View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
White PaperLED Lighting Retrofit Action Services Group
White Paper 2010 Converting traditional lighting to high efficiency LED in area applications Action Services Group - Aston, PAAuthorTe d S t o u c hPresident / CEO800.email@example.com w w. a c t i o n s e r v i c e s g r o u p . c o mCompanyAction Services Group has over 20 yrs of experience in interior and exterior lightingprograms, services, maintenance, installation, energy impact evaluations, and returnon investments analysis.
White Paper:TFM 2.12.10Executive SummaryProblem: Lighting in commercial buildings account for over 70% of the overall lighting elec-tricity used in the United States. Rising energy and maintenance costs are hurting profits ofcommercial and industrial facilities and their carbon emissions must be dramaticallyreduced to halt global warming issues.Background: Increasing energy efficiency in lighting systems will impact reducing the overallenvironmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and CO2 emissions. The reducutionof greenhouse gas emissions and an energy-efficiency focus will be crucial to businesses inthe United States if the Federal Climate Change Waxman-Markey Bill passes, as businesseswill be taxed on greenhouse gas emissions.Solution: LED lighting offers significant energy, maintenance and recycling savings. Whenretrofitting with LEDs, with good lighting design and LED product selection, energy con-sumption in most commercial and industrial facilities will be cut 50-80% while maintainingimproving lighting quality. Three factors are accelerating for the use of large scale deploy-ment of LED products for general area lighting applications: 1) Retrofitting an existing lighting system with quality LEDs will make the facility more energy efficient and yield costs. LEDs have the best return on investment (ROI) of any energy-efficient technology. 2) The aesthetic quality of a facility’s environment will be enhanced and productivity increased without sacrificing the lighting system performance. 3) Federal and state governments are making laws regarding lighting, and associations are taking action towards quality products. All to make the United States more energy efficient and responsible. With support and encouragement through grants, and departments such as the DOE, an LED lighting system becomes even more advanced and cost effective. LED Lighting Retrofits 1
White Paper:TFM 2.12.10Introduction Converting to LED LightingLight-Emitting-Diodes are solid-state semicon- Retrofitting conventional lighting technologiesductor devices that convert an electrical LED light fixtures commonly replace:current through the diode, the recombination T-12, T-8, & T-5 Fluorescentof positive and negative charges within the Incandescentdifferent compositions results in the emission High Intensity Discharge (HID)of light. Mercury Vapor Metal HalideLEDs have a lifetime that can last from 30,000 High & Low Pressure Sodiumhours to 100,000 hours (depending on themanufacturer), almost 10 times longer than LED luminaries use different optics than HIDfluorescent lighting, and 15 times longer than lighting. Each LED diode is, in effect, a directHID lighting. They are durable, reliable and point of light. Effective luminaire engineeringhave safe operations due to low voltage secu- utilizes the directional characteristics of LEDrity and no ultra violet or other harmful emis- light emission, in turn decreasing opticalsions. They’re instantaneous, flicker-free and losses while increasing luminaire efficacy andstart in temperatures ranging from -20°c to providing more uniform light distribution70°c depending on the fixture. LEDs have none across a targeted area.of the fragile glass coverings or filaments,characteristics of conventional lamps that can LEDs are energy efficient and environmentallyfail during shipment or installation. LEDs can friendly. They operate with 50-80% less ofwithstand physical shocks that would typically energy usage compared to standard HID light-shatter conventional lamps. ing and have up to 80% in energy savings. Almost all of the energy in an LED radiatesLamps are the removable and replaceable within the visible spectrum. By contrast,portion of a luminaires that convert electrical fluorescent and HID lamps are dischargeenergy to both visible and non-visible electro- sources which have a higher efficiency but stillmagnetic energy. Common characteristics used have loss mechanisms in the electrodes. LEDsto evaluate lamp quality include efficiency have no hazardous materials such as lead andmeasured in lumens per watt, typical lamp life mercury and require no special disposal proce-measured in hours and color rendering index dures.(CRI) on a scale of 0 to 100. Cost of replace-ment lamps are also an important factor in Best applications for LEDsdesign. There are a number of measures that Current LED technology enables qualitycan be implemented in a facility that will fixtures to be suitable for exterior and interiorupgrade lighting quality and improve energy area lighting applications. These applicationsefficiency and costs related to the overall include but are not limited to:lighting system. Exterior Parking lots Parking garages Canopy lighting Pathway lighting Street lighting Perimeter lighting LED Lighting Retrofits 2
White Paper:TFM 2.12.10Interior quantitative measure of light to reproduce Warehouses colors of objects in comparison with ideal or Manufacturing plants natural light sources. The light emitted by Gymnasiums LEDs provides an accurate rendering of the Sporting arenas object’s natural color. LED lights have been Office lighting designed to produce a cool, white, light that range from 85 to 90 (on a scale of 100) on theHowever, with the growing availability of color rendering index (CRI). Compared tosolid-state lighting technologies, lighting conventional HID lighting, there is a 20%controls, LED lighting systems, and improve- improvement in an observer’s ability to discernments on traditional sources, the search for color difference in objects. The most efficientlighting solutions and the best LED products white LEDs at this time emit light betweenfor facilities are growing more complex and 4500K to 6500K correlated color temperaturesmust be researched for adequate product (CCT). This renders the light from white toselection. bluish-white in appearance. Superior lighting quality LEDs light up very quickly and are ideal for use in applications that are subject to frequent on-off cycling. Comparing LEDs to other light- ing technologies, fluorescent lamps tend to burn out more quickly when cycled frequently, where HID lamps require a long time before restarting. LEDs can very easily be dimmed either by pulse-width modulation or by lower- ing the forward current. In contrast to mostLEDs - A Better Light Source light sources, LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of infrared (IR) that can causeLEDs create a better environment damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. WastedLighting is a critical component of energy use, energy is dispersed as heat through the base ofespecially in large commercial and industrial the LED.buildings. High-efficiency lighting systemsreduce glare, which helps to reduce eyestrain,boosting oc¬cupant productivity. Electronicballasts do not flicker or hum like magneticballasts, improving the quality of the facility’senvironment. Light levels must be maintainedat certain levels for particular surface areas. (Metal Halide Lamps-Before Retrofit) (LEDs - After Retrofit)For example, the number of foot-candles atthe desktop level for proper work is different ICE LINE, a hockey rink located in southeasternfrom the number of foot-candles needed at the PA, used 400 watt Metal Halide lightingfloor level a building or exterior area. fixtures over their ice arena, which uses 458 watts of energy. Some ice rinks are retrofittingLED fixtures deliver better light levels over their Metal Halides to T5 236-watt lighting,buttypical HID lighting fixtures. LEDs have a high the installed LED lights that reduces that to 91CRI (Color Rendering Index), which is the watts, providing a more efficient solution. LED Lighting Retrofits 3
White Paper:TFM 2.12.10Also, the type of lights utilized is very impor- Emission Reductions Are:tant because some lights render color more Equivalent to saving 15,610 treeseffectively than others, and operations often annuallyrequire a color rendering index (CRI) of close Or approximately 1,300 trees perto 100 (CRI of daylight). The LEDs are more monthenergy efficient, have no anticipated mainte-nance costs for 10 years, and have a longer LED lighting also leads to decreased demandlife expectancy of 20 years. They are brighter, on heating, ventilating and air condition¬ingwhiter lights compared to the prior Metal (HVAC) systems. For commercial facilities,Halide lamps with less lumen depreciation. lighting is the largest source of waste heat,The lighting retrofit will immensely reduce also called heat gain. For every 3 watts ofenergy consumption and heat output which lighting load reduction, the air conditioningdecreases HVAC costs. load is reduced by 1 watt. Lighting also affects the power quality of a building’s electricalEnergy consumption & cost savings distribution system. Poor power quality is aThe emergence of efficient LED devices signals concern because it wastes energy, reducesa shift in lighting technology. The goal of electrical capacity and can harm equipmentthese efforts is to save energy and gain market and the electrical distribution system. Upgrad-share in the emerging SSL industry. LEDs con- ing with LED lighting systems can free uptain no mercury, lead or hazardous materials. valuable electrical capacity.The reduction in energy consumption alsodecreases the carbon emissions associated LED lighting retrofits have the best return onwith powering the existing conventional light- investment (ROI) of any energy-efficient tech-ing. This environmental benefit eliminates any nology. Once the payback is realized, thecosts associated with proper disposal at the savings will continue, creating a sound invest-end of its useful life. ment in the future. It must be understood, too, that energy savings should be monitoredLEDs are an environmentally friendly option on a consumption level, not a dollar level.for many lighting needs. A single kWh of elec- Energy costs fluctuate; the amount of energytricity will generate 1.34 lbs (0.6 kg) of CO2 saved is the true telling measure. Below is aemissions. Assuming the average light bulb is ROI chart for Appalachian Lighting System’son for 10 hours a day, a single 40 watt high bay LED lighting fixtures.incan¬descent bulb will generate 196 lbs (89kg) of CO2 every year. The electricity needed High Bay & Low Bay Fixtures - 50 Fixture Qtyto operate a 13 watt LED equivalent will resultin the emission of 63 lbs (29 kg) of CO2 over HID LEDthe same time span. Year 1 $16,604 $1,993 $14,611 Year 3 $52,343 $6,283 $46,061 Annual Emission Reductions Year 5 $91,746 $11,012 $80,734 Pollution Type Reduction Year 7 $135,187 $16,226 $118,961 Greenhouse Gases 637,595 pounds Year 10 $208,839 $25,006 $183,773 Nitrogen Oxides 934 pounds Year 15 $358,284 $50,474 $307,809 Sulfur Dioxide 2,591 pounds Year 20 $549,017 $82,902 $466,115 $446,115 Mercury 4,386 milligramsCalculated with the online “Emissions Reduction Calculator”.Numbers based on LED Retrofit using 400 (250w) Street Light LEDs. LED Lighting Retrofits 4
White Paper:TFM 2.12.10 lighting, $0.60 per square foot for HVAC andGovernment is Leading the Way $0.60 per square foot for the building enve- lope. Building envelope investments canThe emergence of efficient LED devices signals include roofs, walls, windows, doors, floorsa shift in lighting technology. The goal of and foundations. To achieve the maximumthese efforts is to save energy and gain market deduction for lighting, $0.60 per square foot,share in the emerging SSL industry. The LED is a 40 percent reduction from ASHRAE 90.1-2001an environmentally friendly option for many is required. A $0.30 per square foot ($0.03 perlighting needs. square meter) savings can be achieved for lighting when the 25 percent reduction ofFuture national energy law changes ASHRAE 90.1-2001 is met.On June 30, 2009, US President Barack Obamapassed legislation that called for stricter Local utility incentivesenergy-efficient lighting standards. Solid state Depending on your location, there is a goodlighting was a part of this initiative. Products chance your local utility provider has a rebatemade in the United States or imported for use program set up for energy-efficient upgrades.in the United States are required to meet new The rebate could be per-fixture, per-kW savedenergy parameters starting in 2012. According or per-sensor; the possibilities vary with everyto the United States Department of Energy provider. The key is to know whats available.(DOE), the changes in lamps and lighting Any incentives you can help your customerequipment would prevent the emission of attain will do at least two things: shorten theabout 594 million tons of carbon dioxide all-important payback period and cement yourbetween 2012 and 2042. This is roughly equiva- status as a strong energy partner with yourlent to removing 166 million cars from the customer.road for a year. A helpful resource for finding informationEPAct 2005 law updates about energy-related financial incentives isAlso, the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) 2005 con- DSIRE: Database of State Incentives for Renew-tains a number of provisions that directly able & Efficiency, www.dsireusa.org. DSIRE is aaffect lighting. These include new lighting comprehensive source of information on state,products subject to federal efficiency stan- local, utility and federal incentives and poli-dards, a new tax deduction provision for cies that promote renewable energy andenergy-efficient lighting in commer¬cial build- energy efficiency. DSIRE is an ongoing projectings, the establishment of a solid state light- of the North Carolina Solar Center and theing program at the DOE and promotion of the Interstate Renewable Energy Council funded byAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating and the United States Department of Energy.Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and Inter-national Energy Conservation Code (IECC) Department of Energy’s programs and testingstandards. The US Department of Energy developed the “Solid-State Lighting Quality Advocates” pro-Tax incentives available under EPAct 2005 gram. The SSL Quality Advocates programpro¬vide a tax deduction of up to $1.80 (US showcases LED luminaire manufacturers whodollars) per square foot ($19.40 per square commit to testing products and reportingmeter) for building investments that achieve performance results according to industryspecified energy cost reductions beyond standards. DOE’s Lighting Facts program isASHRAE 90.1-2001.Of the $1.80 per square factually derived and audited from IESNAfoot, $0.60 per square foot can be used for LM-79 test reports, from a DOE certified test lab. LED Lighting Retrofits 5
White Paper:TFM 2.12.10The new “Lighting Facts” performance label Conclusionwas created to give a quick summary of perfor- Well-designed LED luminaires will provide themance data – such as light output and color. required surface luminance while consumingAccurate and consistent reporting of product less energy and improving lighting quality andperformance is a foundation for product qual- uniformity. LED luminaries also have signifi-ity and will increase consumer satisfaction and cantly longer rated life (30,000 -100,000,accelerate market adoption. Quality LED compared to 15,000 to 35,000 hours of conven-products where the manufacturer submitted tional HID lighting) while also drasticallytheir fixtures into the program, will have the decreasing maintenance costs. LED environ-current IESNA LM-80 test reports available. mental benefits include: no mercury content, lead, or other known hazardous materials that are often associated with conventional outdoor area lighting; while using less power to distribute more light. LED lighting retrofits will save commercial and industrial facilities on operating, maintenance and energy costs. To fully realize the cost savings, energy efficiency, and low mainte- nance LEDs offer, it is important to convert to LED with the most advanced and capable technology on the market. With performance, lifetime, cost, safety, and theft-deterrence advantages, LED lighting is the best choice when retrofitting with energy efficient tech- nology. Depending upon the technology being replaced, potential energy savings, rebates, and incentives, a lighting retrofit could be a low-cost implementation. Lighting Fact Label is for LED Highbay fixture manufactured by Appalachian Lighting SystemsWith emerging resources and organizationsdefining LED lighting standards, verifying thequality of LED products is essential. Evaluatingthe economic payback, based on wattage,energy use, maintenance savings, operatinghours and operating costs for the applicationwill justify the specifications of LED technol-ogy. LED Lighting Retrofits 6
White Paper:TFM 2.12.10 ReferencesAppalachian Lighting Systems (2010).www.appalachianlightingsystems.comDark Sky Society (2009).www.darkskysociety.org/handouts/LightingPlanGuidelines.pdfLighting Facts (2010). Products with the Lighting Facts Label.www.lightingfacts.comUnited States Department of Energy EERE (2009). Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.www.eere.energy.gov ResourcesENERGY STARwww.energystar.govNational Lighting Bureauwww.nlb.orgSolid-State Lightingwww1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/sslUnited States Department of Energywww.energy.govUnited States Environmental Protection Agencywww.epa.govUtility Rebateswww.dsireusa.orgAbout Action Services GroupAction Services Group provides interior and exterior lighting services, maintenance, installation,energy impact evaluations, return on investment analysis and many other comprehensive turnkeycapabilities. We offer numerous lighting programs and LED opportunities to cost effectively manageyour facility’s lighting, resulting in reduction of energy related costs. LED Lighting Retrofits 7