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EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges
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EMERGING ISSUES-The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges

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The objective of this presentation is to discuss emerging areas of concern for the Texas Association of Black City Council Members and their constituencies. …

The objective of this presentation is to discuss emerging areas of concern for the Texas Association of Black City Council Members and their constituencies.

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  • Water Environment Association. Legislative Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.weat.org/legislative-affairs.shtml on October 1, 2013
  • American Lung Association. Compare Your Air. Retrieved from: http://www.stateoftheair.org/2013/city-rankings/compare-your-air.html on October 1, 2013
  • Source (figure): Compare Your Air. American Lung Association. http://www.stateoftheair.org/2013/city-rankings/compare-your-air.html on October 1, 2013Also see: American Lung Association. (2013) City Ranking. http://www.stateoftheair.org/2013/city-rankings/
  • Illustration available at: http://www.propublica.org/special/hydraulic-fracturing-nationalLearn about regulation standards in Texas and who to contact : http://fracfocus.org/regulations-state
  • U.S Environmental Protection Agency.(December 8, 2011). EPA Releases Draft Findings of Pavillion, Wyoming Ground Water Investigation for Public Comment and Independent Scientific Review. Retrieved from: http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/931381dfcd9a5c308525779700424ccd/ef35bd26a80d6ce3852579600065c94e!opendocumentLustgarten, A. (November 10, 2011). EPA Finds Compund Used in Fracking in Wyoming Aquifer.
  • Moses, B. (February 24, 2012). Texas Supreme Court Rules in Historic Water Regulation Case. Retrieved from: http://stateimpact.npr.org/Texas/2012/02/24/Texas-supreme-court-rules-in-historic-water-regulation-case/
  • Miskus, D. October 1, 2013). U.S Drought Monitor: Texas. The National Drought Mitigation Center. Retrieved from: http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home/StateDroughtMonitor.aspx?TXTexas Commission on Environmental Quality. List of Texas PWSs Limiting Water Use to Avoid Shortage. http://www.tceq.texas.gov/drinkingwater/trot/droughtw.html49 severe restriction (no outdoor exception for livestock)
  • http://www.tceq.texas.gov/drinkingwater/trot/droughtw.htmlDrought Dictionary:http://www.tceq.texas.gov/drinkingwater/trot/droughtdic.html
  • U.S Demographic Shifts: Long-term Trends and Drivers and Their Implications for Emergency Management.(2011).http://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/programs/oppa/demography_%20paper_051011.pdf
  • Cole, C. (2012). Access to Healthy and Affordable Food Is Critical to Good Nutrition. Center For Public Policy Priorities. Retrieved from: http://forabettertexas.org/images/2012_02_FoodAccess.pdf
  • Cole, C. (2012). Access to Healthy and Affordable Food Is Critical to Good Nutrition. For A Better Texas. Retrieved from: http://forabettertexas.org/images/2012_02_FoodAccess.pdf
  • Poverty MAP. (2011). Population Survey(CPS), 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Retrieved from: http://www.povertyusa.org/the-state-of-poverty/poverty-map-state/#
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012).Adult Obesity Facts. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html on October 2, 2013
  • Using this as a tool to better understand the fundamental need and economic opportunities
  • Food deserts do not warrant cut and dry solutions. Erecting a grocery store may address the question of access and food options however this does not mean the lifestyle of low income persons can accommodate the implementation of healthy meals (i.e. time prep/ cost of fresh vegetables vs. canned) etc… However, there has to be a cultural change where more aggressive efforts are made to make access to fast food less accessible as well.The City of St. Louis Missouri. (2013). Create Your own Urban Garden. Retrieved from: https://stlouis-mo.gov/government/departments/sldc/news/garden-lease-story.cfmBaltimore Housing. Vacants to Value Homebuyer Program. Retrieved from: http://www.baltimorehousing.org/homeownership_vtovThe New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. NYC Green Cart. Retrieved from: http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/living/greencarts.shtmlBornstein, D. Conquering Food Deserts with Green Carts. April 18, 2012. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/18/conquering-food-deserts-with-green-carts/
  • Shresta, L. (2011). The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32701.pdf
  • Window on State Government. Education. Retrieved from: http://www.window.state.tx.us/specialrpt/tif/public.html on October 1, 2013
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration & U.S Administration on Aging. Policy Academy State Profile: Texas. Retrieved from: http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/AoA_Programs/HPW/Behavioral/docs2/Texas.pdf on October 1, 2013There is a need for legislation and community programs that address substance abuse and mental health in the context of illness and addiction and end the criminalization of these activities.
  • Roberts, S. (October 1, 1994). Hispanic Population Outnumbers Blacks in Four Major Cities as Demographics Shift. Retrieved from:http://www.nytimes.com/1994/10/09/us/hispanic-population-outnumbers-blacks-in-four-major-cities-as-demographics-shift.html on October 1, 2013
  • Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. (2008). Do Blacks and Hispanics Get Along?:Yes, but Not Always, and Not about Everything. Retrieved from: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2008/01/31/do-blacks-and-hispanics-get-along/ on October 1, 2013
  • Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. (2008). Do Blacks and Hispanics Get Along?:Yes, but Not Always, and Not about Everything. Retrieved from: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2008/01/31/do-blacks-and-hispanics-get-along/ on October 1, 2013
  • Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. (2008). Do Blacks and Hispanics Get Along?:Yes, but Not Always, and Not about Everything. Retrieved from: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2008/01/31/do-blacks-and-hispanics-get-along/ on October 1, 2013
  • Source:Pew Research Center’s analysis from Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), collected by the U.S Census Bureau on economic household status sent to tens of thousands of households by the U.S. Census Bureau.Source: Kochhar, R., Fry, R., and Taylor, P. (2011). Wealth Gaps Rise to Record Highs Between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/07/26/wealth-gaps-rise-to-record-highs-between-whites-blacks-hispanics/
  • Kockhar, R., Fry, R et. al Taylor, P. (2011). Wealth Gaps Rise to Record Highs Between Whites, Blacks, Hispanic. Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. Retrieved from: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/07/26/wealth-gaps-rise-to-record-highs-between-whites-blacks-hispanics/
  • Transcript

    • 1. EMERGING ISSUES The Changing Demographic and the Natural Environment in Texas: Taking a proactive role in combating tomorrow’s challenges By: Michael O. Adams, Ph.D., Jay Aiyer, Esq., & Subria Lapps, MPA Texas Southern University, Department of Political Science October 10, 2013 S
    • 2. Purpose S The objective of this presentation is to discuss emerging areas of concern for the Texas Association of Black City Council Members and their constituencies. S The presentation will discuss persistent issues such as poverty, food deserts, and race relations. However, these persistent issues will be presented in the context of emerging issues related to demographic changes and environmental justice concerns. S The presentation will demonstrate correlations and distinctions in each issue and seek to provide general recommendations on how change can be made to recognize opportunities for economic, social, and political mobility benefiting persons residing in Texas.
    • 3. Environmental Justice Exploring the quality of life in Texas by understanding the natural environment S
    • 4. rd 83 Legislature on Water Approximately 25 water related bills were introduced in the house and senate during the 83rd Texas Legislature S SJR1: proposing a constitutional amendment providing for the creation and use of funds in the state treasury to provide financial assistance for certain projects related to economic development and water infrastructure and for the transfer to the funds of money from the economic stabilization fund. S SB654 relating to the enforcement of water conservation and animal care and control ordinances of a municipality by civil action or quasi-judicial enforcement; providing civil penalties. S HB2105 Relating to municipally owned utility systems; authorizing the imposition of fees by a utility board of trustees. S HB2767 Relating to the treatment and recycling for beneficial use of certain waste arising out of or incidental to the drilling for or production of oil or gas.
    • 5. Air Quality Comparison Chart
    • 6. Air Quality Comparison Chart • Air pollution linked to insulin resistance in children • Air pollution impacts visible minorities, partic ularly Blacks, more than any other group • *Fine liquid or solids such as dust, smoke, fumes, or smog found in air or emissions. (EPA definition)
    • 7. Hydraulic Fracturing & The Environment S Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation process used to maximize the extraction of underground resources; including oil, natural gas, geothermal energy, and even water. (EPA Definition)
    • 8. Water Contamination S December 2011 report by the EPA reiterate results from a 2010 study that studied both commercial and residential water wells indicating water contamination was present as a result of hydraulic fracturing EPA FINDING S The samples were consistent with chemicals identified in earlier EPA results released in 2010 and are generally below established health and safety standards. S EPA’s analysis of samples taken from the Agency’s monitoring wells in the aquifer indicates detection of synthetic chemicals, like glycols and alcohols consistent with gas production and hydraulic fracturing fluids, benzene concentrations well above Safe Drinking Water Act standards and high methane levels. Corresponding report by Pro Publica indicate benzene at 50 times the levels safe for the public in addition to acetone, toluene, naphthalene and diesel fuel.
    • 9. Water Related Legislation in Texas S 2012 Texas Supreme Court Ruling: The Edwards Aquifer Authority and the State of Texas Petitioners v. Burrell Day and Joel McDaniel, Respondents S Giving land owner rights to request payment if a water authority imposes restrictions on the amount of groundwater they can extract from their land
    • 10. Looking at Droughts In Texas
    • 11. MAPPING BY WATER RESTRICTIONS
    • 12. The Environment & Livable Cities S Cities in Texas that have experienced long-term extreme drought: S S McAllen , Texas Lubbock, Texas S Barnett Shale located in Dallas-Fort Worth experienced increases in earthquakes as a result of fracking S Challenges S S S S Increase in level and force of hurricanes and increased flooding in both rural and urban centers Addressing challenge of growing aging and disabled populations in emergencies Racial and ethnic diversity, particularly, breaking down language barriers in emergency preparedness Increased populations and the challenges of serving more with less
    • 13. Food Deserts S The U.S. Department of Agriculture defines a food desert as a census tract in which one-third of the population lives more than one mile from the nearest large supermarket or grocery store in an urban area, and more than 10 miles in a rural area. (Definition by USDA)
    • 14. Food Deserts S USDA 15% of person living in cities and rural areas across Texas live in food deserts (1+ miles in cities/10+ miles in rural areas from grocery store with fresh produce) S Texas has least amount of supermarkets per capita across all U.S States (forabettertexas.rog) S 2000 report 26% of counties were labeled food deserts (mostly in West Texas and Panhadle.
    • 15. Food Deserts & Poverty Poverty MAP. 2011 Population Survey(CPS), 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement: http://www.povertyusa.org/the-state-of-poverty/poverty-map-state/#
    • 16. CONNECTING POVERTY & FOOD DESERTS S Texas Ranks # 12 in the amount of persons living in poverty S 18.5% of Texas residents live in poverty S 7.6% live in Deep Poverty S 26.6% of Texas children live in Poverty (Persons under the age of S S S S S 17) 11.4% of persons 65 years of age and older live in poverty in Texas 23.3% of persons with disability are living in poverty n Texas 19.9% of persons living in poverty are women 16.9% of persons living in poverty are men 2012 CDC report 29.2% of all Texans are obese Poverty MAP. (2011). Population Survey(CPS), 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Retrieved from: http://www.povertyusa.org/the-state-of-poverty/poverty-map-state/#
    • 17. USDA Food Desert Locator Map is labeled/color coded for food desert ranking by distance and status as Low Income (LI) and Low Access (LA) and by distance from grocery stores ([green]1 and 10 miles, [orange].5 and 10 miles, [[red] 1 and 20miles, [yellow]using vehicle access How To Find A Food Desert Near You. http://tpr.org/post/how-find-food-desertnear-you ( Map generated by USDA Food Desert Locator: Due to the federal government shutdown, we were not able to access a map of Texas for the purpose of this presentation.
    • 18. Economic Opportunities in the Fight Against Food Deserts S S S S S S S S Use USDA locator to identify areas of economic opportunity Turn Vacant lots into pop-up farmers markets- Adopt immediate solutions until permanent once can be made: Micro-loans to provide start-up support for community gardens Provide areas for shared Community garden spaces Leveraging local programs ex. Urban Harvest in Houston (nonprofit organization that goes into schools to teach gardening to children in Afterschool programs and also assists in running local farmers markets. Develop zoning laws that limit the amount of fast food chains permitted in a certain square mile Create tax abatements for grocery stores willing to come into cities across Texas Develop marketing campaigns with the help of local, state, and federal agencies and nonprofit organizations to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyles
    • 19. Cities Investing in Reducing Food Deserts S City of St. Louis, Missouri-Land Reutilization Authority lease vacant lots for $1.00/year to community organizations and neighborhood groups for community gardens (the groups are responsible for all upkeep) S City of Baltimore, vacant to value properties. Attract first-time homebuyers to encourage neighborhood stability and attractive more diverse retail opportunities S Offering incentives and tax breaks to small businesses for specific development i.e grocery stores S New York City Green Cart Program developed in 2008 provided 1000 permits where mobile carts vendors sell fresh fruits and vegetables across the 5 boroughs. 350 Bronx, 350 Brooklyn, 150 Manhattan, 100 Queens, 50 Staten Island. Carts are permitted in areas designated by high need S New York City “Healthy Bodega Initiative” providing grants t o small stores for proper storage and advertising help in order to encourage them to have more fresh produce. S Farmers markets in Philadelphia (food bucket) that accept food stamps making it easier for access at small markets. S New York (health Bucket) provide 2$ rebate for every 5$ spent in food stamps (Similar programs: Philadelphia, Boston and across Michigan
    • 20. Demographic Changes Exploring the Changing face of Texas and Building Strong Minority Coalitions S
    • 21. Demographic Shifts S Hispanics/Latinos represent the largest minority group in the United States S Expected to rise to 30.2% by 2050 S Aging white population vs. young growing Hispanic/Latino Population and relatively steady Black population
    • 22. FUTURE OF EDUCATION S Texas makes up the 2nd biggest primary and secondary school enrollment in the U.S (9% of the U.S total) S Projected growth of 900,000 students between 2010 and 2040 S Hispanic growth from 2010 to 2040=60.9%, Black Decline 9.5%, White Decline 25.9% S 55.5% of students in 2006-2007 considered economically disadvantaged S Alicia R Chacon International school in El Paso, TX focus on the dual language and two-way dual language (for English speakers to learn Spanish) model providing equal emphasis between Spanish and English language learning.
    • 23. Aging Populations & Healthcare Number of persons (1,000s) Texas Population Projections by Age 25,000 20,000 Age 0-19 years #REF ! 20-39 years #REF ! 40-59 #REF years ! 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2000 2005 2010 2012 2015 2020 2025 2030 Incidents of substance abuse, suic ide, and mental diseases increase as the population age increases
    • 24. Voting S Case of Compton California S S S S S Growing Latinos population transformed the decade old Black City Council Shift in the balance of needs of each population Continued challenge of language barriers among English and Spanish Speakers Racism among minorities - Looking at Texas S S Hispanic populations have surpassed Blacks in Houston and San Antonio The continued presence of racial polarization in voting means Blacks need to develop strong coalition in order to maintain a stake in the political spectrum that will soon be dominated by Hispanics/Latinos
    • 25. Coalition Building Myths & Discrimination as adversaries to progress S
    • 26. PEW INSTITUTE SURVEY: Do Blacks and Hispanics Get Along? Yes, but Not Always, and Not about Everything S “Nearly half of all blacks also say immigrants reduce job opportunities for blacks while fewer than four-in-10 Hispanics agree.” S 63% of Hispanics (representing those with some college education indicate that Blacks and Latinos get along well) S 73% of Blacks with some college education indicate that Blacks/Hispanics get along well S Older persons and persons with higher income in both groups view that blacks/Latinos get along S Counties where African Americans are the dominant group indicate that Blacks/Latinos have better relationships (72% of blacks hold this believe) (65% of Hispanics hold this belief)
    • 27. Blacks Believe Discrimination Widespread, Hispanic, Whites Less Convinced % that say blacks commonly face discrimination (Blacks) In none of the areas 19% At least one 81% All four areas 26% Three or more areas 50% Two or more 68% 65% of Blacks believe experience of discrimination in home buying FOUR AREAS: applying for a job, buying a house or renting an apartment, applying to college, shopping or dining out. Source: Pew Institute Do Blacks and Hispanics Get Along? Yes, but Not Always, and Not about
    • 28. Blacks Believe Discrimination Widespread, Hispanic, Whites Less Convinced % that say blacks commonly face discrimination (Hispanics) All four areas 11% In none of the areas 45% At least one 55% Three or more areas 23% Two or more 34% 36% of Hispanics believe they experience discrimination in home buying FOUR AREAS: applying for a job, buying a house or renting an apartment, applying to college, shopping or dining out.
    • 29. PEW INSTITUTE SURVEY: Do Blacks and Hispanics Get Along? Yes, but Not Always, and Not about Everything S When counties are of “low density”, 50% of Hispanics and 57% of Blacks believe the groups get along. S In counties with high concentration of Hispanics, approximately 67% of Blacks and 60% of Hispanics believe the groups get along S Blacks still point out discrimination in housing and employment (67% of Blacks “almost always” experience discrimination in jobs S Hispanics tend to believe that discrimination in the areas are less frequent (Only 36% of Hispanics “almost always” experience discrimination in applying for jobs)
    • 30. Income Disparities in the U.S S Household Income of Whites is 20 times that of Blacks and 18 times that of Hispanic households S “market bubble in 2006 and the recession that followed from late 2007 to mid-2009 took a far greater toll on the wealth of minorities than whites” S 2009 Figures (wealth= assets-debt) African American households$5,677 and Hispanic Households $6,325, White Households $113,149 S 2005 Figures for zero or negative @29% for Blacks, 23% Hispanics, 11% for whites S 2009 figures for zero or negative net worth= Blacks 35% and Hispanics 31% Kochhar, R., Fry, R., and Taylor, P. (2011). Wealth Gaps Rise to Record Highs Between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/07/26/wealth-gaps-rise-to-record-highsbetween-whites-blacks-hispanics/
    • 31. Income Disparities in the U.S S From 2005 to 2009 Hispanic net worth drop from $18,359 to %6,325 S Approximately 2/3 of net worth comes from home equity ( living in areas most adversely impacted by downturn S From 2005 to 2009 Black household net worth dropped from $12,124 to $5,677 (53% drop) . 59% of network comes from home equity…also took on more unsecured debt S 2009 24% of Black and 24% of Hispanics had only a car as assets compared with 6% of whites
    • 32. Building Strength through Empathy S Why does it matter if we get along? S The data suggests that the perception of discrimination is different for both groups yet there is some share in each areas that impacts the social and economic mobility valued by both groups. S There still exists a huge gap in wealth equality for the two groups in comparison with Whites. S In times of economic downturn, the fight for jobs can encourage media sensationalism that Latinos/Hispanics are “taking our jobs” yet the data suggests the diff. in wealth is meager S Divisive rhetoric is counter-productive to coalition building and it will cripple local efforts for grassroots efforts
    • 33. Embracing the Benefits of Multiculturalism in Texas S Blacks and Latinos have some shared experiences as it pertains to discrimination in housing and jobs though strides for each group has occurred and changed at different intervals S The post-Civil Rights Era did not erase discriminatory practices but it did provide safeguards that have helped all minorities (i.e. Fairer Housing Practices, College Admission etc… S Unfair environmental practices impact minorities more than any other group. Blacks/Latinos need to develop strong coalitions to combat dangerous environmental practices threatening their communities S Blacks/Latinos dominate the prison system and shared advocacy could create a much stronger voice for minorities in Texas both socially, politically, and economically
    • 34. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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