Lecture 2 computer function


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Lecture 2 computer function

  1. 1. COMPUTER FUNCTIONT S PRADEEP KUMARAssistant Professor (SG)VIT University – Chennai Campushttp://www.pradeepkumar.orgtspembedded@gmail.com
  2. 2. Computer SpecificationsProcessor Core i3Variant 370MClock Speed 2.4GHzCache 3MB L2 CacheSystem Memory 2GB DDR3Graphics Processor Intel HD GraphicsHard Disk 500GB SATA DiskPorts RJ45, HDMI, USB, COM, ThunderBoltNetwork Wi-Fi 802.11, Bluetooth
  3. 3. Random Access Memory (RAM)
  4. 4. Processor
  5. 5. Cache Memory
  6. 6. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 6Computer Function
  7. 7. Computer Function• Program Counter • Contains the address of the next Instruction• Instruction Register • Contains the address of the current instruction• Memory Buffer Register (MBR) • contains the data to be written into memory or receives the data read from memory.• Memory Address Register (MAR) • specifies the address in memory for the next read or write
  8. 8. Computer Function• I/O Address register • specifies a particular I/O device• IO Buffer register • is used for the exchange of data between an I/O module and the CPU.• Memory Module • consists of a set of locations, defined by sequentially numbered addresses.• IO Module • An I/O module transfers data from external devices to CPU and memory, and vice versa. It contains internal buffers for temporarily holding these data until they can be sent on..
  9. 9. Computer Function• Processor-memory • Data may be transferred from processor to memory or from memory to processor.• Processor-I/O • Data may be transferred to or from a peripheral device by transferring between the processor and an I/O module.• Data processing • The processor may perform some arithmetic or logic operation on data.• Control • An instruction may specify that the sequence of execution be altered. For example, the processor may fetch an instruction from location 149, which specifies that the next instruction be from location 182. The processor will remember this fact by setting the program counter to 182.Thus, on the next fetch cycle, the instruction will be fetched from location 182 rather than 150.
  10. 10. Computer Function
  11. 11. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 11Instruction Fetch and Execute
  12. 12. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 12Instruction Fetch and Execute
  13. 13. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 13Interrupts and their effects• Classes of Interrupts • Program • Generated by some condition that occurs as a result of an instruction execution, such as arithmetic overflow, division by zero, attempt to execute an illegal machine instruction, • Timer Interrupts generated by the OS to take some special actions • I/O • Generated by the I/O Controllers like signals, errors, etc • Hardware Failure • Power failure or memory parity error
  14. 14. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 14Interrupts and Instruction Cycle
  15. 15. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 15Interrupts and Instruction Cycle
  16. 16. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 16Interrupts and Instruction Cycle
  17. 17. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 17Sequential Interrupts
  18. 18. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 18Nested Interrupts
  19. 19. Tuesday, March 06, 2012 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 19Time Sequence of Multiple Interrupts
  20. 20. CONTINUED…..