Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

  1. 1. Chapter 11: The Triumphs and Travails of the Jefferson Republic Alexis Coquillard Andrew Garr Sha’Rose Adams Jakia Rodgers
  2. 2. <ul><li>Federalist and Republican Mudslingers- Thomas Jefferson became the victim of one of America's first &quot;whispering campaigns.&quot;  </li></ul><ul><li>Was accused of having an affair with one of his slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>The 12th Amendment- The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President </li></ul><ul><li>The Revolution of 1800- Thomas Jefferson won election </li></ul><ul><li>Election considered the original spirit of the Revolution </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Fading Federalists -John Adams lost election of 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>last federalist president of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>federalist disappeared completely in the days of Andrew Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>Toms Inauguration -Tom Jefferson was inaugurated president on March4, 1801 </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Gallatin  - Secretary of Treasury to Jefferson; </li></ul><ul><li>believed that a national debt wasn't a blessing; </li></ul><ul><li>reduced the national debt </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Judiciary Acts of 1801 - the death bed, last important law passed by federalists, </li></ul><ul><li>created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices, </li></ul><ul><li>Republican congress wanted to repeal it. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalization law of 1802 -Jefferson quickly pardoned the prisoners of the Sedition Acts; </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalization Law of 1802 reduced the requirement of 14 years of residence to the previous 5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>John Marshall -Was appointed to the Supreme Court by Adams, </li></ul><ul><li>served for about 30 days under federalist administration and 34 under administration of Jefferson, </li></ul><ul><li>shaped the American legal tradition more than any other person. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Marbury vs. Madison- landmark case for the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>formed the basis of Judicial Review in Article Three of the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>William Marbury petitioned to the Supreme Court to force the Secretary of State James Madison to give him documents that he needed while he was denied because the </li></ul><ul><li>This was the first time something had been declared unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>helped define the checks and balances system for the Judicial System. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Samuel Chase -Was the only Supreme Court Justice to ever be impeached, </li></ul><ul><li>served with eight different articles of impeachment by the House of Representatives in 1804. </li></ul><ul><li>His trial started in 1805 and the prosecution was led by Vice President Aaron Burr and Virginia Congressman John Randolph of Roanoke. </li></ul><ul><li>dropped of all charges and returned to his Court duty. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Those Pesky Pirates -North African Barbary States had for a long time been blackmailing and pirating merchant ships that crossed the Mediterranean, </li></ul><ul><li>people even had to ask for protection and pay for it </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson was required to pay a tribute. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom vs. the Pasha -The Pasha of Tripoli was not happy with his share of money </li></ul><ul><li>declared war on the United States by cutting down the flagstaff of the American Consulate. </li></ul><ul><li>After four years of fighting they came to a treaty in 1805 for a bargain price of 65,000 dollars. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Mosquito Fleet -In the Tripolitan War the United States had used small gunboats to great success and Jefferson was fascinated by them. </li></ul><ul><li>believed that these small boats would be essential for protecting the shores of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>constructed about 200 of them </li></ul><ul><li>called the Mosquito Fleet. </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana goes French -In 1800 Napoleon Bonaparte convinced the King of Spain to cede to France for the Louisiana area in the Mississippi Region. </li></ul><ul><li>The deposit privileges of the United States with that area were shut off and many people were angered by this because farmers needed that to float their goods down the Mississippi. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Right of Deposit Nixed- the transfer of the Louisiana area occurred the Spaniards at New Orleans withdrew the right for the Americans to deposit (warehouse) which was guaranteed in the Treaty of 1795. </li></ul><ul><li>The frontier farmers needed this to float their goods down the Mississippi to await pick up by ocean vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Monroe to Paris -James Monroe was sent to Paris by Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>joined by Robert Livingston </li></ul><ul><li>instructed to try and buy New Orleans and as much land that were east for a maximum of 10 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Thanks Toussaint- One of the reasons that Napoleon decided to give up his dream of an Empire was because of Toussaint Luverture. </li></ul><ul><li>Bonaparte was to rely on his recapture of the island of Santa Domingo which was to provide him with food and supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>The ex slaves that lived there were infuriated and led by Toussaint and put up a resistance to Napoleon. </li></ul><ul><li>The Deal -Livingston negotiated with the French for how much they would give for all of Louisiana. </li></ul><ul><li>On April 30 th , in 1803 they signed a treaty with France that said for 15 million dollars they were to be given all of New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>A immeasurable tract that was entirely to the west which would double the size of the United States. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>There was an overall 820,000 square miles that was added to the United States at about 3 cents an acre. </li></ul><ul><li>The Loose vs. Strict Argument again- After the Louisiana Purchase the two Jeffersons fought with each other again. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the theorist and former strict constructionist versus the realist and public official. </li></ul><ul><li>He said that nowhere in the Constitution was there a clause for negotiating treaties that involved huge tracts of lands with thousands of Indians, black, and white inhabitants. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lewis and Clark -Jefferson's personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and a young army officer, William Clark </li></ul><ul><li>They were sent to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase </li></ul><ul><li>expedition lasted 2 1/2 years </li></ul><ul><li>also yielded a rich harvest of scientific observations, maps, knowledge of the Indians in the region, and hair-raising wilderness adventure stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Zebulon Pike -Zebulon M. Pike trekked to the headwaters of the Mississippi River in 1805-1806 </li></ul><ul><li>Zebulon ventured into the southern portion of the Louisiana territory, he sighted the Colorado peak that bears his name. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Aaron What Are You Doing? -Aaron Burr was Jefferson's 1st term vice president </li></ul><ul><li>He joined with a group of Federalist extremists to plot the secession of New England and New York, this conspiracy was exposed and foiled by Alexander Hamilton. </li></ul><ul><li>Burr struck up allegiance with General James Wilkinson. </li></ul><ul><li>planned to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>England vs. France Again -England ruled the sea, while France ruled the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade with England or France was impossible for the ports of either nation were controlled by the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure and Impressments -Impressment-The forcible enlistment of sailors </li></ul><ul><li>The British seized ships and the sailors on them. From 1808-1811 six thousand U.S. citizens were impressed by the &quot;piratical man-stealers&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chesapeake Incident -In 1807 a royal frigate overhauled a U.S. frigate, the Chesapeake </li></ul><ul><li>The British captain demanded the surrender of four alleged deserters, when the American commander refused the demand; the British warship fired three devastating broadsides at close range. </li></ul><ul><li>Three Americans were killed and 18 wounded, and four deserters were dragged away </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Toms Embargo- The Embargo Act forbade the export of all goods from the United States, whether in America or in foreign ships. </li></ul><ul><li>This act was used in hopes of making the offending powers respect the rights of the Americans and stop the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeal and Why- March 1, 1809, the Embargo Act was repealed. </li></ul><ul><li>Act hurt America more than England or France. There were mounds of unexportable cotton, grain, and tobacco; docks were deserted; and soup kitchens cared for some of the hungry unemployed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Embargo Act did not work </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson underestimated the determination of the British, and he overestimated the dependence of the two nations on America’s trade. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Non-Intercourse Act  -This act formally reopened trade with all the nations of the world, except the two most important, Britain and France. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a substitute for the Embargo Act.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Tippecanoe Creek -William Henry Harrison feared that the growing strength of Tecumseh. </li></ul><ul><li>set out with an army of about 1,100 men to try and defeat them quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>On November 7, 1811, they were attacked by the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>forced to retreat and their village destroyed, giving Harrison the reputation of a hero. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>On to Canada -The War Hawks in Madison own party chanted this as they prepared for war. </li></ul><ul><li>believed the only way to wipe out the Indians was to remove their Canadian Base. </li></ul><ul><li>The War Vote -James Madison asked Congress to declare war on June 1, 1812. 2 weeks later, Congress obliged. </li></ul><ul><li>House vote was 79 to 49 for war, and the Senate vote was 19 to 13 for war as well. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Britain, not France -Pro British Federalists supported the British and resented the Republican sympathy for France. </li></ul><ul><li>Federalist farmers sent food and supplies to Canada, enabling the British to invade New York. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States eventually went to war with Britain even though they were all divided in unity. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Madison War The bitterness of this war with Britain led New England Federalists to almost treason. </li></ul><ul><li>The British were arming their Indians and Madison had almost no choice but to turn to war. </li></ul><ul><li>Above all of the reasons, Madison wanted to turn to war to restore the confidence in the Republican Experiment. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Macon Bill #2- Congress dismantled the embargo completely with a bargaining measure; re-opened trade with the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Madison Gets Tricked -Word came that the French decrees might be repealed if Britain also lifter its orders of council. </li></ul><ul><li>Madison accepted French offer </li></ul><ul><li>his gambled failed and was forced to re-establish the embargo against the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Tecumseh and the Prophet -Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) </li></ul><ul><li>weld together a confederacy of all the tribes east of the Mississippi. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>William Henry Harrison -Governor of Indiana territory; advanced on Tecumseh headquarters at junction of Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers. </li></ul>
  21. 21. DBQ <ul><li>Use the three documents provided to answer the question: </li></ul><ul><li>What effects did the Louisiana Purchase, The Embargo Act of 1807, and Thomas Jefferson’s inaugural address have on the United states in the 1800’s? </li></ul>(Document A)
  22. 22. DBQ <ul><li>Embargo Act of 1807
(December 1807) </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeably to the notice given yesterday; Mr. SMITH, of Maryland. asked and obtained leave to bring in a bill in addition to the act, entitled &quot;An act laying an, embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States,&quot; and the several acts supplementary thereto, and for other purposes; and the bill was read; and ordered to the second reading. The bill is as follows: Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That during the continuance of the, act laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States, no vessels of any description whatever, and wherever bound, whose employment is confined to the navigation of bays, sounds, rivers, and lakes, within the jurisdiction of the United States, (packets, ferry-boats, and vessels, exempted from the obligation of giving any bond whatever, only excepted,) shall be allowed, to depart from any port of the United States without having previously obtained a clearance, nor until the master or commander shall have delivered to the collector or surveyor of the port of departure, a manifest of the whole cargo on board, including articles of domestic growth or manufacture, as well as foreign merchandise. And it shall also be the duty of the owners agents, or factors of every such vessel to produce within one month thereafter, to the collector of the district from which the vessel departed, a certificate of the landing of the whole of such cargo in a port of the United Staten, within the bay, sound, rivers, or lakes, to which the navigation of such vessel is confined, signed by the collector or surveyor, of the port, where the cargo shall have been landed. </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 2. And be it farther enacted, That if any vessel described in the next preceding section, shall depart from a port of the United States without a clearance, ,or before the manifest of the cargo shall have been delivered to the collector or surveyor, in the manner therein prohibited, or if a certificate of the landing of the cargo shall not be produced within the time and in the manner therein provided; </li></ul>
  23. 23. DBQ <ul><li>such vessel and cargo shall be forfeited, and the owner or owners, consignee, agent, factors, freighters, master or skipper of such vessel, shall respectively forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding thousand dollars, nor less than thousand dollars: Provided always, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to bar or prevent the recovery of the penalty on the bond given for each vessel. Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That (luring the continuance of the act, laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States, and of the several acts supplementary thereto, it shall be the duty of the master or person having charge or command of any vessel, flat, or boat, intended to that part of the river Mississippi, which lies between the southern boundary of the Mississippi Territory, and the river Iberville, if going down the said river, to stop at Fort Adams, and if going up the river, to stop at Iberville, and at each place, as the case maybe, to deliver to an inspector of the revenue, to be stationed there for that purpose, a manifest of the whole cargo on board, and also to produce within two months thereafter to the same officer, a certificate of the landing of the same in some port of the District of Mississippi, and within the jurisdiction of the United States; which certificate shall be signed by the collector or one of the surveyors of the District of Mississippi, or if the cargo shall be landed more than thirty miles from the place of residence of any such officer, by a State Or Territorial judge, having jurisdiction, at the place of such landing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That if any vessel, flat, or boat, shall enter that part of the river Mississippi, as prescribed in the next preceding section, without stopping and delivering a manifest in the manner therein provided, or if a certificate of the landing of the cargo, shall not be produced within the time and in the manner therein provided, such vessel, flat, or boat, and cargo, shall be forfeited , and the owner or owners, consignee, agent, factors, freighters, master, or skipper, of any such vessel, flat, or boat, shall respectively forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding - dollars, nor less than - dollars. </li></ul>
  24. 24. DBQ Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the Comptroller of the Treasury be, and he is hereby authorized to remit the duty accruing on the importation of goods of domestic produce, or which being of foreign produce, had been exported without receiving a drawback, which may have been or may be re-imported in vessels owned by citizens of the United States, and which having sailed subsequent to the first day of October last, and prior to the twenty-second day of December last, may be or have been stopped on the high seas by foreign armed vessels, and by reason thereof have returned, or may Hereafter return into the United States, without having touched at any foreign port or place. And the said Comptroller is likewise authorized to direct the exportation bonds given for foreign merchandise exported with privilege of drawback, in such vessel, and re-exported in the same, in the manner aforesaid, to lie cancelled, the duties on such re-importation being previously paid. and on such other conditions and restrictions as may be necessary for the safety of the revenue. Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That during the continuance of the act laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States, no foreign ship or vessel shall go from one port in the United States to another; and should any foreign ship or vessel, contrary to this section, go from one port of the United States to another the vessel with leer cargo shall be wholly forfeited, and the owner or owners, agent, factors, freighters, and master of such ship or vessel, shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding ----- dollars, nor less than -- ュ dollars.
  25. 25. DBQ <ul><li>Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That no ship or vessel, having any cargo whatever on board, shall, during the continuance of the act laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States, be allowed to depart from any port of the United States for any other port or district of the United States, adjacent to the territories, colonies, or provinces of a foreign nation: nor shall any clearance be furnished to any ship or vessel bound as aforesaid, without special permission of the President of the United States: And if any ship or vessel shall, contrary to the provisions of that act, proceed to any port or district adjacent to the territories, colonies, or provinces of a foreign nation, such ship or vessel, with her cargo, shall be wholly forfeited; and if the same shall not be seized, the owner or owners, agents, factors, and freighters of such ship or vessel, shall for every such offence forfeit and pay -and the master of such ship or vessel, as well as all other persons who shall knowingly be concerned in such prohibited voyages, shall each respectively forfeit and pay for every such offence, whether the vessel be seized or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the com ュ manders of the public armed vessels, and gunboats of the United States, shall, as well as commanders or masters of the revenue cutter's and revenue boats; be authorized, and they are hereby authorized, to stop slid examine any vessel, flat, or boat, either on the high seas or within the jurisdiction of the United States, which there. may be reason to suspect to be engag ュ ed in any traffic or commerce, or in the transportation of merchandise of either domestic or foreign growth or manufacture, contrary to the provisions of this act, or of the act laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of tile United States, or of any of the acts supplementary thereto; and if upon examination it shall appear that such vessel, flat, or boat, is thus engaged, it shall be the duty of the commander to seize every such vessel, flat, or boat, and to send the same to the nearest port of the United l States for trial. </li></ul>
  26. 26. DBQ <ul><li>Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the Comptroller of the Treasury be, and he is hereby authorized to remit the duty accruing on the importation of goods of domestic produce, or which being of foreign produce, had been exported without receiving a drawback, which may have been or may be re-imported in vessels owned by citizens of the United States, and which having sailed subsequent to the first day of October last, and prior to the twenty-second day of December last, may be or have been stopped on the high seas by foreign armed vessels, and by reason thereof have returned, or may Hereafter return into the United States, without having touched at any foreign port or place. And the said Comptroller is likewise authorized to direct the exportation bonds given for foreign merchandise exported with privilege of drawback, in such vessel, and re-exported in the same, in the manner aforesaid, to lie cancelled, the duties on such re-importation being previously paid. and on such other conditions and restrictions as may be necessary for the safety of the revenue. </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That during the continuance of the act laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States, no foreign ship or vessel shall go from one port in the United States to another; and should any foreign ship or vessel, contrary to this section, go from one port of the United States to another the vessel with leer cargo shall be wholly forfeited, and the owner or owners, agent, factors, freighters, and master of such ship or vessel, shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding ----- dollars, nor less than -- ュ dollars. (document B) </li></ul>
  27. 27. DBQ <ul><li>First Inaugural Address of President Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Washington, March 4, 1801Friends and Fellow-Citizens: CALLED upon to undertake the duties of the first executive office of our country, I avail myself of the presence of that portion of my fellow-citizens which is here assembled to express my grateful thanks for the favo r with which they have been pleased to look toward me, to declare a sincere consciousness that the task is above my talents, and that I approach it with those anxious and awful presentiments which the greatness of the charge and the weakness of my powers so justly inspire. A rising nation, spread over a wide and fruitful land, traversing all the seas with the rich productions of their industry, engaged in commerce with nations who feel power and forget right, advancing rapidly to destinies beyond the reach of mortal eye when I contemplate these transcendent objects, and see the honor, the happiness, and the hopes of this beloved country committed to the issue, and the auspices of this day, I shrink from the contemplation, and humble myself before the magnitude of the undertaking. Utterly, indeed, should I despair did not the presence of many whom I here see remind me that in the other high authorities provided by our Constitution I shall find resources of wisdom, of virtue, and of zeal on which to re ly under all difficulties. To you, then, gentlemen, who are charged with the sovereign functions of legislation, and to those associated with you, I look with encouragement for that guidance and support which may enable us to steer with safety the vessel in which we are all embarked amidst the conflicting elements of a troubled world. </li></ul><ul><li>During the contest of opinion through which we have passed the animation of discussions and of exertions has sometimes worn an aspect which might impose on strangers unused to think freely and to speak and to write what they think; but this being now decided by the voice of the nation, announced according to the rules of the Constitution, all will, of course, arrange themselves under the will of the law, and unite in common efforts for the common good. All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression. Let us, then, f ellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one mind. Let us restore to social intercourse that harmony and affection without which liberty and even life itself are but dreary things. And let us reflect that, having banished from our land that religious into lerance under which mankind so long bled and suffered, we have yet gained little if we countenance a political intolerance as despotic, as wicked, and capable of as bitter and bloody persecutions. During the throes and convulsions of the ancient world, du ring the agonizing spasms of infuriated man, seeking through blood and slaughter his long-lost liberty, it was not wonderful that the agitation of the billows should reach even this distant and peaceful shore; that this should be more felt and feared by s ome and less by others, and should divide opinions as to measures of safety. But every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists . If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it. </li></ul>
  28. 28. DBQ <ul><li>I know, indeed, t hat some honest men fear that a republican government can not be strong, that this Government is not strong enough; but would the honest patriot, in the full tide of successful experiment, abandon a government which has so far kept us free and firm on the theoretic and visionary fear that this Government, the world's best hope, may by possibility want energy to preserve itself? I trust not. I believe this, on the contrary, the strongest Government on earth. I believe it the only one where every man, at th e call of the law, would fly to the standard of the law, and would meet invasions of the public order as his own personal concern. Sometimes it is said that man can not be trusted with the government of himself. Can he, then, be trusted with the governmen t of others? Or have we found angels in the forms of kings to govern him? Let history answer this question.Let us, then, with courage and confidence pursue our own Federal and Republican principles, our attachment to union and representative government. Kindly separated by nature and a wide ocean from the exterminating havoc of one quarter of the globe; too high-minded to endure the degradations of the others; possessing a chosen country, with room enough for our descendants to the thousandth and thousandth generation; entertaining a due sense of our equal right to the use of our own facult ies, to the acquisitions of our own industry, to honor and confidence from our fellow-citizens, resulting not from birth, but from our actions and their sense of them; enlightened by a benign religion, professed, indeed, and practiced in various forms, ye t all of hem inculcating honesty, truth, temperance, gratitude, and the love of man; acknowledging and adoring an overruling Providence, which by all its dispensations proves that it delights in the happiness of man here and his greater happiness hereafter 謡 ith all these blessings, what more is necessary to make us a happy and a prosperous people? Still one thing more, fellow-citizens wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. This is the sum of good government, and this is necessary to close the circle of our felicities. </li></ul>
  29. 29. DBQ <ul><li>About to enter, fellow-citizens, on the exercise of duties which comprehend everything dear and valuable to you, it is proper you should understand what I deem the essential principles of our Government, and consequently those which ought to shape its Administration. I will compress them within the narrowest compass they will bear, stating the general principle, but not all its limitations. Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political; pea ce, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none; the support of the State governments in all their rights, as the most competent administrations for our domestic concerns and the surest bulwarks against antirepublican tendencies; the preservation of the General Government in its whole constitutional vigor, as the sheet anchor of our peace at home and safety abroad; a jealous care of the right of election by the people 預 mild and safe corrective of abuses which are lopped by the sword of revolution where peaceable remedies are unprovided; absolute acquiescence in the decisions of the majority, the vital principle of republics, from which is no appeal but to force, the vital principle and immediate parent of despotism; a well disciplined militia, our best reliance in peace and for the first moments of war, till regulars may relieve them; the supremacy of the civil over the military authority; economy in the public expense, that labor may be lightly burthened; the ho nest payment of our debts and sacred preservation of the public faith; encouragement of agriculture, and of commerce as its handmaid; the diffusion of information and arraignment of all abuses at the bar of the public reason; freedom of religion; freedom of the press, and freedom of person under the protection of the habeas corpus, and trial by juries impartially selected. These principles form the bright constellation which has gone before us and guided our steps through an age of revolution and reformat ion. The wisdom of our sages and blood of our heroes have been devoted to their attainment. They should be the creed of our political faith, the text of civic instruction, the touchstone by which to try the services of those we trust; and should we wander from them in moments of error or of alarm, let us hasten to retrace our steps and to regain the road which alone leads to peace, liberty, and safety. ( Document c) </li></ul>
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