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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009
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Introduction to Technology Entrepreneurship 2009

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  • How can you determine the success of a business venture? A simple answer is that a business is successful if it meets your personal goals, or your vision. A personal vision is a statement of your own criteria for successfully starting and operating a business. The personal vision statement includes lifestyle, professional, and financial criteria.The important thing is to identify the criteria that matter most to you. These criteria will guide you in making a go or no-go decision for your venture. They will help you in deciding whether entrepreneurship is right for you. They will also help you in shaping a business concept that meets your criteria.
  • Being an entrepreneur is exciting, but it also presents many challenges. Where do you and your company stand now? Are you ready to launch and/or develop a high-growth enterprise? The questions in this assessment can serve as a diagnostic to determine where your company needs to focus its energy. The value of the feedback you receive depends on your honest answer of "yes" or "no" to each question. The feedback advice you will receive on the "Results" page of this file was developed by experienced entrepreneurs, accountants, attorneys, and venture capitalists.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYF2_FBCvXw&feature=channel
  • In Porter Mind: What is Strategy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibrxIP0H84M&feature=PlayList&p=C6AE7398162B9ADA&index=13
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bilOOPuAvTY&feature=related
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4kR80a92SI&feature=related
  • Transcript

    • 1. Technology EntrepreneurshipTheory to Practice Seminar2009
      Tarek Salah Kamel
      Management of Technology MSc., Nile University
      tarek.kamel@nileu.edu.eg
    • 2. This introduction training was developed initially for the “Entrepreneurship Education Initiative” between Intel and the Arab Science and Technology Foundation (ASTF) using part of the Intel+UC Berkeley Technology Entrepreneurship Challenge training materials.
      http://entrepreneurship.berkeley.edu/main/GEEI.html
      This customized version for Egypt is for a 1 full-day FREE seminar for Egyptian Universities senior students (Engineering, Science, …etc.) to prepare them to the concepts of Entrepreneurship and Innovation.
    • 3. Agenda
      Introduction to Entrepreneurship
      Entrepreneurial Process
      Opportunity Identification
      Business Strategy
      Business Plan Writing Basics
      Startup Company Valuation Model
      Introduction to Marketing
    • 4. 1. Introduction to Entrepreneurship
    • 5. an entrepreneur?!
    • 6. Real entrepreneurs!
    • 7. Invention versus innovation
    • 8. Invention versus innovation
    • 9. What is entrepreneurship?
      Business Entrepreneurship (Companies) or Social Entrepreneurship (NGOs)
    • 10. Egyptian examples! (business & social)
    • 11. What is entrepreneurship?
      A critical component of a complex dynamic process to bring innovations into market
    • 12. Are you an entrepreneur?
      • Why do you think people want to be entrepreneurs?
      ..
      ..
      ..
      ..
      ..
      ..
      ..
      ..
      ..
    • 13.
    • 14. How you know you fit as an entrepreneur?
      • Check online questionnaire on:
      http://www.venturelab.ucf.edu/resources_bizplan.html
      FastTrac Personal Vision Assessment
      Open File
    • 15. How you know you fit as an entrepreneur?
      • Check online questionnaire on:
      http://www.venturelab.ucf.edu/resources_bizplan.html
      FastTrac Entrepreneurial Readiness Assessment
      • You receive full recommendation on your answer for the 92 questions in the assessment that you should thoroughly investigate
      Open File
    • 16. The entrepreneur
      Self starter, defines goals as he or she goes alone.
      Does the important things by himself or herself.
      Not a good delegator, strong need to control.
      Charismatic leader, but hard to follow.
      Extremely strong drive and capacity for work.
      Reward oriented for money, visible rewards (cars, boats, clubs, etc.) community admiration for accomplishments, prerequisites.
      Excellent problem-solving abilities.
      Innovative thinker.
      Realistic, takes moderate and well calculated risks.
      Committed to the company.
    • 17. The professional manager
      Career oriented with well defined goals.
      Accomplishes tasks through people.
      A good delegator and motivator.
      Good leader and people person.
      Competitive and politically astute.
      Reward oriented for cash, visible rewards, status, prerequisites.
      Experience, ability, and accomplishments are evident.
      Plays by the rules, not a risk taker.
      Committed to self, more than company.
    • 18. Case study: osborne computer company
      • The personal computer (PC) market began in the middle 1970’s.
      • 19. Adam Osborne decided to package all the PC components together as a portable computer (July, 1981).
      • 20. In two months the company had its first $1,000,000 in sales.
      • 21. By the second year the net revenues reached $100,000,000.
      • 22. Consumers were interested in a larger, more standard 80-characters display
      • 23. What do you think happened?!
    • Case study: osborne computer company
      Company Bankruptcy after 6 months!!
      • The personal computer (PC) market began in the middle 1970’s.
      • 24. Adam Osborne decided to package all the PC components together as a portable computer (July, 1981).
      • 25. In two months the company had its first $1,000,000 in sales.
      • 26. By the second year the net revenues reached $100,000,000.
      • 27. Consumers were interested in a larger, more standard 80-characters display
      • 28. What do you think happened?!
    • Case study: osborne computer company
      • Osborne lagged in his R&D efforts to introduce the large screen model
      • 29. Osborne delayed the generation of needed capital through public offering for 6 months
      • 30. Kaypro, a competitor, took advantage of the weak points and introduced the larger screen model in the perfect time for market demands.
      • 31. Osborne announced he will introduce the bigger screen one while still has orders for the 1st model (large inventory) – A serious mistake.
      • 32. Kaypro offered 5 million shares to the public in 1983 realizing $9 millions from the sale of part of their equity
    • Case study: osborne computer company
    • 33. Case study: osborne computer company Lessons
      • Entering a market with a new innovation gives a company an early advantage in sales (Leader)
      • 34. New product concept creates new markets or alters old markets
      • 35. If a company competes with innovation, it should plan to continue competing with innovation
      • 36. All products have a finite life span. Timely product innovation should be part of every management’s technology strategy
      • 37. The timing of announcements is very important
      • 38. Capital formation and cash flow are very important for a growing business
      • 39. Successful new ventures must be able to cope with the rapid market growth and with increasingly tough competition.
    • 40. 2. Entrepreneurial Process
    • 41.
    • 42.
    • 43.
    • 44.
    • 45.
    • 46. Key elements needed
    • 47. The founding team – an a team
    • 48. resources
    • 49. strategy
    • 50. strategy - The business plan
    • 51. 3 Core Questions to Answer:
      What the company is doing?
      Why?
      How?
      Open File
    • 52.
    • 53.
    • 54.
    • 55.
    • 56.
    • 57.
    • 58.
    • 59.
    • 60.
    • 61. Elaborate Business Plan
    • 62. Technology adoption life cycle (TALC)
      Innovators = Technology Enthusiast. People who are fundamentally committed to new technology … techies.
      Early Adopters = Visionaries. True revolutionaries in business and government to exploit new tech capabilities.
      Early Majority = Pragmatist. People who make the bulk of all technology infrastructure purchases and do not love technology for its own sake. They believe in evolution and not revolution.
      Late Majority = Conservatives. Pessimistic to gain any value from technology investment and are price sensitive and are unwilling to pay for any extra services.
      Laggards = Skeptics. Not to sell to these people but to sell around them
      LaithKassis (PICTI)
    • 63. Technology adoption life cycle
      Mainstream Market
      Crossing the Chasm
      Early Market
      The
      Chasm
      LaithKassis (PICTI)
    • 64. Linking all together
      Mainstream Market
      Crossing the Chasm
      Early Market
      The
      Chasm
      The Valley of Death
      Scarce funding for early-stage innovation
    • 65. Linking all together
    • 66. Developing A new model
    • 67. Developing A new model
    • 68. Actions to start
      Are you ready to start?!
    • 69. 3. Opportunity Identification
    • 70. What is Science and what is technology?
      What ?
      Why?
      • How ?
      Carlson Consulting
    • 71. What is Science and what is technology?
      What ?
      Why?
      Technology, more than any other human endeavor, has the power to transform and improve our lives in every way!
      • How ?
      Carlson Consulting
    • 72. Technology and society
      Society, Customers & Stakeholders
      Business
      Technology
      Science& Discovery
      Carlson Consulting
    • 73. Technology and society
      Markets
      Society, Customers & Stakeholders
      Products
      Business
      Technology
      Science& Discovery
      Carlson Consulting
    • 74. Technology dynamics
      Product B
      Business
      Product A
      Technology dynamics
      Science& Discovery
      Carlson Consulting
    • 75. Technology dynamics
      Product B
      Business
      Market PULL
      Product A
      Technology
      PUSH
      Technology dynamics
      Innovation
      Market PULL
      • Existing business
      • 76. Instant value perspective
      • 77. Lower perceived risk
      Technology PUSH
      Science& Discovery
      Carlson Consulting
    • 80. Opportunity identification
      Societal Trends in:
      Technology
      Economic Regulation
      Social/Cultural Behavior
      Politics
      Identified problems
      Market Gaps
      Technology Forecasting
    • 81. What are the main global trends today?
      • Technology Progress
      • 82. Economic Growth
      • 83. Improved Healthcare
      • 84. Increasing Mobility
      • 85. Environmental Decline
      • 86. Increasing De-Culturation
      How to gain insight in trends business opportunities?
    • 87. Trend coupling matrix
      Carlson Consulting
    • 88. Trend coupling matrix
      Carlson Consulting
    • 89. Trend coupling matrix - example
      Carlson Consulting
    • 90. Case study in groups
      Groups of 5.
      For the following trends, try to deduce the coupling matrix:
      Fresh Water shortage in 2015 by 75%
      People are using GPS equipment the same they are using mobile today
      Google is selling Geo-maps with details up to 20M below sea level.
      Visa entry by Arabs to Arab states is canceled
      Nanotechnology is able to desalinate salty water at a 90% lower price than today.
      Computer prices are at 90% lower price, with today’s processing power.
      1st human robot assistant came into market in 2015.
      “What If?” Scenario Analysis
    • 91. The power of technology forecasting
      Technology Foresight
      Trend Analysis
      Scanning
      Expert Judgment
      Road Mapping
      Scenario Planning
      Carlson Consulting
    • 92. Futuring lessons
      Cornish’s Lessons:
      • Prepare for what you will face in the future
      • 93. Anticipate future needs
      • 94. Use poor information when necessary
      • 95. Expect the unexpected
      • 96. Think long term as well as short term
      • 97. Dream productively
      • 98. Learn from your predecessors
      Carlson Consulting
    • 99. Do all industries have equal opportunites?
      How to Analyze the Attractiveness of a Certain Industry?!
    • 100. Porter industry analysis model – 5 forcesPORTER Model
      The Importance of structural analysis of Industries is to relate companies to the industry or industries, in which they are competing!!
      • How to position a company within its industry?
      • 101. How to create an effective strategic planning process?
    • Case study: digital imaging in the 90s
    • 102. Case study: digital imaging in the 90s
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 103. Case study: digital imaging in the 90s
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 104. Case study: digital imaging in the 90s
      In 2007
      180 New Models! From over 27 vendors were released
    • 105. Case study: digital imaging in the 90sExisting Competitors
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 106. Case study: digital imaging in the 90s Bargaining Powers
      Bargaining power of Buyers (low to medium)
      • In 1980’s cost of electronic imaging systems rapidly declined because user’s tolerances for complexity fell and image quality requirements rose.
      • 107. For Professional photographers & Journalists there were potential rewards of saving time & money in processing.
      Bargaining power of Suppliers (high)
      • High Resolution & Lower cost CCD Sensors were developed at Sony, Matsushita, NEC, Sharp, Samsung & Goldstar.
      • 108. Image Science research were in corporate laboratories.
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 109. Case study: digital imaging in the 90s Potential Entrants
      Unique Technological & Competitive Strengths
      • Low Entry Barrier
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 110. Case study: digital imaging in the 90s Substitutes
      • Searching for other products that can perform the same function as the anticipated product. (Medium)
      • 111. Traditional Camera + Scanner, $800 to $1500 (PC)
      • 112. Traditional Camera + PhotoCD player, $300 (TV)
      • 113. Still-video, $1000 to $4000 (TV)
      • 114. Traditional Video + Frame Grabbers , $350 (PC)
      • 115. Camcorder, $800 (TV)
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 116. Case study: digital imaging todayPlenty of Manufacturers
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 117. 75 Models!!
      Case study: digital imaging todayMany Products
    • 118. 65 Models!!
      Case study: digital imaging todayMany Products
    • 119. 70 Models!!
      Case study: digital imaging todayMany Products
    • 120. 60 Models !!
      Case study: digital imaging todayMany Products
    • 121. Case study: digital imaging todayMany Products … Which are not differentiated!
      180 New Models from over 27 vendors are released in 2007 alone
    • 122. Case study: digital imaging todayApply Porter Model
      Entry Barrier (High)
      • Economy of Scale.
      • 123. Slow Industry Growth.
      • 124. High Developed Experience.
      • 125. Yet, no Product Differentiation.
      Rivalry (Intense)
      • Competition on quality, high specifications, ease of use, connectivity & price.
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 126. Case study: digital imaging todayApply Porter Model
      Entry Barrier (High)
      • Economy of Scale.
      • 127. Slow Industry Growth.
      • 128. High Developed Experience.
      • 129. Yet, no Product Differentiation.
      Rivalry (Intense)
      • Competition on quality, high specifications, ease of use, connectivity & price.
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 130. Case study: digital imaging todayApply Porter Model
      Buyers bargaining power (High)
      • Mobile phone Cameras are approaching qualities of normal commercial satisfaction.
      Threat from a substitute (High)
      • Mobile Phone cameras
      Supplier Bargaining power (still High)
      • Technology components are used in many other industries
      Copyright © 2009 TarekSalah, Arab Science and Technology Foundation, tarek.salah@astf.net
    • 131. The 5 competitive forces
      Porter Interview Movie
    • 132. 4. Business Strategy
    • 133. What is strategy?
      The basic purpose of strategy is for a company to make a series of Moves to achieve a Sustainable Competitive Advantage.
      What is Strategy?
    • 134. What is strategy?
      “…competitive advantage…is tougher to create and sustain with each passing year….(but)…As hard as it has become to create an edge, some smart organizations are finding new ways to do it…a few standouts …keep creating new competitive advantages, over and over…” Business Week, (Aug. 21-28, 2006, p. 80)
      To be effective, the moves require careful analyses of:
      The industry environment and
      The firm’s internal resources, capabilities, and competencies.
      Internal Analysis Tools
      External Analysis Tools
    • 135. What is Strategy?
      Strategy Long-Term Direction
      Tactics  Short-Term Direction
      Strategic Thinking Reasoning about the Long-Term
      Tactical Thinking  Reasoning about the Short-Term
      Reasoning  Inferring consequences from assumptions
      Long-Term Business Survival requires to strategic capabilities:
      • Ability to Prosper
      • 136. Ability to Change
      Strategy  A change-in-direction for long-term future’s prosperity
    • 137. What tools to use to formulate strategy?
    • 138. Strategic business model
      How a company generates profit?
    • 139. Example
    • 140.
    • 141.
    • 142.
    • 143.
    • 144.
    • 145. 5. Business Plan Writing Basics
    • 146.
    • 147. Online training on writing your business plan
      Small Business Administration (SBA)
      “How to Write a Business Plan”: http://app1.sba.gov/training/sbabp/index.htm
    • 148. Online training on writing your business plan
      Small Business Administration (SBA)
      “Developing a Successful Business Plan”: http://www.paloalto.com/sba/course.cfm
    • 149. Online training on writing your business plan
      Small Business Administration (SBA)
      “Online Training Courses”: http://www.sba.gov/services/training/onlinecourses/index.html
    • 150. Online training on writing your business plan
      Small Business Administration (SBA)
      “Online Training Courses”: http://www.sba.gov/services/training/onlinecourses/index.html
    • 151. Online training on writing your business plan
      Small Business Administration (SBA)
      Another Assessment Tool : http://web.sba.gov/sbtn/sbat/index.cfm?Tool=4
    • 152. Online training on writing your business plan
      Small Business Administration (SBA)
      Another Assessment Tool : http://web.sba.gov/sbtn/sbat/index.cfm?Tool=4
    • 153.
    • 154.
    • 155.
    • 156. 3 Core Questions to Answer:
      What the company is doing?
      Why?
      How?
    • 157.
    • 158. business plan process overview
    • 159.
    • 160.
    • 161.
    • 162. 6. Startup Company Valuation Model
    • 163.
    • 164.
    • 165.
    • 166.
    • 167.
    • 168.
    • 169. 3 factors that add value to a startup
    • 170.
    • 171.
    • 172.
    • 173.
    • 174.
    • 175.
    • 176.
    • 177.
    • 178.
    • 179.
    • 180.
    • 181.
    • 182.
    • 183.
    • 184.
    • 185.
    • 186.
    • 187.
    • 188.
    • 189. 7. Introduction to Marketing
    • 190. Is this marketing?
      Prof. Tarun Sony
    • 191. Radical changes in marketing: CC DV TP
      Create … Communicate … Deliver … Value … to a Target Market … at a Profit
      Philip Kotler
    • 192. 3 business in marketing
    • 193. Value chain model of thought
      Prof. Tarun Sony
    • 194. Prof. Tarun Sony
    • 195. 3Cs
    • 196. 4ps
    • 197. A more holistic view
      Prof. Tarun Sony
    • 198. So what does a marketing plan contain?
      Actionable decisions With backup for decision
      Prof. Tarun Sony
    • 209. The information technology (IT) effect
      The spread of information and communications technology is fundamentally changing the nature of marketing strategy and operations.
    • 210. Example: Palm Jebel Ali
      Palm Jebel Ali
    • 211. Have a clear vision and go achieve it!Thanks
      Tarek Salah Kamel
      Management of Technology MSc., Nile University
      Tarek.kamel@nileu.edu.eg

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