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Praxis Proposal for Walden 8030 Dr. Mitch Olson

Praxis Proposal for Walden 8030 Dr. Mitch Olson

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  • Hook:  Identifies your connection to the interest area--perhaps a student or illustration that defines or characterizes the problem.  An example might be a short bio on a particular student that defines your interest in the topic area.
  • Today’s learner interacts with a whole variety of electronic and social networking tools. We need to help bring the gap between the tools they are accessing outside of school, and those they interact with inside of school.
  • Today’s learner interacts with a whole variety of electronic and social networking tools. We need to help bring the gap between the tools they are accessing outside of school, and those they interact with inside of school. When the teaching methods used and the assessment tasks are not aligned to the learning activities assumed in the intended outcomes, the learner fails to find relevance in what is being taught and measured. The theory of constructive alignment (Biggs 1999; 2003) whereby the mode of literacy instruction is aligned with literacy assessment may provide a solution to this problem.
  • Purpose Research Questions Theoretical Frameworks & Empirical Research Diagram of Proposed Inquiry Rationale for Design Proposed Significance References
  • Particular to the proposed reading test mode investigation, pencil-based reading assessments are still predominantly used to assess the literacy achievement of learners who frequently use technology and new literacies at home and at school (Ibid).
  • Research indicates an overwhelming trend to use computer-based testing (CBT) to measure achievement (Wang, S., Jiao, H., Young, M., Brooks, T., & Olson, J., 2008). While the advantages over traditional pencil-based tests are many, researchers question the equivalency and inter-changeability of results between these two test modes. This paper proposes an investigation of the relationship between pencil-paper and computer-based tests, and student reading achievement in classrooms where technology is integral to literacy teaching and learning. Constructivist theories that support computer-based instruction and assessment are discussed and test mode research from the past five years is critically analyzed. This paper concludes with implications of this review on the proposed reading test mode study. Before changing reading assessments from pencil-paper to computer-based testing formats in Ontario, it is not only important to understand the learning theories that support computer-based instruction; comprehending “the impact of different test administration modes on reading scores” (Wang et al., 2008, p. 10) is imperative.
  • Research indicates an overwhelming trend to use computer-based testing (CBT) to measure achievement (Wang, S., Jiao, H., Young, M., Brooks, T., & Olson, J., 2008). While the advantages over traditional pencil-based tests are many, researchers question the equivalency and inter-changeability of results between these two test modes. This paper proposes an investigation of the relationship between pencil-paper and computer-based tests, and student reading achievement in classrooms where technology is integral to literacy teaching and learning. Constructivist theories that support computer-based instruction and assessment are discussed and test mode research from the past five years is critically analyzed. This paper concludes with implications of this review on the proposed reading test mode study. Before changing reading assessments from pencil-paper to computer-based testing formats in Ontario, it is not only important to understand the learning theories that support computer-based instruction; comprehending “the impact of different test administration modes on reading scores” (Wang et al., 2008, p. 10) is imperative.
  • Research indicates an overwhelming trend to use computer-based testing (CBT) to measure achievement (Wang, S., Jiao, H., Young, M., Brooks, T., & Olson, J., 2008). While the advantages over traditional pencil-based tests are many, researchers question the equivalency and inter-changeability of results between these two test modes. This paper proposes an investigation of the relationship between pencil-paper and computer-based tests, and student reading achievement in classrooms where technology is integral to literacy teaching and learning. Constructivist theories that support computer-based instruction and assessment are discussed and test mode research from the past five years is critically analyzed. This paper concludes with implications of this review on the proposed reading test mode study. Before changing reading assessments from pencil-paper to computer-based testing formats in Ontario, it is not only important to understand the learning theories that support computer-based instruction; comprehending “the impact of different test administration modes on reading scores” (Wang et al., 2008, p. 10) is imperative.
  • 3 part mixed methods sequential exploratory design involving a total of 30 students randomly selected from 2 grade six classrooms in YRDSB: classroom A is part of a technology demonstration classroom program called Literacy@School and is therefore outfitted with additional hardware and software to support teaching and learning. Teacher A also attends professional development to learn and share effective technology integration strategies. Classroom B and teacher B do not have access to additional hardware, training or technology support. Phase 1: Qualitative investigation (phase one), students will complete an online survey to gauge their prior experience using computers at home and at school, as well as their attitudes to on and off computer literacy learning. The teacher participants will complete a similar online survey to identify specific new digital literacies, strategies and skills that they are, or are not employing during literacy instruction. Phase Two: Quantitative, students will complete three reading tests of varying modes over a six week period. Achievement results will be shared with students between test modes. Test #1 will be done on the computer; reading assessment #2 will be administered using pencil-paper; and students will then choose and complete a third reading assessment using the test mode of their choice. Students will be stratified according to gender, reading achievement, and test mode preference. Phase Three: Qualitative, a representative sub-sample of respondents from all classrooms will participate in semi-structured face-to-face interviews regarding their test-mode preference and overall experience. Discussions will be audio recorded and transcribed for data analysis, and the researcher will make field notes. This sequential explanatory design will allow for priority to be placed on the students’ reading test mode data gathered from the three separate reading assessments in phase two.
  • Q1. What prior experience with technology use at home and at school, and attitudes about technology do students possess? (Qualitative) Q2. Is there a difference in the reading achievement results on pencil-paper and computer-based reading tests of grade six males and females with or without regular access to technology at home and at school? (Quantitative) Q3. How does aligning the mode of literacy instruction and the mode of literacy assessment impact student achievement? (Both)
  • Text in today’s world is shifting from the printed page to electronic formats. Therefore, today’s learner interprets meaning from a variety of media including the Internet. The new literacies of the Internet and other ICTs include the skills, strategies, and dispositions necessary to successfully use and adapt to the rapidly changing information and communication technologies and contexts that continuously emerge in our world and influence all areas of our personal and professional lives. These new literacies allow us to use the Internet and other ICT to identify important questions, locate information, critically evaluate the usefulness of that information, synthesize information to answer those questions, and then communicate the answers to others. (page 1).
  • Emerging technologies and the Internet are drastically changing the way students receive and produce information everyday. New literacies demand a change in the way we teach and assess literacy (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004). CLICK-read definition In an interview with Mokhtari, Kymes, and Edwards (2008), the Connecticut new literacies team further emphasize the importance of figuring out how to assess the new literacies (p. 355).
  • This is the new learning environment that promotes and establishes the 21 st century literacies, and we have many tools already available to assist us to support a 21 st century approach to learning. Let’s use them to promote positive use and help student prepare for the world of work, post secondary education and life long learning? And in doing so we ensure our students will demonstrate positive use of ICT and they will be able to find, locate, synthesize, evaluate and present information and ideas, and they will be the literate graduates of the 21 st century.
  • Fortunately, CA might help: Therefore, quality literacy learning in today’s elementary classrooms in Ontario should align the revised Language curriculum expectations (what?) with their instruction (how?) and assessment strategies (how well?). In relation to the proposed investigation, literacy teachers who use new literacies and ICT strategies to instruct reading, should use new literacies and ICT to assess reading
  • As cited in Becta’s report (2002), when teachers use ICT in their classrooms, a student’s commitment to learning increases and learners are very eager to work using ICT on their own time, before and after school. Furthermore, when students use ICT in their learning they seem to work more independently during regularly timetabled sessions and take more responsibility for their own learning (Harris & Kington, 2002). While some report that ICT embedded instruction and online knowledge building forums improve students’ higher order thinking (Kanuka, 2005) and problem solving skills, meta-cognition, and conceptual understandings (Chan & van Aalst, 2004), unanswered questions remain “about the impact of technology in the long and short term on students’ learning, and how it has affected simple and complex learning tasks” (Cox & Marshall, 2007, p. 59). Questions surrounding literacy teaching and learning, “assessment, curriculum, and teacher education, and how these are impacted by present and emerging technologies, must be addressed if we are to shape theories and pedagogies of literacy that dynamically respond to social and technological change” (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro & Cammack, 2004, p.1).
  • Describe YRDSB context
  • To bridge the gap between outside and inside literacies, the Ontario Ministry of Education revised its 1-8 Language curriculum (2006) to include a fourth strand called Media Literacy . Now in its fourth year of implementation however , the new literacies curriculum is still not aligned with new approaches to literacy assessment.
  • Describe rationale for selecting my sample
  • When educators better understand the way learners are reading, the type of reading will be valued, and learners might perceive themselves more as readers. This has the ability to impact social change because the needs of learners will be better met, and students will be better prepared for the emerging world of work that lies ahead for them. Who are the stakeholders and main players? What will its importance be to students, families, instructors, administrators, and community partners? How will your work impact a larger context?
  • Provide a conclusion that has an application for others in your audience: Provide links to websites that will help the audience be informed or equipped Highlight important articles they should know about or that inform them about your topic Include suggestions for navigating your problem better
  • Provide a conclusion that has an application for others in your audience: Provide links to websites that will help the audience be informed or equipped Highlight important articles they should know about or that inform them about your topic Include suggestions for navigating your problem better

Praxis proposal ppt t sterling slideshare Presentation Transcript

  • 1. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MODE OF READING ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTION, AND READING ACHIEVEMENT OF GRADE SIX STUDENTS Tania Sterling Walden University EDUC 8030-10 Dr. Mitchell Olson Does Alignment Matter? Group 2 February 26, 2010
  • 2. 21 st Century Learners
    • How is today’s learner different than yesterday’s learner?
    Courtesy of Panasonic, 2005 http://www.panasonic.com/
  • 3.  
  • 4. What are the implications for continuing the use of pencil-paper assessments?
  • 5. Presentation Overview
    • The Problem
    • Purpose
    • Research Questions
    • Theoretical Frameworks & Research
    • Diagram of Proposed Inquiry
    • Rationale
    • Proposed Significance
    • References
  • 6. Graphic Organizer
    • An electronic graphic organizer has been uploaded to DOC SHARING to guide your thinking during my presentation
  • 7. So, what’s the problem?
    • Despite the benefits of teaching and learning using emerging technologies, the mode of literacy assessment is not keeping pace with the mode of literacy instruction in Ontario schools.
    • (Taylor, 2006; Howell, 2008).
    Problem
  • 8. The Problem
    • Pencil-based reading assessments are still predominantly used to assess the literacy achievement of learners who frequently use technology and new literacies at home and at school
    Problem
  • 9. The Problem
    • Learners find colourful, dynamic, multi- media virtual world testing environments that pose performance-based assessments a more accurate means of measuring mastery of knowledge or skills
    • (Howell, 2003)
    Problem
  • 10. The Problem
    • To accurately gauge the impact of computer-based assessment and instruction, especially at the K-8 level, measurement methods need to be more closely related to the learning activities and processes promoted by the use of ICTs.
    • (Trucano, 2005).
    Problem
  • 11. Purpose
    • Uncover students’ prior experience and attitudes regarding technology use at home and at school;
    • Investigate the relationship between the mode of reading instruction and assessment, and achievement of grade six males and females, and
    • Identify specific ways that teachers are integrating ICT into the literacy teaching and learning.
    Purpose
  • 12. Research Questions blog.patientslikeme.com/2008/10/ Q1. What prior experience with technology use at home and at school, and attitudes about technology do students possess? (Qualitative) Q2. Is there a difference in the reading achievement results on pencil-paper and computer-based reading tests of grade six males and females with or without regular access to technology at home and at school? (Quantitative) Q3. How does aligning the mode of literacy instruction and the mode of literacy assessment impact student achievement? (Both)
  • 13. Hypotheses
    • Null: There is no significant difference in the reading achievement results on pencil-paper and computer-based reading tests of grade six males and females in classrooms.
    • Alternative: There is a significant difference in the reading achievement results on pencil-paper and computer-based reading tests of grade six students in classrooms.
    Research Questions
  • 14. 2 Theoretical Frameworks
    • New Literacies
    • (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004)
    • Constructive Alignment
    • (Biggs, 1999; 2003).
    Theoretical Frameworks
  • 15.
    • Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, and Cammack (2004) have developed a theory called
    • to help educators rethink their definition of literate activities and literate practices, which characterize effective modern-day reading comprehension.
    new literacies Theoretical Framework #1
  • 16. New Literacies Defined Theoretical Framework #1 http://www.edutopia.org/images/graphics/fea_programming.jpg The new literacies of the Internet and other ICTs include the skills, strategies, and dispositions necessary to successfully use and adapt to the rapidly changing information and communication technologies and contexts that continuously emerge in our world and influence all areas of our personal and professional lives. These new literacies allow us to use the Internet and other ICT to identify important questions, locate information, critically evaluate the usefulness of that information, synthesize information to answer those questions, and then communicate the answers to others. (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, and Cammack, 2004, p.1).
  • 17. Engaging Learning Environments
    • Include:
    • Student-centred learning
    • Multi-sensory stimulation
    • Multi-path progression
    • Multimedia
    • Collaborative work
    • Information exchange
    • Active/participatory/inquiry-based learning
    • Critical thinking and informed decision making
    • Proactive/planned action
    • Authentic, real-world context
  • 18. Constructive Alignment
    • The components in the teaching system, especially the teaching methods used and the assessment tasks , are aligned to the learning activities assumed in the intended outcomes. The learner is in a sense ‘trapped’, and finds it difficult to escape without learning what is intended should be learned.
    • (Biggs, 2003, p. 1).
    Theoretical Framework #2
  • 19. 4 Steps to CA
    • Defining learning outcomes or objectives;
    • Choosing teaching strategies and learning activities likely to lead to attaining the objectives;
    • Assessing students’ learning outcomes to see how well they match what was intended; and,
    • Arriving at a final grade (Biggs, 2003, p. 3).
    Theoretical Framework #2
  • 20. Research Diagram Adapted from Creswell (2003, p. 213) Research Diagram
  • 21. 3 rd largest district in Ontario, Canada More than 112,000 pupils,10,000+ staff 92 schools Research Context Theoretical Framework #2 Rationale for Research Design
  • 22. The role of policy Rationale for Research Design
  • 23. Population
    • 2 grade 6 technology demonstration classroom teachers
    • 60 of their grade 6 students
    Rationale for Research Design
  • 24. Rationale for Research Design
    • The mixed methods sequential exploratory model lends itself to exploring phenomenon or emergent theories (Creswell, 2003, p. 215)
    • A third phase has been added to expand on the qualitative findings around three areas:
      • students’ attitudes and prior experience using computers at home and at school;
      • the ICT-embedded assessment and instruction that is or is not taking place in the classroom;
      • and students’ motivation for selecting the third test mode.
    Rationale for Research Design
  • 25.
    • As cited in the National Council of Teachers of English (2009) policy research brief on adolescent literacy, offering student choice with connections to “real life” literacy helps them stay engaged in their learning (Guthrie & Humenick, 2004).
    • Increased engagement can lead to improve achievement (Ibid). Having quantitative reading test mode data to substantiate these qualitative results will also strengthen the investigation overall (Creswell, 2003, p. 216).
    Rationale for Research Design
  • 26. Proposed Significance of the Intended Study
    • Raise awareness among educational leaders of the potential impact of aligning computer-based assessment with instruction;
    • Uncover students’ and teachers’ experience and attitudes regarding ICT;
    • Inform the design of instructional technology professional learning programs at the school and district level.
    Proposed Significance
  • 27. Interested in finding out more…? Visit my wiki at http://learning- leadingbydesign.wikispaces.com / NEW
  • 28. References
    • Biggs, J. (1999). Teaching for quality learning at university . Buckingham, UK: SRHE and Open University Press.
    • Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning teaching and assessment to curriculum objectives. Buckingham, UK: Learning and Teaching Support Network, Generic Centre.
    • Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    • Espinosa, L., Laffey, J., Whittaker, T., & Yanyan, S. (2006). Technology in the Home and the Achievement of Young Children: Findings From the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Early Education & Development, 17(3 ), 421-441. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database.
    • Guthrie, J. T. & Humenick, N. M. (2004) Motivating students to read: Evidence for classroom practices that increase reading motivation and achievement. In. P. McCardle & V. Chhabra. (Eds.) The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 329-354). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.
  • 29. References (cont’d)
    • Hall, G. E., & Hord, S. M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the process. New York: State University of New York Press.
    • Hall, G. E., & Hord, S. M. (2006). Implementing change: Patterns, principles, and potholes. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    • Howell, S. (2003). E-Learning and paper testing: Why the gap? Educause Quarterly, 26 (4), 8-10.
    • Hord, S., Rutherford, W., Huling-Austin, L., & Hall, G. (1987). Taking charge of change . Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    • Lenters, K. (2006).Resistance, struggle, and the adolescent reader. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 50 (2), 136-142.
  • 30. References (cont’d)
    • Leu, D. J., Jr., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J., & Cammack, D. (2004). Toward a theory of new literacies emerging from the Internet and other information and communication technologies. [Electronic version]. Reading Online, 7(5). ,Available: http://www.readingonline.org/newliteracies/lit_index.asp?HREF=/newliteracies/leu
    • Loucks-Horsley, S. and Stiegelbauer, S. 1991. "Using knowledge of change to guide staff development," in A. Lieberman and L. Miller (Eds.) Staff development for education in the 90s: New demands, new realities, new perspectives. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    • Mokhtari, K., Kymes, A., & Edwards, P. (2008). Assessing the new literacies of online reading comprehension: An informative interview with W. Ian O'Byrne, Lisa Zawilinski, J. Greg McVerry, and Donald J. Leu at the University of Connecticut. Reading Teacher, 62 (4), 354-357. Retrieved from ERIC database.
    • National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE). (2007). Adolescent literacy: A policy research brief. Urbana, IL: NCTE. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/PolicyResearch/AdolLitResearchBrief.pdf
  • 31. References (cont’d)
    • Silvernail, D. L., & Gritter, A. K. (2007, October). Research brief: Maine's middle school laptop program: Creating better writers. Retrieved February 16, 2010, from http://www.usm.maine.edu/cepare/Impact_on_Student_Writing_Brief.pdf
    • Slavin, R., Cheung, A., Groff, C., & Lake, C. (2008). Effective Reading Programs for Middle and High Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 43 (3), 290-322. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database.
    • Taylor, A. R. (2006). A future in the process of arrival: Using computer technologies for the assessment of student learning. 22 pp.1-114.: SAEE. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.tasainstitute.com/029.pdf
    • Vogel, J., Vogel, D., Cannon-Bowers, J., Bowers, C., Muse, K., & Wright, M. (2006). Computer gaming and interaction simulations for learning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34 (3), 229-243. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database.
    • Wan Ali, W., Mohd Nor, H., Hamzah, A., & Alwi, N. (2009). The conditions and level of ICT integration in Malaysian Smart Schools. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT [Online], 5(2). Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu/viewarticle.php?id=618
    • Wang, S., Jiao, H., Young, M., Brooks, T., & Olson, J. (2008). Comparability of computer-based and paper-and-pencil testing in K-12 reading assessments: A meta-Analysis of testing mode effects. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68 , 5-24.