Effects Of Yoga And Meditation

4,915 views

Published on

1 Comment
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • I am the Associate Director of the Tri-service Integrator of Outpatient Programming Systems (TrIOPS) and work with military programs throughout the country that provide behavioral health treatment for combat related stress conditions (i.e., PTSD, depression, anxiety, etc..). Please feel free to contact me if you have information or experiences you would like to share regarding this area of treatment. There is a much good work taking place with much more work to be done. I am dedicated to learning as much as I can about the system in which care is provided so that resources, products, and services can be developed and utilized by treatment programs working with our Warriors.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,915
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
415
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
146
Comments
1
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Effects Of Yoga And Meditation

  1. 1. Effects of Yoga and Meditation On Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Tamara Soal
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>Modest research has examined the effects of yoga and meditation on posttraumatic stress disorder. Brown & Gerbarg (2005) state there is however sufficient evidence to yoga and meditation benefits in the treatment of stress, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, stress-related medical illnesses and substance abuse. Evidence shows us the psychological and physical benefits of yoga and meditation with proper training by a skilled teacher and a 30 minute practice each day to maximize the benefits. The clinical research complied by Van Der Kolk (2006) demonstrates that exposure to extreme stress affects brain function. This includes the idea that traumatized individuals are vulnerable or hyper alert to react to sensory information and that effective treatment needs to involve learning to tolerate feelings, sensations and to moderate arousal. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is due to exposure to extreme lifetime traumatic events and there seems to be no cure. Friends, family and strangers are affected by post traumatic stress disorder due to traumatic life experiences. Many suffer daily from the recurring thoughts of reliving the trauma again and again. I chose this topic because my father suffered from PTSD due to his capture and imprisonment in World War II. My husband suffers from PTSD due to childhood abuse and the suicide of his brother. More than one friend as survived childhood sexual abuse and currently seek counseling for PTSD due to brutal childhood sexual abuse by a relative. My objective is to determine alternative ways to treat post traumatic stress disorder rather than the use of traditional therapies. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Is yoga and mediation effective in treating PTSD? Yoga is a whole body and whole mind practice that instills peace and empowerment. Meditation quiets the mind and instills peace and empowerment. I would like to examine the alternative therapies in treating PTSD and the efficacy of the use of yoga and mediation and the benefits physiologically as well as psychologically. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Imagine a time when you felt the “fight or flight” response due to feelings of being in danger. When your heart pounds, you start to sweat, your muscles bunch and you become hyper alert. The physical and psychological effects of PTSD can not be denied and the response described is how someone feels with PTSD most of the time. Andrews (2009) tells us that during stress our brain sends hormones and other substances racing through our system to prepare us for action. We become hyper alert, our hearts race and breathing is rapid, our muscles tense and our digestive process shut down. Andrews (2009) suggests meditation can be beneficial at the cellular and even genetic level to bolster the immune system and reduce stress. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Method of Breathing
  7. 7. Method of Breathing <ul><li>Brown & Gerbarg (2005) suggest Yoga techniques enhance well-being, mood, attention, mental focus, and stress tolerance. Effective use of yogic breath techniques for a wide range of clinical conditions is based on the theory of the effects of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY). Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the autonomic nervous system and influencing psychological and stress-related disorders. Insomnia is one of the first symptoms to respond to daily SKY practice. Many PTSD patients have found that deep breathing while lying in bed at night with the lights out will help induce sleep. With the eyes closed, the patient breathes slowly through the nose using a slight contraction of the laryngeal muscles and partial closure of the glottis, which is the long opening between the vocal cords at the upper part of a vertebrate's windpipe larynx. The glottis is open during breathing but is closed by the epiglottis during swallowing to produce the Ujjayi or “ocean” sound. The focus is on the incoming and outgoing breath. Ujjayi quiets the mind, reduces obsessive worry, and induces a state of physical and mental calmness conducive to sleep. Studies on yoga programs that include Ujjayi , yoga postures, and meditation have shown benefits in medical patients with anxiety disorders (Brown & Gerbarg, 2005). Brown & Gerbarg, (2005) noted the most surprising finding in the study was yoga postures reduced depression; they had no impact on PTSD hyper arousal symptoms of sleep disturbance, flashbacks or anger outburst until Ujjayi , and meditation were added to the practice. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mind-Body Connection
  9. 9. Mind-Body Connection <ul><li>Dr. Gordon (2006), kept a diary while visiting Gaza in July 2005 with the Healing the Wounds of War program of the Center for Mind-Body Medicine with a team of eight healthcare professionals and two staff members whose mission is to help local mental health professionals and other community support persons deal with the psychological trauma that war brings. Dr. Gordon learned using a model of psychological self-expression and self-care; mind-body medicine to include meditation, guided imagery, biofeedback, and yoga that an astounding 88% of the students with PTSD at the beginning of a six week program only 38% have it afterwards. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mind-Body Connection <ul><li>Military chaplains are discovering the need for involvement in addressing PTSD in veterans returning from combat. Lieutenant Hodges (2004) bases his opinion on the following psychology. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep transfers experiences from short-term to long-term memory; we are better able to understand why immediate processing of the trauma of warfare is necessary to prevent PTSD. The hippocampus of the brain works like a librarian who picks up the note cards of a card catalog that has been dumped on the floor. Each note card is the memory of an event of the previous day. During REM sleep, the hippocampus organizes these memories and transfers them to long-term memory. If traumatic events of the previous day are left unaddressed and unresolved, disturbing emotions are transferred from short-term to long-term memory. But if the trauma is addressed and properly processed, the resolved emotions and stability are instead transferred to long-term memory, reducing the possibility of later PTSD (Hodges, 2004). Imagine if all our veterans practiced yoga and meditation with the possibility of immediate benefits that may result. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Results <ul><li>The Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany implemented a program with amazing results. Symptoms of combat stress and PTSD include continual nightmares, avoidance behaviors, denial, grief, anger and fear. The conception of an intensive eight-week therapeutic PTSD Day Treatment Program call “evolution” that began in March 2009 at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. During the eight-hour days, patients enrolled in the program participate in multiple disciplines and interests, including art therapy, yoga and meditation classes, substance abuse groups, anger and grief management and multiple PTSD evidence-base practice protocols. Self-completed PTSD checklists showed a significant decrease in reported symptoms for three of the four patients in the first group. Additionally, anxiety and depression symptom measures decreased. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Results <ul><li>PSTD is an illness that is related to structural and chemical changes in the brain. In 2003 alone more than 77,800 veterans received specialized care for PTSD with tens of thousands more receiving some type of care through their primary care clinic. Over 90% of the veterans being treated for psychosis are so ill that they cannot maintain a significant income and therefore indigent and heavily reliant on the Veteran’s Administration for their care (Schully, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Children with PTSD who have been sexually abused may show symptoms of increased arousal, such as sleep disturbances, irritability, difficulty concentrating, exaggerated startle responses, and outbursts of aggression according to authors O’Hare & Sherrer (2009). It is essential for children to become empowered to take back that which has been taken from him or her (Putnam, 2009). The practice of mind-body balance and the deep yogic breathing and meditation will bring peace, calmness and a positive physical experience to a child. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Results <ul><li>How does Yoga deactivate brain regions to calm? PTSD is an illness that is related to structural and chemical changes in the brain. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies; researchers have found that the hippocampus a part of the brain critical to memory and emotion appears to be different in cases of PTSD. Scientists are investigating whether this is related to short-term memory problems. Changes in the hippocampus are thought to be responsible for intrusive memories and flashbacks that occur in people with this disorder (Scully, 2005). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Results <ul><li>The Pentagon examines new treatments and military health care is exploring the use of new therapies for PTSD; approximately $300 million has been invested for research into psychological health and brain injuries according to Army Families Online, (2008) for warriors’ psychological care. Lt. Hodges (2004) confirms the Veteran’s Administration has implemented the creation of an intensive eight week therapeutic PTSD Day Treatment Program called; “Evolution” begins as patients enroll for multiple disciplines and interests, including art therapy, yoga and medication classes and multiple base PTSD evidence-based practice programs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Results <ul><li>Van Der Kolk (2006) shows research demonstrating how exposure to extreme stress affects brain function is making important contributions to understanding the nature of traumatic stress. The Trauma Center at the Boston University School of Medicine, suggests effective treatment needs to involve learning to tolerate feelings and sensations by increasing the capacity for introspection, learning to modulate arousal and learning that after confrontation with physical helplessness it is essential to engage in taking effective action. Sensory input can automatically stimulate hormonal secretions and influence the activation of brain regions involved in attention and memory once again confronts psychology with the limitations of conscious control over our actions and emotions (Van Der Kolk, 2006). In order for us to understand and treat traumatized people we must understand their reactions and have knowledge of there historical context to understand the somatic and behavioral residues from the past, otherwise their behaviors seem bizarre (Van Der Kolk, 2006). According to Jean Piaget, the goal of development is “decentration”: having your emotions, not being them. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Results <ul><li>In a pilot study, eight female patients between 25 years old and 55 years old with PTSD were randomly assigned to eight sessions of group therapy dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) or 75 minutes of simple hatha yoga exercises. The following rating systems were used: Davidson PTSD Scale, the PANAS, and Trauma Center Body Awareness Scale. Samples t -tests were conducted to examine the effects of yoga and DBT on various symptoms of PTSD. In comparison with DBT, only the yoga group showed significant decreases in frequency of intrusions and severity of hyper-arousal symptoms between time 1 and time 2 [ t (6)=3.44; P ,0.05; t (6)=3.2; P ,0.05, respectively]. Subjectively, the PTSD group reported a body awareness that they had not experienced before and learned to sense and focus on their bodies after the yoga sessions (Van Der Kolk, 2006). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>In a pilot study, eight female patients between 25 years old and 55 years old with PTSD were randomly assigned to eight sessions of group therapy dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) or 75 minutes of simple hatha yoga exercises. The following rating systems were used: Davidson PTSD Scale, the PANAS, and Trauma Center Body Awareness Scale. Samples t -tests were conducted to examine the effects of yoga and DBT on various symptoms of PTSD. In comparison with DBT, only the yoga group showed significant decreases in frequency of intrusions and severity of hyper-arousal symptoms between time 1 and time 2 [ t (6)=3.44; P ,0.05; t (6)=3.2; P ,0.05, respectively]. Subjectively, the PTSD group reported a body awareness that they had not experienced before and learned to sense and focus on their bodies after the yoga sessions (Van Der Kolk, 2006). </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Andrews, M. (2009). Meditate your angst away. U.S. News & World Report , 146, 84-85. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from EBSCOhost MasterFILE Premier database. </li></ul><ul><li>Army Families Online (2008). Pentagon examines new treatments for warriors’ psychological care. Retrieved January 14, 2010 from ProQuest Research Library database. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, M.D., R.P., & Gerbarg, M.D., P.L. (2005). Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part ii – clinical applications and guidelines. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine , 11, 711-717. Retrieved January 14, 2010 form PsycINFO database. </li></ul><ul><li>Gordon, J.S. (2006). Healing the wounds of war: Gaza diary. Alternative therapies in health and medicine , 12, 18. Retrieved January 14, 2010 from ProQuest database. </li></ul><ul><li>Hodges, Lt.C.E. (2004). VA post-traumatic stress disorder programs. House veterans’ affairs. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from EBSCOhost MasterFILE Premier database. </li></ul><ul><li>Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. (2009). New post-traumatic stress disorder program answers need . Retrieved January 14, 2010 from ProQuest database. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Hare, T., & Sherrer, M.V. (2009). Lifetime traumatic events and high-risk behaviors as predictors of PTSD symptoms in people with severe mental illnesses. National Association of Social Workers , 33, 209-218. Retrieved January 14, 2010 from EBSCO database. </li></ul><ul><li>Putman, S.E. (2009). The monsters in my head: Posttraumatic stress disorder and the child survivor of sexual abuse. Journal of Counseling & Development , 87, 80-99. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from EBSCO database. </li></ul><ul><li>Scully Jr., M.D, J.H. (2005). Post traumatic stress syndrome. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from EBSCO MasterFILE Premier database. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Der Kolk, B.A. (2006). Clinical implications of neuroscience research in PTSD. New York Academy of Sciences , doi: 10.1196/annals.1364.022. Retrieved January 14, 2010 from EBSCO MasterFILE Premier database. </li></ul>

×