Ted ppt presentation for global production workshop in guangzhou draft final dec 2011
Challenging the Chip: Labor rights and environmental justice in the global electronics industry Organizing and Advocacy for Health and Environmental Justice in the High-Tech IndustryPresented at Global Production, Economic Development, and labor standards in the Information Technology Industry Guangzhou, China December, 2011 Ted Smith, Founder, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition; Electronics TakeBack Coalition; and International Campaign for Responsible Technology www.icrt.co
Transition from Valley of Hearts Delight to Silicon Valley• In the 1970s, farming and the canning and food packaging industries started to move away• A new industry started to grow up based on new technologies – it became known as the high tech electronics industry and produced semiconductors, printed circuit boards, disk drives and computers
Unions Organizing Silicon Valleys High Tech Workers by David Bacon http://dbacon.igc.org/Unions/04hitec1.htm• From the beginning, high tech workers had to face an industry-wide anti-union policy. Robert Noyce, who participated in the invention of the transistor, and later became a co-founder of Intel Corp., declared that "remaining non-union is an essential for survival for most of our companies. If we had the work rules that unionized companies have, wed all go out of business. This is a very high priority for management here. We have to retain flexibility in operating our companies. The great hope for our nation is to avoid those deep, deep divisions between workers and management which can paralyze action."
Unions Organizing Silicon Valleys High Tech Workers by David Bacon http://dbacon.igc.org/Unions/04hitec1.htmThe First Effort - Organizing Semiconductor Workers• The historic base for organizing activity among the high tech workforce for many years were the workers in the semiconductor plants. Starting in the early 1970s, workers began to form organizing committees affiliated to the UE in plants belonging to National Semiconductor, Siltec, Fairchild, Siliconix, Semimetals, and others. Most of these were semiconductor manufacturing plants, or factories which supplied raw materials to those plants.• By the early 1980s, the UE Electronics Organizing Committee had grown to involve a signed-up core membership of over 500 workers, who were participants in a number of union campaigns.
Unions Organizing Silicon Valleys High Tech Workers by David Bacon http://dbacon.igc.org/Unions/04hitec1.htm• Eventually the semiconductor manufacturers, especially National Semiconductor, fired many of the leading union activists, and the committee gradually dispersed as its members sought work where they could find it. The main strategic question which the committee sought to answer remains unresolved.
History of organizing for better conditions• In the mid 70s, a small group of people started meeting to discuss concerns over the chemical- handling aspects of the semiconductor industry and what might be done to raise these issues publicly. The group was called ECOSH, Electronics Committee for Occupational Safety and Health. ECOSH members included electronics workers, occupational nurses, attorneys, industrial hygienists, engineering and medical students, labor, environmental and religious leaders.
History of organizing for better conditions• Organized an effort to ban the use of TCE• Santa Clara Center for Occupational Safety and Health (SCCOSH) was formally organized in 1978. ECOSH continued as a SCCOSH project into the early 1980s, gaining recognition for a vigorous and largely successful campaign to ban TCE as well as energetic support and advocacy for many workers trying to win better conditions for themselves and co-workers.
History of organizing for better conditions• Another early SCCOSH project was Injured Workers United, a support group for workers already affected by chemical exposures, trying to secure fair compensation, decent medical care and retraining. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC) also started out as an early project of SCCOSH in 1982.
The Reality of High Tech Impact• Semiconductor workers experience illness rates 3 times greater than manufacturing workers in other industries• In 3 epidemiological studies, women who worked in fabrication rooms were found to have rates of miscarriage of 40% or more above non-manufacturing workers• Silicon Valley has more EPA Superfund sites than any other area in the USA
Toxic Components in electronic products• Solvents, acids, photoresists, gases, etc used to make chips, disk drives, etc• Lead and cadmium in circuit boards• Lead in CRT monitors• Brominated flame retardants on printed circuit boards, cables and plastic casing• Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cables• Mercury switches, flat screens
Clean rooms and miscarriages “ new concerns … may prove a potential black eye for a high technology industry that … sought to portray itself as clean and with little impact on the environment.Women exposed to certain chemicals … in the nation’s semiconductor factories face a significantly higher risk of miscarriage, a broad industry-financed study has found. The study is the 3rd in 4 years to find that … glycol ethers have toxic effects. “ Oct 12 and Dec. 4, 1992
Chip plants not safe in Scotland Wall Street Journal October 5, 1998• SEMICONDUCTOR PLANTS ARENT SAFE AND CLEAN By BILL RICHARDS Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET JOURNAL• GREENOCK, Scotland -- At the Inverclyde Advice and Employment Rights Center here, two dozen women crowd around a table. In angry Scottish burrs, they recite a litany of medical problems: cancers, birth defects, multiple miscarriages.
IBM Corporate Mortality File http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1626450• IBM maintained records of 30,000 workers that identified cause of death over 30 years• Records were analyzed by Dr. Richard Clapp, epidemiologist at Boston Univ.• Breast cancer deaths in women at IBM were 2.42 times the expected number• Similar findings for brain cancer, kidney cancer, non-Hodgikins lymphoma
IBM settles chemical suit January 23, 2001 Case involved microchip site workers son• By Craig Wolf Poughkeepsie Journal A lawsuit described as the first to test claims that chemicals in a microchip plant could be harmful to people has been settled, the parties said Monday. IBM Corp. and attorneys for Zachary Ruffing, a 15-year-old whose parents both had worked in the 1980s at IBMs East Fishkill plant, confirmed that an agreement had been reached.• Settlements typically involve payment by the defendant. Neither side would disclose what IBM or two chemical companies involved in the suit would pay.• IBM said human factors played a role in the decision. It still denies guilt.• I think its an enormously important case, partly because of the really serious damage suffered by Zach Ruffing and his family, and partly because this is the first major test case of its kind involved the high-tech industry, said Ted Smith, executive director of the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition in San Jose, Calif.
Clean rooms and dirty secretsMajor malformations typically occur in 1-2% of US live births; 5-10% are CNS malformations. Thus, in 1000 live births 1-2 CNS malformations and under .5 hydrocephaly cases expected.From 1980-89 <1000 children were born to clean room workers at 2 IBM sites with high miscarriage rates. At least three were born with hydrocephaly. Other CNS defects found in the group include spina bifida and microcephaly
Clouds in Silicon Valley New York Times September 8, 2003 By Bob Herbert“The pristine environment is for thesake of the products, which can beruined by even a speck of dust. At thesame time, the hazardous chemicalsused in the process are capable ofdoing devastating physical damage tothe workers.”http://www.computertakeback.com/news_and_resources/clouds_sv.cfm
Practice precaution: close the gapbetween environmental and workplacePELS68 chemicals known to the State of California tocause cancer or reproductive harm are totallyunregulated by Cal-OSHA or regulated only for non-cancer effectsThere is a huge disparity between workplace andenvironmental protections against carcinogens anddevelopmental toxicants everywhere.
Workplace PELS (if any) for carcinogens and developmental toxics are much weaker than environmental standards•If the air you breathe at work contains 1 ppmbenzene, you are getting over 500 times thedosage set by EPA to protect the mostvulnerable level of benzene with every breathyou take (industrial health standards are notset to prevent birth defects in workers kids)•If you breathe1 ppm of benzene at work, ittakes only 166 hours to get a complete lifetimedose (using the federal public health exposurelimit. )
Without health-protective PELSas well, better hazardcommunication, greenchemistry campaigns, and thethreat of after-the-fact liabilityare just not enough to preventtoxic harm to workers and theiroffspring in the first place.
Env. STDD Yield in Best OCC STDD Best Env. STDD Toxic Agent converted to 8 improved worker 8 hr. TWA NSRL or MCL hr. TWA protection 1 part per Benzene 7 ug/day 1 part per billion 1,000:1 million TCE 25 ppm 80 ug/day 7 ppb 3,571:1 Perc 25 ppm 14 ug/day .3 ppb 8,333:1Methylene Chloride 25 ppm 0.005 mg/L 1 ppb 25,000:1
ALLIANCE @ IBM DEMANDS* Health surveillance of all IBM workers* reduce exposures to toxic substances NOW as part of transition to non-toxic substances in all processes* States compile and publish cancer maps of areas around computer manufacturing plants where employees are likely to reside.* fund to alleviate medical burden on affected IBM employees and their families.
Right-to-Know Timeline1976 - USA Worker Right-to-Know (RTK) Law Enacted – Guarantees worker access to workplace chemical information1983 - Santa Clara County adopts Hazardous Materials Model Ordinance & Local RTK Law – Companies must report hazardous material storage & plans to protect public health 1 of 4
Right-to-Know Timeline1984 - CA adopts Leaking Underground storage Tank Law – Monitor industrial chemical leaks & clean-up1986 - USA Community RTK Act (CERCLA) Established Toxics Release Inventory – Industries must report annual chemical releases & pollution prevention targets 2 of 4
TRI Releases for 2007 for Selected Electronics Companies Total On-site Disposal or Total Off-site Disposal Total On- and Off-site DisposalFacility City State Other Releases or Other Releases or Other ReleasesIBM CORP HOPEWELL JUNCTION NY 1074661 22249.4 1096911SILTRONIC CORP. PORTLAND OR 635958 3.3 635961SANYO SOLAR (USA)LLC CARSON CA 8069 234714 242783IBM CORP ESSEX JUNCTION VT 185718 2645.1034 188363SONY ELECTRONICSINC. DOTHAN AL 74820 16891.52 91711MICRON TECHNOLOGYINC BOISE ID 88375 864.3 89239PHILIPS LUMILEDSLIGHTING CO SAN JOSE CA 73231 0 73231TEXAS INSTRUMENTSINC DALLAS TX 23652 44124.89 67776DU PONT ELECTRONICSMICROCIRCU ITSINDUSTRIES LTD. MANATI PR 1428 34679.232 36107INTEL CORP RIO RANCHO NM 18193 3589.9 21783
Our movement expands as Industry moves out of S.V.Global High-Tech Production is Undergoing the Largest Industrial Expansion in the History of the World
We are undergoing the “Largest industrial transition in history”• 127 new fabs – Total exceeds $115 billion – $1- 3 billion each – 300 mm fabs may double the cost• 200 mm to 300 mm fabs: $14 billion – “Largest industrial transition in history” Source: SEMI
High Tech manufacturing is global Electronics factory in China
The scale is staggeringOver 500,00 workers at Foxconn in China
Electronics Supply Chain Research done by Sarah Boyd
Taiwan: Workers Link Cancer to RCA Plant by Matthew Yi, San Francisco Chronicle May 24th, 2002While many laud the globalization of technology as a positive force that spreads the wealth and helps industry grow, a group of Taiwanese workers came to Silicon Valley Thursday to tell a different story.Their tale has to do with a former RCA facility in Taiwans northern county of Taoyuan. More than 1,000 former employees of that facility are suffering from cancer and more than 200 have died, according to the visiting workers, who used to make TVs and semiconductors.Most of those afflicted believe the companys plants polluted groundwater with toxic chemicals, leading to the outbreak of illness, according to the Taiwan Association for Victims of Occupational Injuries and the Self-Help Association of Former RCA Employees. Both are based in Taipei and were represented at a news conference held in San Jose Thursday, seeking publicity for the workers claims. http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=2649
A Chinese child sits amongst a pile of wires and e-waste. Children can often be found dismantling e-waste containing many hazardous chemicals known to be potentially very damaging to childrenshealth.
E-Waste problems continue• Wired for gold - (China Daily)• Updated: 2011-11-16 07:59• By Cheng Anqi and Erik Nilsson• http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/usa/life/2011-11/16/content_14104157.htm
The Digital DumpA new report on e-waste dumping in Africa by the Basel Action Network October 24, 2005
Farmers and fishermen protest high-tech pollution in Taiwan
Recent studies from Taiwan• Increased standardized incidence ratio of breast cancer in female electronics workers• Tzu-I Sung1, Pau-Chung Chen1,2, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn Lee3, Yi-Ping Lin2,4,• Gong-Yih Hsieh1 and Jung-Der Wang*1,2,5
Recent studies from TaiwanSung TI, Wang JD, Chen PC. Increased risks of infantmortality and of deaths due to congenital malformationin the offspring of male electronics workers. BirthDefects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2008.Chang YM, Tai CF, Yang SC, et al. Cancer incidenceamong workers potentially exposed to chlorinatedsolvents in an electronics factory. J Occup Health2005;47:171-80.
Summary of Occupational Illness in Korean electronics (compiled by Dr. Kong of SHARPS) Samsung Electronics Total Semiconductor LCD Mobile etc. Subtotal phoneNo.of Victims Total 79 16 3 9 107 149 Cancer 63 10 2 6 81 114 Total 27 7 2 5 41 59No.of Deaths Cancer 23 6 1 5 35 53
Environmental Challenges andTransparency in China For more info www.ipe.org.cn Ma Jun 02/11/2011
KEY FINDINGS 5: BRANDS TURNED PROACTIVE Checks on Use of Public I Push for Suppliers to Further Extension of Supplier Information to Enhance Make Environmental Violation Supply Chain Corrective Action Management into the Checked Replied to Cases Management & Disclose Information Supply Chain theCompany Name NGO Directly Purpose of Considered Decided to Corrective Regular Pushing Tier Letter the Study Performed Performed Establishing Establish Action Disclosure of Extended 1 Suppliers to Initial In-depth to Main a Search a Search & Discharge Manage Tier Checks Checks Materials Mechanism Mechanism Explanation Data 2 Suppliers Siemens √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X Vodafone √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X √ Philips √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X √ X Nokia √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X Alcatel-Lucent √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X BT √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X √ HP √ √ √ √ √ X √ X X X Samsung √ √ √ √ √ X √ X X X Sanyo √ √ √ √ √ X √ X X X Sony √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X X Toshiba √ √ √ √ √ X X X X X Panasonic √ √ √ v √ X X X X X Sharp √ √ √ X √ X X X X X Lenovo √ √ √ X √ X X X X X Intel √ √ √ X √ X X X X X Seiko Epson √ X √ √ √ X X X X X Motorola √ √ √ √ √ X X X X X Hitachi √ √ √ √ X X X X X X Canon √ X √ √ X X X X X X Cisco √ X √ √ X X X X X X Dell √ √ √ √ X X X X X X Apple √ √ √ √ √ X X X X X Haier √ √ √ X X X X X X X TCL √ √ √ X X X X X X X Foxconn √ √ √ X X X X X X X SingTel √ √ √ X X X X X X X BYD √ √ √ X √ X X X X X IBM √ X √ X X X X X X X LG √ X √ X X X X X X X Ericsson √ X √ X X X X X X XBlackBerry- Rim √ X √ X X X X X X X
International Campaign for Responsible Technology (ICRT)Global Symposium on Strategies for a Sustainable High-Tech Industry November 14-17, 2002 San Jose, CA http://www.svtc.org/icrt/index.html
Activists gather at First Symposium on Global Strategies for aSustainable High-Tech Industry - 2002
International Campaign for Responsible Technology (ICRT) Mission Statement, adopted November 16, 2002• We are an international solidarity network that promotes corporate and government accountability in the global electronics industry. We are united by our concern for the lifecycle impacts of this industry on health, the environment and workers rights.
Soesterberg PrinciplesElectronic Sustainability Commitment Each new generation of technical improvements in electronic products should include parallel and proportional improvements in environmental, health and safety as well as social justice attributes. Adopted by the Trans-Atlantic Network for Clean Production, May 16, 1999
Forward to Challenging the Chip• “We need a lot more “people’s histories” like those in this book. The stories of brave and creative women and men who fight back when their lives and their children’s lives are threatened. These are the stories of people challenging the corporate elite and speaking truth to power – whether the power be the corporations or the governments that allow these practices to continue. Such stories teach us that when people come together across traditional boundaries – geographic, political, racial, etcetera – they can actually change the world.” – Jim Hightower, former state elected official in Texas
Consumer Education: The Story of Stuff & The Story of Electronics• What is the Story of Stuff? From its extraction through sale, use and disposal, all the stuff in our lives affects communities at home and abroad, yet most of this is hidden from view. The Story of Stuff is a 20-minute, fast-paced, fact-filled look at the underside of our production and consumption patterns. The Story of Stuff exposes the connections between a huge number of environmental and social issues, and calls us together to create a more sustainable and just world. Itll teach you something, itll make you laugh, and it just may change the way you look at all the stuff in your life forever.http://www.storyofstuff.com/The Story of Electronics This video explores the high-tech revolutions collateral damage—25 million tons of e- waste and counting, poisoned workers and a public left holding the bill. Host Annie Leonard takes viewers from the mines and factories where our gadgets begin to the horrific backyard recycling shops in China where many end up. The film concludes with a call for a green race to the top where designers compete to make long-lasting, toxic-free products that are fully and easily recyclable.http://www.storyofstuff.org/movies-all/story-of-electronics/
UN expert meeting charts the way forward on hazardous chemicals in electronic products Historic meeting addresses entire lifecycle of electronicsFor the first time, more than 100 experts from around the world gathered in Vienna, Austria to make recommendations for a UN process on reducing and eliminating hazardous chemicals in the design, manufacturing, and end of life stages of electronic products. Concerns over toxic exposures during manufacturing, use, and recycling of electronic products provoked governments, the private sector, and public interest NGOs from around the world to call for the meeting at a global conference in 2009.
Delegates to Vienna SAICM Meeting – March 2011
Key Recommendations from SAICM in ViennaDelegates developed key recommendations:• eliminating chemical hazards during design;• phasing-out hazardous substances;• improving information transparency and flow;• ensuring equal protection of workers, communities, and consumers;• preventing export of hazardous electronic wastes from developed to developing countries;• and controlling export and import of near-end- of-life equipment.
Strategic ImportanceRecognizing that many challenges need to be resolved through improved design of new products, recommendations were made on eliminating chemicals of concern, full ingredient disclosure, identifying and implementing substitution strategies, green procurement and extended producer responsibility.
Priority – Reduce Exposure to Hazardous SubstancesThe producers and manufacturers should prioritize reduction of exposure to chemicals, primarily by elimination or substitution of the most hazardous substances and production processes, especially those processes involving worker and community exposure to substances of concern. In the present context, substances of concern include those that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic and/or those that are carcinogens, mutagens, reproductive or developmental toxins, neurotoxins, neurodevelopmental toxins, respiratory toxins, immuno toxins, organ system toxins, and/or endocrine disrupting compounds. ;
Early Warning Systems• Producers and manufacturers should cooperate with government, non-governmental organizations, trade unions, health care providers, and others to provide ongoing training to workers, community representatives and first responders to provide early warning systems about the inherent hazards of the materials being used, detailed information about best practices for protection from and reduction of exposure to those hazards, how to recognize early signs of adverse health impacts, and prevention of exposure to all hazards
Health Surveillance• Producers and manufacturers, with oversight by the government and the full participation of worker and community representatives should ensure (and report the results to appropriate governmental authorities of): – comprehensive, occupationally relevant health surveillance for all of its workers; – comprehensive ongoing industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring to measure the release and exposure to all hazardous materials used in manufacturing and production; – access to these data (and adequate funding) to ensure comprehensive and independent epidemiological assessments of worker health; – Action plans to preserve and protect worker health based on these data. – In situations where pollution from electronics production facilities has been found in surrounding communities, the manufacturers and producers should cooperate with health researchers and investigators to assess and control adverse health impacts, especially with respect to vulnerable populations.
Need for Fair CompensationGovernments are encouraged to develop and implement effective liability and compensation legislation for the victims of toxic exposures in the workplace and the community. Given that the electronics industry is characterized by multiple chemical exposures to vulnerable workers to chemicals of concern, many of which are in addition inadequately tested and regulated, and the frequent changes in process chemicals, it is particularly important to develop compensation systems funded by the employers that are designed to address these inherent challenges to fair compensation by developing mechanisms that assure that workers harmed by such exposure qualify for adequate and timely compensation, as well as treatment and rehabilitation.
What about EICC?Key critique by Good Electronics: – EICC code is not sufficiently aligned with international labour standards/ILO conventions (This point was supported by Verité) – Very problematic that right to collective bargaining is not included. (This point was supported by Verité) – Code lacks specific details and enforcement – Language of the EICC code is – in places – vague and ambiguous – As a result, code lacks credibility and effectiveness
Key Points from the ANROEV Electronics Workshop Jaipur India Nov 17,2001• Broadening our electronics network• Improving communications (internal and external)• Mapping (supply chain and health)• Continued research to link toxic exposure to health in electronics• Planning for ICRT’s 10th anniversary in 2012
Ted Smith Biography• founder and former Executive Director of Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition.• co-founder and Chair of the steering committee of the Electronics TakeBack Coalition, (which is working to promote life-cycle producer responsibility within the high-tech electronics industry.)• co-founder and Coordinator of the International Campaign for Responsible Technology (ICRT), (an international network committed to working for the development of sustainable, non-polluting technologies.)• widely published author and respected speaker, and is co-editor of “Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry” published by Temple University Press, 2006• a graduate of Wesleyan University and Stanford Law School and was a VISTA Volunteer in Washington, DC from 1967 - 1969.
For Further Information: Ted Smith – International Campaign for Responsible Technology & Electronics TakeBack Coalitiontsmith@igc.org; +408-242-6707www.icrt.co; www.electronicstakeback.com/home/http://www.archive.org/details/pioneeractivistsil00smitrichhttp://www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt2b69r7hf;style=oac4;view=dsc