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Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
Design of embedded systems tsp
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Design of embedded systems tsp

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  • 1. Hardware/Software Co-Design T S PRADEEPKUMAR SCS, VIT
  • 2. Outline
    • Embedded Hardware
    • Embedded Software
    • Issues in Embedded System Design
    • Hardware/ Software Partioning
    • Designing Embedded Systems
    • Co-Design
  • 3. Embedded Systems
    • An embedded system
      • uses a computer to perform some function, but
      • is not used (nor perceived) as a computer
    • Software is used for features and flexibility
    • Hardware is used for performance
    • Typical characteristics:
      • it performs a single function
      • it is part of a larger (controlled) system
      • cost and reliability are often the most significant aspects
  • 4. Embedded Systems SOC IP Based Design System Environment PCB Design Satellite Macro-Cell Micro-Cell Zone 2: Urban Zone 1: In-Building Pico-Cell Zone 4: Global Zone 3: Suburban Firmware CORE Software SOC µ P/C Analog Embedded Software Memory Embedded System Design
  • 5. Embedded Hardware
    • Input
      • Sensors
      • Sample and Hold Circuit
      • A/D Converters
    • Communication
      • UART
    • Processing Units
      • ASIC
      • Processors
      • Reconfigurable processors
  • 6. Embedded Hardware
    • Memories
      • RAM, ROM, Flash, Cache
    • Output
      • D/A Converters,
      • Actuators
  • 7. Embedded Software
    • Real Time Operating Systems
      • General Requirements
    • Scheduling in RTOS
      • Aperiodic
      • Periodic
    • Real Time Databases
    • Other Software Architectures
      • Function Queue Scheduling
      • Round Robin (with Interrupts)
  • 8. Issues while Designing ES
    • Choosing Right platform
    • Memory and I/O Requirements
      • WDT, Cache, Flash memory, etc
    • Processors Choice
      • PLC
      • Micro Controller or DSP
      • ASIC or FPGA
  • 9. Issues…
    • Hardware Software Tradeoff
    • Porting Issues of OS in the Target Board
  • 10. Hardware /Software Partitioning
    • Definition
      • A HW/SW partitioning algorithm implements a specification on some sort of multiprocessor architecture
    • Usually
      • Multiprocessor architecture = one CPU + some ASICs on CPU bus
  • 11. Hardware /Software Partitioning
    • Terminology
      • Allocation
        • Synthesis methods which design the multiprocessor topology along with the Process Elements and SW architecture
      • Scheduling
        • The process of assigning Process Element (CPU and/or ASICs) time to processes to get executed
  • 12. Hardware /Software Partitioning
    • Hw/Sw partitioning can speedup software
    • Can reduce energy too
    • In most partitioning algorithms
      • Type of CPU is fixed and given
      • ASICs must be synthesized
  • 13. Designing of Embedded Systems
    • There are five stages of development of Embedded Systems
    • Requirement Analysis
    • Design
      • Data Structures, Software Architecture, Interfaces and algorithms
    • Coding
    • Testing
    • Maintenance
  • 14. Designing of Embedded Systems
    • There are three Design Flows
    • Waterfall Model
    • Spiral Model
    • Successive refinement
    • For Designing, Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used
  • 15. Embedded System Design Traditional Methodology HW Design & Build Hardware/Software Partitioning and Allocation SW Design & Code Interface Design HW/SW Integration
  • 16. Problems with Past Design Method
    • Lack of unified system-level representation
      • Can't verify the entire HW-SW system
      • Hard to find incompatibilities across HW-SW boundary
        • (often found only when prototype is built)
    • Architecture is defined a priori , based on expert evaluation of the functionality and constraints
    • Lack of well-defined design flow
      • Time-to-market problems
      • Specification revision becomes difficult
  • 17. Embedded System Design HW/SW Co-Design Methodology HW Design & Build Hardware/Software Partitioning and Allocation SW Design & Code Interface Design HW/SW Integration
  • 18. Co-Design Framework
  • 19. Co-Design
    • The software functionality should be partitioned in such a fashion that processors in the system do not get overloaded when the system is operating at peak capacity.
    • This involves simulating the system with the proposed software and hardware architecture.
  • 20. Co-Design
    • The system should be designed for future growth by considering a scalable architecture, i.e. system capacity can be increased by adding new hardware modules. The system will not scale very well if some hardware or software module becomes a bottleneck in increasing system capacity.
  • 21. Co-Design
    • Software modules that interact very closely with each other should be placed on the same processor, this will reduce delays in the system.
    • Higher system performance can be achieved by this approach by inter-processor message communication.
  • 22. Embedded Controller Example: Engine Control Unit (ECU)
    • Task: control the torque produced by the engine
    • by timing fuel injection and spark
      • Major constraints:
      • Low fuel consumption
      • Low exhaust emission
  • 23. ECU Task: control injection time (3 sub-tasks) compute air flow compute injection time drive actuators air flow injection time air temperature engine temperature engine speed throttle position look-up table PWM signals air pressure
  • 24. ECU- Option 1 32 bit CPU A/D Actuations (PWM) Analog inputs Digital inputs compute air flow compute injection time drive actuators air flow injection time air temperature engine temperature engine speed throttle position look-up table PWM signals air pressure
  • 25. ECU- Option 2 16 bit CPU A/D Actuations (PWM) Analog inputs Digital inputs FPGA compute air flow compute injection time drive actuators air flow injection time air temperature engine temperature engine speed throttle position look-up table PWM signals air pressure
  • 26. ECU- Option 3 8 bit CPU DSP Actuations (PWM) Analog inputs Digital inputs FPGA A/D compute air flow compute injection time drive actuators air flow injection time air temperature engine temperature engine speed throttle position look-up table PWM signals air pressure
  • 27. Thank You

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