Apnec 10 presentation in taipei nov 20 2011

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Apnec 10 presentation in taipei nov 20 2011

  1. 1. Occupational and Environmental Hazards in the Global electronics industry: the Campaign in Silicon Valley <ul><li>Presented at the 10 th Asia-Pacific NGOs’ Environmental Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Service Development Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Taipei City </li></ul><ul><li>November 20, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Ted Smith, Founder, </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition; </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics TakeBack Coalition; and </li></ul><ul><li>International Campaign for Responsible Technology </li></ul><ul><li>www.icrt.co </li></ul>
  2. 2. Silicon Valley used to be known as the “Valley of Heart’s Delight”
  3. 3. Transition from Valley of Hearts Delight to Silicon Valley <ul><li>In the 1970s, farming and the canning and food packaging industries started to move away </li></ul><ul><li>A new industry started to grow up based on new technologies – it became known as the high tech electronics industry and produced semiconductors, printed circuit boards, disk drives and computers </li></ul>
  4. 4. History of organizing for better conditions <ul><li>In the mid 1970's , a small group of people started meeting to discuss concerns over the chemical-handling aspects of the semiconductor industry and what might be done to raise these issues publicly. The group was called ECOSH, Electronics Committee for Occupational Safety and Health. ECOSH members included electronics workers, occupational nurses, attorneys, industrial hygienists, engineering and medical students, labor, environmental and religious leaders. </li></ul>
  5. 5. History of organizing for better conditions <ul><li>Organized an effort to ban the use of TCE </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Clara Center for Occupational Safety and Health (SCCOSH) was formally organized in 1978. ECOSH continued as a SCCOSH project into the early 1980s, gaining recognition for a vigorous and largely successful campaign to ban TC </li></ul><ul><li>The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC) also started out as an early project of SCCOSH. </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of organizing for better conditions <ul><li>1981 – Toxic leaks into the water supply discovered at Fairchild and IBM </li></ul><ul><li>1982 – Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition formed as a project of SCCOSH </li></ul><ul><li>Cal- OSHA semiconductor study does not investigate reproductive and cancer hazards </li></ul><ul><li>- “The not so clean business of making chips” by Dr. Joseph LaDou published in Technology Review from MIT </li></ul><ul><li>Media charge chip makers with keeping two sets of records for toxic exposures and systematically underreporting # of affected workers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. History of organizing for better conditions <ul><li>1986 - First report of elevated miscarriage and illness rates in clean rooms reported at Digital Equipment Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>1986 - IBM workers ask about cancer in clean rooms. IBM says ‘ no problem ’ </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – Results of epidemiological reports by IBM and Semiconductor Industry Association report high rates of miscarriages </li></ul><ul><li>1992 - First call for replacement of ethylene glycol ethers: “ Campaign to end the Miscarriage of Justice ” </li></ul><ul><li>2000s – HealthWatch organizes WE LEAP OSH trainings for 12 ethnic groups, including Chinese, Cambodian, Indonesian, Indian, Korean, Latino, Vietnamese, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Toxic Trouble in Silicon Valley Newsweek 1984
  9. 9. AMRC Handbook - 1985
  10. 10. The Reality of High Tech Impact <ul><li>Semiconductor workers experience illness rates 3 times greater than manufacturing workers in other industries </li></ul><ul><li>In 3 epidemiological studies, women who worked in fabrication rooms were found to have rates of miscarriage of 40% or more above non-manufacturing workers </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon Valley has more EPA Superfund sites than any other area in the USA </li></ul>
  11. 11. New York Times – November 10, 1984
  12. 12. Clean rooms and miscarriages <ul><li>“ new concerns … may prove a potential black eye for a high technology industry that … sought to portray itself as clean and with little impact on the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Women exposed to certain chemicals … in the nation’s semiconductor factories face a significantly higher risk of miscarriage, a broad industry-financed study has found. The study is the 3 rd in 4 years to find that … glycol ethers have toxic effects. “ </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 12 and Dec. 4, 1992 </li></ul>
  13. 13. IBM Corporate Mortality File http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1626450/ <ul><li>IBM maintained records of 30,000 workers that identified cause of death over 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Records were analyzed by Dr. Richard Clapp, epidemiologist at Boston Univ. </li></ul><ul><li>Breast cancer deaths in women at IBM were 2.42 times the expected number </li></ul><ul><li>Similar findings for brain cancer, kidney cancer, non-Hodgikins lymphoma </li></ul>
  14. 14. IBM settles chemical suit January 23, 2001 Case involved microchip site workers' son <ul><li>By Craig Wolf Poughkeepsie Journal A lawsuit described as the first to test claims that chemicals in a microchip plant could be harmful to people has been settled, the parties said Monday. IBM Corp. and attorneys for Zachary Ruffing, a 15-year-old whose parents both had worked in the 1980s at IBM's East Fishkill plant, confirmed that an agreement had been reached. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlements typically involve payment by the defendant. Neither side would disclose what IBM or two chemical companies involved in the suit would pay. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM said ''human factors'' played a role in the decision. It still denies guilt. </li></ul><ul><li>''I think it's an enormously important case, partly because of the really serious damage suffered by Zach Ruffing and his family, and partly because this is the first major test case of its kind involved the high-tech industry,'' said Ted Smith, executive director of the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition in San Jose, Calif. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Practice precaution: close the gap between environmental and workplace PELS 68 chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer or reproductive harm are totally unregulated by Cal-OSHA or regulated only for non-cancer effects There is a huge disparity between workplace and environmental protections against carcinogens and developmental toxicants everywhere.
  16. 16. Workplace PELS (if any) for carcinogens and developmental toxics are much weaker than environmental standards <ul><li>If the air you breathe at work contains 1 ppm benzene, you are getting over 500 times the dosage set by EPA to protect the most vulnerable level of benzene with every breath you take  (industrial health standards are not set to prevent birth defects in workers kids) </li></ul><ul><li>If you breathe1 ppm of benzene at work, it takes only 166 hours to get a complete lifetime dose (using the federal public health exposure limit. ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Toxic Agent Best OCC STDD 8 hr. TWA Best Env. STDD NSRL or MCL Env. STDD converted to 8 hr. TWA Yield in improved worker protection Benzene 1 part per million 7 ug/day 1 part per billion 1,000:1 TCE 25 ppm 80 ug/day 7 ppb 3,571:1 Perc 25 ppm 14 ug/day .3 ppb 8,333:1 Methylene Chloride 25 ppm 0.005 mg/L 1 ppb 25,000:1
  18. 18. The wake up call !! The Fairchild Case -- Groundwater pollution in Silicon Valley poisons families
  19. 20. Right-To-Know Grows in 1982
  20. 21. TRI Releases for 2007 for Selected Electronics Companies Facility City State Total On-site Disposal or Other Releases Total Off-site Disposal or Other Releases Total On- and Off-site Disposal or Other Releases IBM CORP HOPEWELL JUNCTION NY 1074661 22249.4 1096911 SILTRONIC CORP. PORTLAND OR 635958 3.3 635961 SANYO SOLAR (USA) LLC CARSON CA 8069 234714 242783 IBM CORP ESSEX JUNCTION VT 185718 2645.1034 188363 SONY ELECTRONICS INC. DOTHAN AL 74820 16891.52 91711 MICRON TECHNOLOGY INC BOISE ID 88375 864.3 89239 PHILIPS LUMILEDS LIGHTING CO SAN JOSE CA 73231 0 73231 TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INC DALLAS TX 23652 44124.89 67776 DU PONT ELECTRONICS MICROCIRCU ITS INDUSTRIES LTD. MANATI PR 1428 34679.232 36107 INTEL CORP RIO RANCHO NM 18193 3589.9 21783
  21. 23. The footprint of high-tech development
  22. 24. Body Burden ( 1000+ Chemicals Used in Electronics Production)
  23. 26. Moore’s Law
  24. 27. Activists Chide Dell Computer Recycling
  25. 28. Apple Campaign
  26. 29. Inside an iPhone
  27. 30. Inside your iPhone
  28. 31. <ul><li>Our movement expands as </li></ul><ul><li>Industry moves out of S.V. </li></ul><ul><li>Global High-Tech Production is Undergoing the Largest Industrial Expansion in the History of the World </li></ul>
  29. 32. New Fab Construction <ul><li>127 new fabs in planning & construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total to exceed $115 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$1 billion each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>300 mm fabs may double the cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>200 mm to 300 mm fabs: $14 billion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Largest industrial transition in history” </li></ul></ul>Source: SEMI
  30. 33. Electronics Supply Chain Research done by Sarah Boyd Unraveling the High-Tech Supply Chain                                                                                                               
  31. 34. High Tech manufacturing is global <ul><li>Electronics factory in China </li></ul>
  32. 35. The scale is staggering Over 500,00 workers at Foxconn in China
  33. 36. Workers are on the move
  34. 37. Taiwan: Workers Link Cancer to RCA Plant by Matthew Yi, San Francisco Chronicle May 24th, 2002 <ul><li>While many laud the globalization of technology as a positive force that spreads the wealth and helps industry grow, a group of Taiwanese workers came to Silicon Valley Thursday to tell a different story. </li></ul><ul><li>Their tale has to do with a former RCA facility in Taiwan's northern county of Taoyuan. More than 1,000 former employees of that facility are suffering from cancer and more than 200 have died, according to the visiting workers, who used to make TVs and semiconductors. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of those afflicted believe the company's plants polluted groundwater with toxic chemicals, leading to the outbreak of illness, according to the Taiwan Association for Victims of Occupational Injuries and the Self-Help Association of Former RCA Employees. Both are based in Taipei and were represented at a news conference held in San Jose Thursday, seeking publicity for the workers' claims. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=2649 </li></ul>
  35. 38. RCA Workers in Taiwan
  36. 40. E-Waste Dumped in Guiyu, China
  37. 41. Women sorting wires to burn in China
  38. 42. Burning E-Waste in Guiyu, China
  39. 43. Woman breaking a CRT monitor in China
  40. 44. A Chinese child sits amongst a pile of wires and e-waste. Children can often be found dismantling e-waste containing many hazardous chemicals known to be potentially very damaging to children's health.
  41. 45. The Digital Dump A new report on e-waste dumping in Africa by the Basel Action Network October 24, 2005
  42. 46. Global e-waste dumping
  43. 47. E-Waste and Clean Production Conference in Bejing – April 2004
  44. 48. Eco-Waste activists in Manila
  45. 49. Waste Not Asia in Kerala, 2007
  46. 50. International Campaign for Responsible Technology (ICRT) <ul><li>Mission Statement, </li></ul><ul><li>adopted November 16, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>We are an international solidarity network that promotes corporate and government accountability in the global electronics industry. We are united by our concern for the lifecycle impacts of this industry on health, the environment and workers' rights. </li></ul>
  47. 52. Consumer Education: The Story of Electronics <ul><li>The Story of Electronics explores the high-tech revolution's collateral damage—25 million tons of e-waste and counting, poisoned workers and a public left holding the bill. Host Annie Leonard takes viewers from the mines and factories where our gadgets begin to the horrific backyard recycling shops in China where many end up. The film concludes with a call for a green 'race to the top' where designers compete to make long-lasting, toxic-free products that are fully and easily recyclable. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.storyofstuff.org/movies-all/story-of-electronics/ </li></ul>
  48. 53. Delegates to Vienna SAICM Meeting – March 2011
  49. 54. UN expert meeting charts the way forward on hazardous chemicals in electronic products Historic meeting addresses entire lifecycle of electronics <ul><li>For the first time, more than 100 experts from around the world gathered in Vienna, Austria to make recommendations for a UN process on reducing and eliminating hazardous chemicals in the design, manufacturing, and end of life stages of electronic products. Concerns over toxic exposures during manufacturing, use, and recycling of electronic products provoked governments, the private sector, and public interest NGOs from around the world to call for the meeting at a global conference in 2009. </li></ul>
  50. 55. Key Recommendations from SAICM in Vienna <ul><li>Delegates developed key recommendations: </li></ul><ul><li>eliminating chemical hazards during design ; </li></ul><ul><li>phasing-out hazardous substances; </li></ul><ul><li>improving information transparency and flow; </li></ul><ul><li>ensuring equal protection of workers, communities, and consumers; </li></ul><ul><li>preventing export of hazardous electronic wastes from developed to developing countries; </li></ul><ul><li>and controlling export and import of near-end-of-life equipment. </li></ul>
  51. 56. Health-Based Exposure Limits <ul><li>Governments should formulate, promote, and implement health-based exposure limits for workers. These exposure limits are to be based on thorough and adequate hazard testing of all chemicals and mixtures used and produced throughout the life cycle . Producers, manufacturers and suppliers of chemicals are responsible for performing these tests. Exposure limit values should be protective of the most vulnerable populations, and should provide equal protection in the workplace and the community; In cases where data are not yet sufficient to develop a health-based exposure limit value, the precautionary principle should be applied , namely by eliminating exposure to chemicals or reducing it as low as possible. </li></ul>
  52. 57. Health Surveillance <ul><li>Producers and manufacturers, with oversight by the government and the full participation of worker and community representatives should ensure (and report the results to appropriate governmental authorities of): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comprehensive, occupationally relevant health surveillance for all of its workers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comprehensive ongoing industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring to measure the release and exposure to all hazardous materials used in manufacturing and production; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access to these data (and adequate funding) to ensure comprehensive and independent epidemiological assessments of worker health; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action plans to preserve and protect worker health based on these data . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In situations where pollution from electronics production facilities has been found in surrounding communities, the manufacturers and producers should cooperate with health researchers and investigators to assess and control adverse health impacts, especially with respect to vulnerable populations. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 59. Institute for Public and Environmental Affairs http://www.ipe.org.cn/ <ul><li>Water pollution maps of China that trace supply chain back to brands </li></ul><ul><li>Green Choice Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with brands to promote pollution prevention </li></ul>
  54. 60. Ma Jun’s slide from IPE in China
  55. 61. Electronic Sustainability Commitment <ul><li>Each new generation of technical improvements in electronic products should include parallel and proportional improvements in environmental, health and safety as well as social justice attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted by the Trans-Atlantic Network for </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Production, May 16, 1999 </li></ul>
  56. 62. For Further Information: <ul><li>Ted Smith – </li></ul><ul><li>International Campaign for Responsible Technology; </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics TakeBack Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] ; +408-242-6707 </li></ul><ul><li>www.icrt.co ; www.electronicstakeback.com/home/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.archive.org/details/pioneeractivistsil00smitrich </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt2b69r7hf;style=oac4;view=dsc </li></ul>
  57. 63. Ted Smith <ul><li>Ted Smith is founder and former Executive Director of Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. Ted is also co-founder and Chair of the steering committee of the Electronics TakeBack Coalition, which is working to promote life-cycle producer responsibility within the high-tech electronics industry. In addition, Ted is co-founder and Coordinator of the International Campaign for Responsible Technology (ICRT), an international network committed to working for the development of sustainable, non-polluting technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Ted is a widely published author and respected speaker, and is co-editor of “ Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry ” published by Temple University Press, 2006. In 2001, Ted was recognized by the Dalai Lama for his environmental leadership. In 2006 he was named a Purpose Prize Fellow. In 2008 he was named “Environmentalist of the year” by the Santa Clara County League of Conservation Voters. He is a graduate of Wesleyan University and Stanford Law School and was a VISTA Volunteer in Washington, DC from 1967 - 1969. </li></ul>
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