ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNGBeyond Corporate SocialResponsibilityStrategies for Public Control andAccountabilityWenke Christoph...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Global Production Networks:    A regulatory challenge    Fordism: Taylorist mass-production, co...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Global Production Networks:    A regulatory challenge     Corporate accountability campaigns  ...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Corporate accountability    campaigns     Child labor/forced labor in textile industry (NIKE, ...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Corporate codes of conduct / CSR     Reaction to criticism and campaigns on working      condi...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Electronic Industry Code of    Conduct (EICC)     Global brands, major contract manufacturers,...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Global e-Sustainability Initiative    (GeSI)     ICT industry, emphasis on telecommunications ...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Multiple stakeholder regulation     Result of broadening of NGO campaigns &      supported by ...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    What difference does CSR make?     Introduction of capital-defined labor rights      supported...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    What difference does CSR make?    Co-optation of labor politics by the companies &      Politic...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    What difference does CSR make?    Peter Utting (UNRISD):    “At best, CSR can contribute to rai...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    What CSR doesn‘t solve:    Challenges to labor regulation    (1)   Transparency    (2)   Purcha...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Transparency    Independent, multi-stakeholder mechanisms    that can be made publicly accessib...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Purchasing practices     Double standards: buyers demands directly      undermine compliance w...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Empowerment & local regulation       CSR as paternalist granting of rights/conditions but mean...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG    Connecting the dots       Resolution of labor issues in GPN requires a global        perspecti...
ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNGThank you!谢谢!
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Tue, 11.45h christoph, wenke beyond csr

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Tue, 11.45h christoph, wenke beyond csr

  1. 1. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNGBeyond Corporate SocialResponsibilityStrategies for Public Control andAccountabilityWenke ChristophGuangzhou, Dec. 4-6 2011
  2. 2. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Global Production Networks: A regulatory challenge Fordism: Taylorist mass-production, collective bargaining, strong trade unions and redistributive politics Emergence of global production networks (GPN): - relocation of production - downward competitive pressure on wages & working conditions - imbalance of power, capacity for regulation1
  3. 3. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Global Production Networks: A regulatory challenge  Corporate accountability campaigns  Corporate/industry codes of conduct / Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)  Multiple stakeholder regulation/monitoring1
  4. 4. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Corporate accountability campaigns  Child labor/forced labor in textile industry (NIKE, Reebook, The Gap)  „Clean up your computer!“-campaign  MakeITfair, PC Global, iSlave, … - reports on labor & environmental conditions - public awareness campaigns “naming & shaming“  ProcureITfair: socially & environmentally responsible public procurement2
  5. 5. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Corporate codes of conduct / CSR  Reaction to criticism and campaigns on working conditions  Scope: forced labor, child labor, discrimination, wages and benefits, working hours, occupational safety and health, working environment  Part of strategic brand policies, accompanied by internal monitoring/auditing mechanisms, CSR departments and reports2
  6. 6. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Electronic Industry Code of Conduct (EICC)  Global brands, major contract manufacturers, large software companies  Lack of enforcement mechanisms, verification requirements, low level of commitment  no full protection of free association, collective bargaining2
  7. 7. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI)  ICT industry, emphasis on telecommunications sector  supported by UNEP and International Telecommunication Union (ITU)  publication of voluntary sustainability approaches, support industry contributions to sustainable development  GeSI-EICC Supply Chain Working Group: development of evaluation procedures for the implementation of EICC by suppliers2
  8. 8. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Multiple stakeholder regulation  Result of broadening of NGO campaigns & supported by US and European governments  Predominantly in textile industry: WRAP, FLA, FWF, WRC  SA8000: 2,680 factories in 61 countries certified  China: 392 companies, 98 in textile industry, 66 in electronics/appliances sector  1-day audits, dependent on voluntary provision of information by brands and factories2
  9. 9. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG What difference does CSR make?  Introduction of capital-defined labor rights supported by new business ethics and institutions  Re-regulation of labor relations by global firms: “re-organized moralism” (Pun Ngai)  Contradictory regime: cost-sensitive global just- in-time factory regimes vs. systems & procedures to implement commitment to labor standards3
  10. 10. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG What difference does CSR make? Co-optation of labor politics by the companies & Politics of containment:  No genuine concern for labor rights, workers’ representation or participation  using complaint mechanisms and trade unions as business institutions for facilitating production and business goals  managerial paternalism with labor rights granted from above  confining labor rights and struggles to company codes as a top-down regulatory process3
  11. 11. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG What difference does CSR make? Peter Utting (UNRISD): “At best, CSR can contribute to raising awareness of certain social and environmental problems and serve to caution against blind faith in both market forces and state regulatory capacity. […] At worst, CSR involves a transfer of regulatory authority to largely unaccountable agents and renders more stable and palatable a model of capitalism that generates or reinforces widespread social exclusion, inequality and environmental degradation. ”3
  12. 12. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG What CSR doesn‘t solve: Challenges to labor regulation (1) Transparency (2) Purchasing practices (3) Empowerment & local regulation (4) Connecting the dots4
  13. 13. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Transparency Independent, multi-stakeholder mechanisms that can be made publicly accessible (e.g. SA8000) (1) legitimacy (2) rigor (3) accountability (4) complementarity4
  14. 14. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Purchasing practices  Double standards: buyers demands directly undermine compliance with their own codes of labor practice  Further burden for suppliers: demand to produce at lower prices, but also to invest in social and environmental standards  Financial responsibility and purchasing practices of global brands need to be addressed4
  15. 15. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Empowerment & local regulation  CSR as paternalist granting of rights/conditions but means of providing workers with agency or empowering them  Focusing on CSR for the improvement of labor conditions could undermine effective labor law enforcement by local governments and trade unions  CSR is not an alternative but a supplement to labor law enforcement and collective bargaining Workers to be involved in negotiating solutions to problems and determining workplace conditions4
  16. 16. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNG Connecting the dots  Resolution of labor issues in GPN requires a global perspective: power imbalances, lacking transparency and accountability  connecting actions and policies of trade unions, NGOs, (local) governments to produce linkages between production workers and consumers, to form a common frame of reference for the regulation of GPNs  Necessity for pressure and counter-powers to force the winners of globalization to submit to regulation and redistribution4
  17. 17. ROSA LUXEMBURG STIFTUNGThank you!谢谢!

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