tribunal for which there shall be individualresponsibility:(a) Crimes against Peace: Namely, the planning, preparation,initiation or waging of a declared or undeclared war of aggression,or a war in violation of international law, treaties, agreements orassurances, or participation in a common plan or conspiracy forthe accomplishment of any of the foregoing;(b) Conventional War Crimes: Namely, violations of the laws orcustoms of war;(c) Crimes against Humanity: Namely, murder, extermination,enslavement, deportation, and other inhumane acts committedagainst any civilian population, before or during the war, orpersecutions on political or racial grounds in execution of or inconnection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal,whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the countrywhere perpetrated...”Source: Charter of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East 1946
  6. 6. SOVIET – U.S. RELATIONS • Alliance during war was of convenience – not mutual trust • Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe worried liberal democracies • Many compared Russian government to Hitlers regime
  7. 7. SATELLITE STATES IN EASTERN EUROPE Soviets sought to fortify western flank from attack Communist dictators came to power in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia U.S. and British governments were deeply alarmed Source: Leslie Illingworth, Daily Mail, June 1947
  8. 8. Occupation Zones of Germany • Temporary Soviet occupation zones became new communist states • Soviets wanted a weaker German nation • U.S. and G.B. viewed recovery of Germany as significant to Central Europe
  9. 9. Source: Jay "Ding" Darling, “We Tried Everything ButDynamite”, New York Times 1947
  10. 10. Containment Policyin its current borders- U.S. aimed to contain Communism- Avoid the domino effect of Communist takeover- Doctrine was expanded to cover the world- George Kennan’s “Long Telegram”
  11. 11. • Britain removed forces in Greece and Turkey• Western Allies feared Communist victory in Greek Civil War would jeopardize the political stability of Turkey• March 1947: Truman asked for $400 million in military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey against totalitarian
  12. 12. Marshall PlanIt is logical that the United Statesshould do whatever it is able to doto assist in the return of normaleconomic health in the world,without which there can be nopolitical stability and no assuredpeace. Our policy is directed notagainst any country or doctrine butagainst hunger, poverty,desperation, and chaos. Itspurpose should be the revival of aworking economy in the world soas to permit the emergence ofpolitical and social conditions inwhich free institutions can exist.Source: Speech at Harvard University,George Marshall, April 1948
  13. 13. • Idea born at DumbartonOaks Conference, formulatedand negotiated at YaltaConference• Intended to promoteinternational security andprevent future global conflicts• Atomic Energy Commissioncreated after U.S. proposaland Soviet agreement
  14. 14.  June 1948: Soviets cut off all land access to Berlin Truman responds with air supply drop offs
  15. 15. “To promote the nationalsecurity by providing fora Secretary of Defense;for a National MilitaryEstablishment; for aDepartment of the Army,a Department of theNavy, and a Departmentof the Air Force; and forthe coordination ofactivities of the NationalMilitary Establishmentwith other departmentsand agencies of theGovernment concernedwith the nationalsecurity.”Source: National Security Act, November 4, 1952
  16. 16. If war should begin in 1950, the United States andIf war should begin in 1950, the United States and its allies will have the military capability ofits allies will have the military capability of conducting defensive operations to provide aconducting defensive operations to provide a reasonable measure of protection to the Westernreasonable measure of protection to the Western Hemisphere, bases in the Western Pacific, andHemisphere, bases in the Western Pacific, and essential military lines of communication; and anessential military lines of communication; and an inadequate measure of protection to vital militaryinadequate measure of protection to vital military bases in the United Kingdom and in the Near andbases in the United Kingdom and in the Near and Middle East. We will have the capability ofMiddle East. We will have the capability of conducting powerful offensive air operationsconducting powerful offensive air operations against vital elements of the Soviet war-makingagainst vital elements of the Soviet war-making capacity.capacity. Source: National Council Report 68, April 14, 1950
  17. 17. Source: Cummingsof the Daily Express, 24 August1953, "Backto Where it all Started"
  18. 18. “What is not generally understood isthat the Zionists are not the only onesto be considered in the Palestinequestion. There are other interests thatcome into play, each with its ownagenda. The military is concerned withthe problems of defending a newlycreated small country from attacks bymuch larger and better trained Arabnations. Others have selfish interestsconcerning the flow of Arab oil to theU.S. Since they all cannot have theirway, it is a perfect example of why Ihad to remember that The Buck StopsHere." Source: Harry Truman, Diary Entry, 1948
  19. 19. Postwar Japan MacArthur (SCAP) took firm control of Japanese reconstruction Enacted a new constitution U.S. – Japanese Security Treaty
  20. 20.  George Marshall sent to negotiate end to Chinese civil war Nationalist Chinese government was given $400 million Much of which ended up in Communist hands
  21. 21. The Ris e o f Co m m unis tChina• Chiang and Nationalists took refuge in Formosa• U.S. refused to recognize Zedong• Republicans alarmed by loss of China
  22. 22. North Korean Surprise Attack June 25, 1950: North Korean Army invaded South Korea U.S. did not hesitate with a response
  23. 23. Inchon Invasion MacArthur reversed the war with an amphibious attack at Inchon Advanced as far as the southern Chinese border
  24. 24. Chinese Intervention- November 1950: Chinese troops launch surprise attack and decimate MacArthur’s troops in North Korea- Made Korean Conflict "an entirely new war.”- PRC aimed to preserve North Korean Communist State
  25. 25. MACARTHUR VS. TRUMAN“Old soldiers never die, they just fade away.” – General Douglas MacArthur •MacArthur called for an expanded war •Truman cautioned MacArthur from speaking out against policy •MacArthur recalled for insubordination
  26. 26. Armistice• War ended in stalemate at 38th parallel• 54,000 Americans died in Korea• Critics saw Truman as “soft on communism”
  27. 27. Directions to One Minu

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