Improving Exergames Using Force-Feedback

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Improving Exergames Using Force-Feedback

  1. 1. IMPROVING EXERGAMESUSING FORCE-FEEDBACKTadeusz Stach & T.C. Nicholas GrahamEQUIS Lab,Queen’s University equis.cs.queensu.ca
  2. 2. TAKE-HOME MESSAGE“Designers should consider using force-feedbackto provide richer exergaming experiences”IMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  3. 3. PHYSICALITY OF EXERCISEExercise connects people to the physical worldRunning Baseball CyclingFeet impacting the Vibrations of a bat Strain when pedallingground hitting a ball uphillIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  4. 4. EXERGAMING FEELS ARTIFICIALInteractions are less physical than in real-world exerciseSwan Boat [Ahn 2009] Heart Burn [Stach 2009]No physical feedback when colliding Lacks the vibrations and forces feltwith on-screen objects in real-world drivingIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  5. 5. LET’S GET PHYSICALFeedback using forces and vibration (haptics)Tactile Feedback Kinesthetic FeedbackProvides a sense of touch Provides the perception of forceIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  6. 6. APPLYING FORCE-FEEDBACK TO EXERGAMESAddressing three important areas of exergame design1. Balancing group 2. Safe and healthy 3. Immersiveexercise activity experiencesAllow people of Guide players to Absorb player focusdifferent physical recommended levels of and distract fromabilities to play exercise physical activitytogetherIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  7. 7. EXPLORING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN EXERGAMESExperiment equipment and setup Game Computer Game Computer Projector Projector Gamepad Recumbent Bicycle Recumbent Bicycle Gamepad Room 1 Room 2IMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  8. 8. EXPLORING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN EXERGAMESExperiment equipment and setupIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  9. 9. EXPERIMENT 1: BALANCING GROUP EXERCISEAllowing people of different physical abilities to play together Group activity has been shown to be a motivator in exercise [Beauchamp 2007] People of different physical abilities have trouble exercising together [Allender 2006] Hypothesis Force-feedback in exergames can allow less-fit people to maintain a sense of competitivenessIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  10. 10. THE TRUCK PULL EXERGAMEA two-player virtual tug-of-war Gameplay Players pedal on a exercise bike to control their truck Trucks move in the direction of the player who pedals fastest Kinesthetic feedback Pedal tension increases as player gains the lead, and decreases as the player falls behindIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  11. 11. EVALUATING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN TRUCK PULLComparing kinesthetic feedback to standard controls 90 80 70 Average Distance (pixels) 60 Average distance 50 between the trucks to 40 the start line Competition was significantly 30 more balanced in the force- 20 feedback version than in the 10 control case 0 Force-feedback ControlIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  12. 12. EVALUATING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN TRUCK PULLComparing kinesthetic feedback to standard controls Control 7 Perceived competition Participants felt that the force-feedback version 15 2 allowed for more equal competitionNo difference Force-feedbackIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  13. 13. EVALUATING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN TRUCK PULLComparing kinesthetic feedback to standard controls Control 5 General preference Participants preferred the 4 15 force-feedback version overallNo difference Force-feedbackIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  14. 14. EXPERIMENT 2: SAFE AND HEALTHY ACTIVITYGuiding players to recommended levels of exercise Aerobic exercise is often prescribed at a specific level of intensity [Swain 2006] Exergames do a poor job of guiding players towards appropriate activity levels [Graves 2007] Hypothesis Force-feedback in exergames can guide players to effective levels of exerciseIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  15. 15. THE BALLOON BURST EXERGAMEA competitive shooting-gallery exergame Gameplay Balloons are launched more frequently with faster pedal speed If pedal speed is too fast, balloons fail to launch Tactile feedback The faster a player pedals, the more rapidly the gamepad vibrates If max pedal speed is exceeded, the gamepad vibrates continuouslyIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  16. 16. EVALUATING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN BALLOON BURSTComparing tactile feedback to standard controls 80 70 Average Pedal Speed (RPM) 60 50 Average pedal speed 40 There was no significant difference in pedal speed 30 between the two versions of 20 the game 10 0 Force-feedback ControlIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  17. 17. EVALUATING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN BALLOON BURSTComparing tactile feedback to standard controls Control Force-feedback General preference 8 Participants preferred the 12 visual-feedback of pedal speed over force-feedback 4 Players felt visual-feedback offered better precision No differenceIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  18. 18. EXPERIMENT 3: IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCESAbsorbing player focus to distract from physical activity Exergames attempt to shift peoples focus to gameplay, rather than physical exertion Physical feedback has been shown to increase immersion in virtual environments [Ramsamy 2006] Hypothesis Force-feedback in exergames can increase virtual presenceIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  19. 19. THE PEDAL RACE EXERGAMEA racing game with physical terrain Gameplay Players pedal on an exercise bike to race virtual tricycles around a track Kinesthetic feedback Pedal tension is doubled on mud, and halved on iceIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  20. 20. EVALUATING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN PEDAL RACEComparing kinesthetic feedback to standard controls 7 6 Mean PQ Responses 5 Presence Questionnaire 4 scores [Witmer 1998] Players’ sense of virtual 3 presence was significantly higher in the force-feedback 2 case than the control 1 Force-feedback ControlIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  21. 21. EVALUATING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN PEDAL RACE Comparing kinesthetic feedback to standard controls ControlNo difference 2 1 Sense of realism Participants felt that the force-feedback version felt more realistic than the 21 control Force-feedbackIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  22. 22. EVALUATING FORCE-FEEDBACK IN PEDAL RACE Comparing kinesthetic feedback to standard controls Control 4 3 General preference Participants preferred the force-feedback version 17 overall Force-feedbackNo difference IMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  23. 23. ISSUES FOR DESIGNERSForce-feedback can serve diverse purposesImprove player Guide players to Increase immersionbalance safe and healthy activityIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  24. 24. ISSUES FOR DESIGNERSForce-feedback should have a clear link to the game environmentIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  25. 25. ISSUES FOR DESIGNERSIntegrating force-feedback is limited by hardware capabilitiesIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  26. 26. FUTURE WORKFurther research into force-feedback in exergamesExploring other input devicesCustomization of force-feedbackCombining the three proposed applications of force-feedbackIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  27. 27. FORCE-FEEDBACK IN EXERGAMESForce-feedback can provide richer exergaming experiences tstach@cs.queensu.caIMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca
  28. 28. REFERENCES Ahn, M., Kwon, S., Park, B., Cho, K., Choe, S. P., Hwang, I., Jang, H., Park, J., Rhee, Y., and Song, J. Running or Gaming. In Proc. ACE, 345-348 (2009) Allender, S., Cowburn, G., and Foster, C. Understanding Participation in Sport and Physical Activity Among Children and Adults: a Review of Qualitative Studies. Health Education Research, 21(6), 826-835 (2006) Beauchamp, M.R., Carron, A.V., McCutcheon, S., and Harper, O. Older Adults’ Preferences for Exercising Alone Versus in Groups: Considering Contextual Congruence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 200-206 (2007) Graves, L., Stratton, G., Ridgers, N.D., and Cable, N.T. Comparison of Energy Expenditure in Adolescents when Playing New Generation and Sedentary Computer Games: Cross Sectional Study. British Medical Journal, 335, 1282-1284 (2007) Ramsamy, P., Haffegee, A., Jamieson, R., and Alexandrov, V. Using Haptics to Improve Immersion in Virtual Environments. In Proc. ICCS, 603-609 (2006) Stach, T., Graham, T.C.N., Yim, J., and Rhodes, R.E. Heart Rate Control of Exercise Video Games. In Proc. GI, 125-132 (2009) Swain, D.P., and Franklin, B.A. Comparison of Cardioprotective Benefits of Vigorous Versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise. The American Journal of Cardiology, 97(1), 141-147 (2006) Witmer, B.G, and Singer, M. J. Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(3), 225-240 (1998)IMPROVING EXERGAMES USING FORCE-FEEDBACK equis.cs.queensu.ca

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