Groupthink             (‫ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻝ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﻌﻲ‬Translated and updated by Tarek Salah: tarek.salah.kamel@gmail.com ...
Part 1                     1. What is it?                           ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻭ؟‬          2. Why should we care about it?     ...
1. What is groupthink? 1 of 2                      ��9* } � 7                          1� �8"• Groupthink          is    a...
1. What is groupthink? 2 of 2                   ��9* � �$] � 7                        1�       �8"• Groupthink occurs when...
‫‪Symptoms of Groupthink‬‬                                  ‫ﺍﻷﻋﺭﺍﺽ‬‫.1‬   ‫‪Type 1: (Overestimations of the‬‬            ...
1. Illusion of Invulnerability                     ُ                (‫ﻭﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻋﺔ )ﻧﺣﻥ ﻻ ﻧﻘﻬﺭ‬• Creates excessive optimism...
2. Unquestioned Belief in Inherent Morality                ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺗﻘﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ/ﺍﻟﻔﺿﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺄﺻﻠﺔ‬• Members believe in the rig...
3. Collective Rationalization  ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺳﻭﻳﻎ/ﺍﻟﺗﺑﺭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ/ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺗﺭﻙ‬                 • Members discount warnings              ...
4. Stereotyped Views of Out-groups   .‫ﺗﻧﻣﻳﻁ ﺍﻵﺧﺭﻳﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺷﻳﺩﺓ‬                   • Negative views of “enemy”  ...
5. Direct Pressure on Dissenters            ‫ﺍﻟﺿﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺎﻟﻑ/ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺷﻕ/ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬• Members are under pressure not  to...
6. Self-censorship   ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺗﻳﺔ‬         • Doubts and deviations from           the perceived group           consen...
7. Illusion of Unanimity                          ‫ﻭﻫﻡ ﺍﻹﺟﻣﺎﻉ‬ The majority view and  judgments are  assumed to be  unani...
8. Self-appointed ‘Mind-Guards’      ‫ﺗﻧﺻﻳﺏ ﻁﻭﻋﻲ ﻟﺣﺭﺍﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻝ‬            • Members protect the group and the              ...
Video of NASA groupthink famous Casehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qYpbStMyz_I&feature=topics         Reason for space shu...
‫‪Causes of Groupthink‬‬                             ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺑﺎﺏ‬‫‪1. High group cohesiveness‬‬                    ‫1. ﻗﻭﺓ ﺗﻣﺎ...
‫?‪2. Why should we care about groupthink‬‬       ‫ﻟﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻳﻧﺎ ﺍﻻﻫﺗﻣﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ؟ )ﻧﻣﺎﺫﺝ ﺃﺣﺩﺍﺙ ﺃﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﺔ(‬
Failur e to pr otect for ces at Pear l          Har bor in 19411941 ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺷﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻣﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻳﺭﻝ ﻫﺎﺭﺑﺭ‬
‫1691 ‪Bay of Pigs Fiasco in‬‬‫ﻓﺷﻝ ﻋﻣﻠﻳﺔ ﺧﻠﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﺧﻧﺎﺯﻳﺭ ﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻭﺑﺎ ﻓﻲ 1691‬
US Escalation of the Vietnam War     ‫ﺗﺻﻌﻳﺩ ﺃﻣﺭﻳﻛﺎ ﻟﻠﺣﺭﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻳﺗﻧﺎﻡ‬
Failed Rescue Attempt of Hostages at US             Embassy in Ir an ‫ﻓﺷﻝ ﻋﻣﻠﻳﺔ ﺇﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺭﻫﺎﺋﻥ ﺍﻟﺳﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﺔ ﺑﻁﻬﺭﺍﻥ‬
US Invasion of Iraq: Groupthink?           ‫ﻏﺯﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬
Predetermined Policy Decision about Iraq         and Saddam Hussein‫ﺍﻟﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺑﻕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺻﺩﺍﻡ ﺣﺳﻳﻥ‬            ...
Dealing with Dissenters         ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﻳﻥ/ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺎﻟﻔﻳﻥ/ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺷﻘﻳﻥ‬• Pressure not to express  arguments against any...
Imminent Danger from Weapons of Mass                 Destruction   ‫ﺍﻟﺧﻁﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺷﻳﻙ ﻣﻥ ﺃﺳﻠﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻣﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺷﺎﻣﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬        ...
‫?‪3. What can we do about it‬‬     ‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﻣﻛﻧﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﻌﻝ ﺣﻳﺎﻟﻪ؟‬
Remedies for Groupthink 1 of 3                                 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﺎﺕ‬•  The leader should assign the role of critical e...
Remedies for Groupthink 2 of 3                                  ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﺎﺕ‬• One or more experts should be invited to each m...
Remedies for Groupthink 3 of 3                                 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﺎﺕ‬• The organization should set up several independe...
‫‪Knowledge is Power‬‬   ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻡ‬
Think about underlying policies, assumptions and                  implications ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺄﻣﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻳﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺗﺭﺍﺿ...
‫ﺍﻟﺳﻣﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺣﻘﻳﻘﻲ ﺑﺗﺟﺭﺩ ﻭﺇﻧﺻﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺑﺣﺙ ﺍﻟﺣﺛﻳﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺻﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺣﻘﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻧﺎﻓﻊ‬            ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﻧﻔﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺣﻘﺎﺋﻕ ﻭﺍﻧﺻﻳﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺗﻐﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺳ...
Challenge Others to Think   ‫ﺗﺣﺩﻯ ﺍﻵﺧﺭﻳﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭﻫﻡ‬
ReferencesGroupthink: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groupthink
Supplement about Decision Making   and Constructive Controversy   ‫ﻣﻠﺣﻕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺗﺧﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺟﺩﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﺎن ﻣﺸﻬﻮرﺗﺎن ﻻﺗﺨﺎذ اﻟﻘﺮار ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬  ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﻟﻠﻭﺻﻭﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ‬        ‫ﺗﺄﻳﻳﺩ ﺍﺗﺟﺎﻩ ﻣﺣﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﻱ‬       ‫)‪(In...
‫ﺍﻟﺟﺩﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬  Constr uctive Contr over sy(Translated from original work of Professor Karl Smith, from                  ...
‫اﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎب اﻻﺧﺘﻼف ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮأي‬‫• اﻻﺧﺘﻼف ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮأي أﻣﺮ ﻻ ﻣﻔﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ، وﻫﺬا اﻻﺧﺘﻼف ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻳﺘﻢ‬                                  ‫ٍ َ ...
‫اﺗﺨﺎذ اﻟﻘﺮار ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬      ‫ﻋﺮض وﺟﻬﺎت اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺟﻮ ﻣﻦ اﳊﺮﻳﺔ واﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﻣﻦ اﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ.‬           ‫•‬‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ واﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓ...
‫ﻣﻬﺎرة وﺣﺮﻓﻴﺔ اﻻﺧﺘﻼف‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ اﻟﻘﺮار اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻛﺔ وﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﳒﺎح وﺧﺴﺎرة ﻷﺣﺪ‬                                  ‫ﻣﺸﱰ‬    ...
‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ ﻟﻠﺠﺪال اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬                                                  ‫أﻧﺎ أﻧﺘﻘﺪ اﻷﻓﻜﺎر وﻟﻴﺲ اﻷﺷﺨﺎص‬       ‫•‬           ...
‫إﺟﺮاءات اﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﺪال اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬                ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪاد ﻟﻠﺘﺪرﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ إﻟﻰ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت واﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬         ‫• اﻗ...
‫1- إﻋﺪاد وﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ اﻷدﻟﺔ )5 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Preparing Positions‬‬                        ‫ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ اﻟﻨﻘﺎط اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ واﻷدﻟﺔ اﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎ.‬...
‫2- ﻋﺮض اﻷدﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ رأي ﻣﺤﺪد )5 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Presenting Positions‬‬‫1. ﻤﻟﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻷوﱃ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ اﳌﻮﻗﻒ اﳌﺘﺨﺬ ﺑﻘﻮة واﺣﱰام ﺳﻮاء ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﻪ...
‫3- ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻮع )5 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Open Discussion‬‬                  ‫ﻋﺮض اﻷدﻟﺔ ﺑﻘﻮة ﺑﻐﺮض إﻗﻨﺎع ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ.‬    ‫1....
‫4- ﺗﺒﺎدل اﻷدوار )3 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Perspective Reversal‬‬           ‫اﻋﺮض أدﻟﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ اﻵﺧﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻣﻜﺎ�ﻢ.‬     ‫1.‬         ...
‫5- اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ إﻟﻰ ﻗﺮار )5 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Reaching a Decision‬‬                                   ‫ح اﻟﺘﺤﻴﺰ ﻟﺮأي ﻣﻌﲔ.‬ ‫اﻃﺮ‬   ‫1.‬...
For Further learning … (Or Internet Research)-    Conflict Management-    Active/Empathic listening-    Teamwork Dynamics ...
Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making
Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making
Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making
Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making
Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making
Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making
Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making
Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making

2,442

Published on

Groupthink phenomenon .. Translated and updated with other knowledge about team decision making and constructive controversy

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,442
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
231
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Groupthink - Dangerous Effect on Group Decision Making"

  1. 1. Groupthink (‫ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ )ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻝ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﻌﻲ‬Translated and updated by Tarek Salah: tarek.salah.kamel@gmail.com From Original source: www.psysr.org/about/pubs_resources/groupthinkpresentation.ppt
  2. 2. Part 1 1. What is it? ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻭ؟‬ 2. Why should we care about it? ‫ﻟﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻳﻧﺎ ﺍﻻﻫﺗﻣﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ؟‬ 3. What can we do about it? ‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﻣﻛﻧﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﻌﻝ ﺣﻳﺎﻟﻪ؟‬ Part 2Supplement about Decision Making and Constructive Controversy ‫ﻣﻠﺣﻕ ﻫﺎﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻳﺏ ﺍﺗﺧﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺩﺭﻳﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺟﺩﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬
  3. 3. 1. What is groupthink? 1 of 2 ��9* } � 7 1� �8"• Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within groups of people. It is the mode of thinking that happens when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints.‫• ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﻭ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻧﻔﺳﻳﺔ ﺗﺣﺩﺙ ﺩﺍﺧﻝ ﺟﻣﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺑﺷﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻭﺭﺓ ﻁﺭﻳﻘﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭ ﺗﻅﻬﺭ ﻋﻧﺩﻣﺎ ﺗﻛﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺳﺟﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﻳﺔ ﺍﺗﺧﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻁﺎﻏﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻣﺣﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﻘﻭﻳﻡ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﺩﺍﺋﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ. ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﺔ ﻳﺣﺎﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﺧﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻭﺻﻭﻝ‬ .‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺗﻭﺍﻓﻘﻲ ﺑﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻘﻭﻳﻡ ﻧﻘﺩﻱ ﻟﻸﻓﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺑﺩﻳﻠﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ‬
  4. 4. 1. What is groupthink? 2 of 2 ��9* � �$] � 7 1� �8"• Groupthink occurs when a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of “Mental Efficiency, Reality Testing, and Moral Judgment” (Irving Janis, 1972, p. 9)• The primary socially negative cost of groupthink is the loss of individual creativity, uniqueness, and independent thinking ‫ﺑﺎﺗﺧﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻧﺩﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺣﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﻁﺋﺔ ﺑﺳﺑﺏ ﺿﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻳﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺗﺩﻫﻭﺭ "ﺍﻟﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻳﺔ‬ ”‫ﻭﺍﺧﺗﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺣﻛﻡ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﺑﻳﺔ ﺍﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺎ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﻭ ﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺑﺩﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻱ ، ﻭﻏﻳﺎﺏ‬ .‫ﺗﻣﻳﺯﻩ ، ﻭﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﻝ‬
  5. 5. ‫‪Symptoms of Groupthink‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﺭﺍﺽ‬‫.1‬ ‫‪Type 1: (Overestimations of the‬‬ ‫1. ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ: )ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﻳﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ‬ ‫)‪group—its power and morality‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺿﻳﻠﺔ(‬ ‫.1‬ ‫‪Illusion of invulnerability to failure‬‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫1. ﻭﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻋﺔ )ﻧﺣﻥ ﻻ ﻧﻘﻬﺭ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻔﺷﻝ(‬ ‫.2‬ ‫‪Unquestioned belief in inherent‬‬ ‫2. ﺍﻻﻋﺗﻘﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ/ﺍﻟﻔﺿﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺄﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪morality‬‬ ‫2. ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻳﺔ )ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻐﻠﻘﺔ(‬‫.2‬ ‫)‪Type 2: (Closed-mindedness‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺳﻭﻳﻎ/ﺍﻟﺗﺑﺭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ/ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺗﺭﻙ )ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻋﺗﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫1.‬ ‫.1‬ ‫‪Collective rationalization‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺫﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﺭﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺗﺭﺍﺿﺎﺕ(‬ ‫.2‬ ‫‪Stereotyped views of out-groups‬‬ ‫ﺗﻧﻣﻳﻁ ﺍﻵﺧﺭﻳﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺷﻳﺩﺓ.‬ ‫2.‬‫.3‬ ‫‪Type 3: (Pressures toward‬‬ ‫3. ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ )ﺍﻟﺿﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﻠﺗﻭﺣﺩ(‬ ‫)‪uniformity‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺿﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺎﻟﻑ/ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺷﻕ/ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫1.‬ ‫.1‬ ‫‪Direct pressure on dissenters‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺗﻳﺔ‬ ‫2.‬ ‫.2‬ ‫‪Self-censorship‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻡ ﺍﻹﺟﻣﺎﻉ‬ ‫3.‬ ‫.3‬ ‫‪Illusion of unanimity‬‬ ‫ﺗﻧﺻﻳﺏ ﻁﻭﻋﻲ ﻟﺣﺭﺍﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻝ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﺣﺟﺑﻭﻥ‬ ‫4.‬ ‫.4‬ ‫‪Self-appointed ‘Mind-Guards’ that‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫‪screen out valuable information‬‬
  6. 6. 1. Illusion of Invulnerability ُ (‫ﻭﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻋﺔ )ﻧﺣﻥ ﻻ ﻧﻘﻬﺭ‬• Creates excessive optimism that encourages taking extreme risks. ‫• ﻳﺧﻠﻕ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﺎﺅﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻔﺭﻁ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻳﺷﺟﻊ‬ .‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺎﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺷﺩﻳﺩﺓ‬
  7. 7. 2. Unquestioned Belief in Inherent Morality ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺗﻘﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ/ﺍﻟﻔﺿﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺄﺻﻠﺔ‬• Members believe in the rightness of their cause and therefore ignore the ethical or moral consequences of their decisions. ‫• ﺃﻋﺿﺎء ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﻳﺅﻣﻧﻭﻥ ﺑﺻﻭﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﺿﻳﺗﻬﻡ، ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺟﺎﻫﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻧﻭﻳﺔ/ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻳﺔ ﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺗﻬﻡ‬
  8. 8. 3. Collective Rationalization ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺳﻭﻳﻎ/ﺍﻟﺗﺑﺭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ/ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺗﺭﻙ‬ • Members discount warnings and do not reconsider their assumptions. ‫• ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻋﺗﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺫﻳﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺭﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺗﺭﺍﺿﺎﺕ‬
  9. 9. 4. Stereotyped Views of Out-groups .‫ﺗﻧﻣﻳﻁ ﺍﻵﺧﺭﻳﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺷﻳﺩﺓ‬ • Negative views of “enemy” make effective responses to conflict seem unnecessary • Those who are opposed to the group are weak, evil, biased, spiteful, impotent, or stupid. ‫• ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺭ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﺑﻳﺔ ﻋﻥ "ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻭ” ﺗﺟﻌﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺻﺭﺍﻉ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻻ ﻟﺯﻭﻡ‬ .‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫• ﺃﻭﻟﺋﻙ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺿﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﺿﻌﻔﺎء‬ ‫، ﻣﺗﺣﻳﺯﻭﻥ، ﺃﺷﺭﺍﺭ ، ﺣﺎﻗﺩﻭﻥ ، ﻋﺎﺟﺯﻭﻥ‬ .‫، ﺃﻏﺑﻳﺎء‬
  10. 10. 5. Direct Pressure on Dissenters ‫ﺍﻟﺿﻐﻁ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺎﻟﻑ/ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺷﻕ/ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬• Members are under pressure not to express arguments against any of the group’s views. ‫• ﻳﺗﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻟﺿﻐﻭﻁ ﺗﺣﻭﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺑﺩﺍﺋﻬﻡ ﺣﺟﺟﻬﻡ ﺗﺟﺎﻩ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﻅﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ‬
  11. 11. 6. Self-censorship ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺗﻳﺔ‬ • Doubts and deviations from the perceived group consensus are not expressed ‫• ﺍﻟﺷﻛﻭﻙ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺣﺭﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﺻﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻻ ﻳﺗﻡ‬ .ً ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺑﻳﺭ ﻋﻧﻬﺎ ﺫﺍﺗﻳﺎ‬
  12. 12. 7. Illusion of Unanimity ‫ﻭﻫﻡ ﺍﻹﺟﻣﺎﻉ‬ The majority view and judgments are assumed to be unanimous. ‫ ﻳﻔﺗﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ُ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﺑﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﻛﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻛﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﻣﺎﻉ‬
  13. 13. 8. Self-appointed ‘Mind-Guards’ ‫ﺗﻧﺻﻳﺏ ﻁﻭﻋﻲ ﻟﺣﺭﺍﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻝ‬ • Members protect the group and the leader from information that is problematic or contradictory to the group’s cohesiveness, view, and/or decisions ‫• ﺍﻷﻋﺿﺎء ﻳﺣﻣﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﻭﻗﻳﺎﺩﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺣﺟﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺑﺩﻭ ﺇﺷﻛﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺗﻌﺎﺭﺿﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺭﺍﺑﻁ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﻭﺭﺃﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺗﻬﺎ‬
  14. 14. Video of NASA groupthink famous Casehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qYpbStMyz_I&feature=topics Reason for space shuttle Challenger disaster
  15. 15. ‫‪Causes of Groupthink‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺑﺎﺏ‬‫‪1. High group cohesiveness‬‬ ‫1. ﻗﻭﺓ ﺗﻣﺎﺳﻙ ﻭﺗﺭﺍﺑﻁ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺃﺟﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻘﺎء‬ ‫2. ﻋﻳﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺑﻧﺎء ﺍﻟﻬﻳﻛﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ:‬‫:‪2. Structural faults‬‬ ‫1. ﺍﻧﻌﺯﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫.1‬ ‫‪insulation of the group‬‬ ‫2. ﺍﻓﺗﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫.2‬ ‫‪lack of impartial leadership‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻧﺯﻳﻬﺔ/ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺿﻭﻋﻳﺔ/ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺎﻳﺩﺓ/ﻏﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﻳﺯﺓ‬ ‫.3‬ ‫‪lack of norms requiring‬‬ ‫3. ﻏﻳﺎﺏ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﺗﺧﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫‪methodological procedures‬‬ ‫ﺇﺟﺭﺍءﺍﺕ ﻣﻧﻬﺟﻳﺔ‬ ‫.4‬ ‫‪homogeneity of members social‬‬ ‫4. ﺗﺟﺎﻧﺱ ﺍﻟﺧﻠﻔﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻳﺩﻳﻭﻟﻭﺟﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪backgrounds and ideology‬‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬‫:‪3. Situational context‬‬ ‫3. ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻓﻲ‬ ‫.1‬ ‫‪highly stressful external threats‬‬ ‫1. ﺗﻬﺩﻳﺩﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻳﺔ ﺗﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺩﺓ‬ ‫.2‬ ‫‪recent failures‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺗﺭ/ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺩ/ﺍﻟﺿﻐﻁ‬ ‫.3‬ ‫‪excessive difficulties on the‬‬ ‫2. ﺇﺧﻔﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺣﺩﻳﺛﺔ‬ ‫‪decision-making task‬‬ ‫3. ﺻﻌﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺗﺯﺍﻳﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻬﻣﺔ ﺻﻧﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫.4‬ ‫‪moral dilemmas‬‬ ‫4. ﻣﻌﺿﻼﺕ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻳﺔ‬
  16. 16. ‫?‪2. Why should we care about groupthink‬‬ ‫ﻟﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻳﻧﺎ ﺍﻻﻫﺗﻣﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ؟ )ﻧﻣﺎﺫﺝ ﺃﺣﺩﺍﺙ ﺃﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﺔ(‬
  17. 17. Failur e to pr otect for ces at Pear l Har bor in 19411941 ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺷﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻣﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻳﺭﻝ ﻫﺎﺭﺑﺭ‬
  18. 18. ‫1691 ‪Bay of Pigs Fiasco in‬‬‫ﻓﺷﻝ ﻋﻣﻠﻳﺔ ﺧﻠﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﺧﻧﺎﺯﻳﺭ ﻟﻘﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻭﺑﺎ ﻓﻲ 1691‬
  19. 19. US Escalation of the Vietnam War ‫ﺗﺻﻌﻳﺩ ﺃﻣﺭﻳﻛﺎ ﻟﻠﺣﺭﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻳﺗﻧﺎﻡ‬
  20. 20. Failed Rescue Attempt of Hostages at US Embassy in Ir an ‫ﻓﺷﻝ ﻋﻣﻠﻳﺔ ﺇﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺭﻫﺎﺋﻥ ﺍﻟﺳﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﺔ ﺑﻁﻬﺭﺍﻥ‬
  21. 21. US Invasion of Iraq: Groupthink? ‫ﻏﺯﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬
  22. 22. Predetermined Policy Decision about Iraq and Saddam Hussein‫ﺍﻟﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺑﻕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺻﺩﺍﻡ ﺣﺳﻳﻥ‬ • Discount warnings and do not reconsider their assumptions even as other countries challenge them ‫• ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻋﺗﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺫﻳﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺗﺭﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺣﺗﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺷﻛﻳﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ ﻓﻳﻬﺎ‬
  23. 23. Dealing with Dissenters ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿﻳﻥ/ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺎﻟﻔﻳﻥ/ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺷﻘﻳﻥ‬• Pressure not to express arguments against any of the administration’s actions. ‫• ﺍﻟﺿﻐﻁ ﻟﻌﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺑﻳﺭ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺟﺞ ﺗﺧﺎﻟﻑ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﺔ‬
  24. 24. Imminent Danger from Weapons of Mass Destruction ‫ﺍﻟﺧﻁﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺷﻳﻙ ﻣﻥ ﺃﺳﻠﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻣﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺷﺎﻣﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬ • Selective bias in processing information at hand ‫• ﺍﻧﺣﻳﺎﺯ ﺍﻧﺗﻘﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺎﺣﺔ‬
  25. 25. ‫?‪3. What can we do about it‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﻣﻛﻧﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﻌﻝ ﺣﻳﺎﻟﻪ؟‬
  26. 26. Remedies for Groupthink 1 of 3 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﺎﺕ‬• The leader should assign the role of critical evaluator to each member. This allows each member to freely air objections and doubts 37 ^7 § �§ 3} $�� ��� ℠1� 7 }£9 .5 $�5} �1�1 � �1$ �}$¹ $�� �� 37 8" $]* } 4� • �° 87 � �} 7 �� 7 .8�1�# 1 8"* }�"7} 5• The leader should avoid stating preferences and expectations at the outset �}��� £* ^717 �* @ $ ~ * }1 ~ ⁶ 7 �"� ��£ † 5 " $]* } 4� • } $"} � 7� �* 8�1"� 5 } ℗ �� 7• Each member of the group should routinely discuss the groups deliberations with a trusted associate and report back to the group on the associates reactions �7 �7 � 8§ � 1@ �7 61 ^711℗ } 87� ~ � 1 * ^� $�� �� 4� • ��" $�"1 11 �# 1� � 1 1 1}$1 7 .�7 � }£9 �8� $� 37 ^711℗ � �# } 1�
  27. 27. Remedies for Groupthink 2 of 3 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﺎﺕ‬• One or more experts should be invited to each meeting on a staggered basis and encouraged to challenge views of the members. ‫ﻳﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﺩﻋﻭﺓ ﺧﺑﻳﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻛﻝ ﺍﺟﺗﻣﺎﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻭﺍﻋﻳﺩ ﻣﺗﻌﺎﻗﺑﺔ ﻭﺗﺷﺟﻳﻌﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣﺩﻱ‬ • ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻧﻅﺭ ﺍﻷﻋﺿﺎء‬• At least one member should be given the role of devils advocate (to question assumptions and plans) ‫• ﻳﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻌﺏ ﻋﺿﻭﺍ ﻭﺍﺣﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻝ ﺩﻭﺭ ”ﻣﺣﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺷﻳﻁﺎﻥ“ )ﻟﻳﺷﻛﻙ/ﻟﻳﺳﺗﺟﻭﺏ/ﻟﻳﻧﺎﻗﺵ‬ ُ (‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻓﺗﺭﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺧﻁﻁ ﻭﻳﻔﻧﺩﻫﺎ‬• The leader should make sure that a sizeable block of time is set aside to survey warning signals. ‫• ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺗﺭﻙ ﻗﺩﺭﺍً ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺫﻳﺭﻳﺔ ... ﻳﺗﺭﻙ ﻓﺭﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺭﺍﺟﻌﺔ‬ .‫ﻣﺭﺓ ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﺑﻌﺩ ﻗﺭﺍءﺓ ﺁﺧﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﺟﺩﺍﺕ‬
  28. 28. Remedies for Groupthink 3 of 3 ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﺎﺕ‬• The organization should set up several independent groups, working on the same problem. ‫• ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺔ ﺗﻛﻭﻳﻥ ﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺳﺗﻘﻠﺔ ﺗﻌﻣﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺣﺙ ﻧﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬• Training and adapting to constructive controversy exercises (check supplement at the end) (‫• ﺍﻟﺗﺩﺭﻳﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻳﺏ ﺍﻟﺟﺩﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻧﺎء )ﻣﻠﺣﻕ ﺗﻔﺻﻳﻝ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺿﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
  29. 29. ‫‪Knowledge is Power‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻡ‬
  30. 30. Think about underlying policies, assumptions and implications ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺄﻣﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻳﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺗﺭﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺩﺍﻋﻳﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬
  31. 31. ‫ﺍﻟﺳﻣﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺣﻘﻳﻘﻲ ﺑﺗﺟﺭﺩ ﻭﺇﻧﺻﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺑﺣﺙ ﺍﻟﺣﺛﻳﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺻﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺣﻘﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻧﺎﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﻧﻔﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺣﻘﺎﺋﻕ ﻭﺍﻧﺻﻳﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺗﻐﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﺱ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‬
  32. 32. Challenge Others to Think ‫ﺗﺣﺩﻯ ﺍﻵﺧﺭﻳﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭﻫﻡ‬
  33. 33. ReferencesGroupthink: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groupthink
  34. 34. Supplement about Decision Making and Constructive Controversy ‫ﻣﻠﺣﻕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺗﺧﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺟﺩﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬
  35. 35. ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﺎن ﻣﺸﻬﻮرﺗﺎن ﻻﺗﺨﺎذ اﻟﻘﺮار ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﻟﻠﻭﺻﻭﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻳﻳﺩ ﺍﺗﺟﺎﻩ ﻣﺣﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫)‪(Inquir y‬‬ ‫)‪(Advocacy‬‬ ‫ﺣﻝ ﻣﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻛﺭﺓ ﺍﺗﺧﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺗﺑﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻘﻳﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻧﺎﻉ ﻭﺟﻠﺏ ﺍﻷﻧﺻﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻗﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻛﺭ ﻧﻘﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺗﻛﻠﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺗﺟﺎﻩ ﻣﺣﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﻧﺎﻉ ﺑﻘﻭﺓ ، ﺍﻟﺩﻓﺎﻉ‬‫ﻋﺭﺽ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﻣﻌﺗﺩﻟﺔ ، ﺍﻧﺗﻅﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻌﻣﻝ ﺑﻘﻭﺓ ،‬‫ﺃﻱ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ، ﺗﻘﺑﻝ ﺍﻟﻧﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﻛﻝ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻠﻳﻝ ﻣﻥ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺿﻌﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺑﻧﺎء ﺑﻣﻭﺿﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻧﻁﻘﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺧﻔﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻏﻳﺭ ﻣﺷﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺗﻼﻙ ﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺋﺯﻳﻥ ﻭﺧﺎﺳﺭﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬
  36. 36. ‫ﺍﻟﺟﺩﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ Constr uctive Contr over sy(Translated from original work of Professor Karl Smith, from University of Minnesota) http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/ check his research work
  37. 37. ‫اﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎب اﻻﺧﺘﻼف ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮأي‬‫• اﻻﺧﺘﻼف ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮأي أﻣﺮ ﻻ ﻣﻔﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ، وﻫﺬا اﻻﺧﺘﻼف ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ٍ َ ٍ‬ ‫ﺑﺜﻪ ﺑﻮﺿﻮح ، وﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﻴّﺲ ﻣﺘﺤﻀﺮ.‬‫• اﻟﺘﺤﻀﺮ واﻟﻜﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﻳﻌﻨﻴﺎن اﺣﺘﺮام اﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ، واﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪاد ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻤﺎع اﻟﻰ‬‫وﺟﻬﺎت ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻀﻨﺎ اﻟﺒﻌﺾ ، وﻣﻤﺎرﺳﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ اﻧﺘﻘﺎد‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎت ووﺟﻬﺎت ﻧﻈﺮ اﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ دون اﻧﺘﻘﺎد أﺷﺨﺎﺻﻬﻢ.‬‫• ذﻟﻚ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﺪال اﻟﻤﺘﺤﻀﺮ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮد إﻟﻰ ﺣﻠﻮل ﺟﺪﻳﺪة‬‫وﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮة ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ ، ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺪث ﻓﻲ ﺟﻮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻴﺎﺳﺔ ،‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻌﺎون ، واﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎع ﺣﻮل ﻫﺪف ﻣﺸﺘﺮك.‬
  38. 38. ‫اﺗﺨﺎذ اﻟﻘﺮار ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺮض وﺟﻬﺎت اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺟﻮ ﻣﻦ اﳊﺮﻳﺔ واﻟﻘﺒﻮل ﻣﻦ اﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ.‬ ‫•‬‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ واﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎت ﰲ وﺟﻬﺎت اﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻛﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﺸﺮي ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺰام اﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ واﻟﻨﺰاﻫﺔ وﻋﺪم اﻟﺘﺤﻴﺰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺴﺔ وﺟﻬﺎت اﻟﻨﻈﺮ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺐ اﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ اﻟﻨﻘﺪي.‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﻣﻦ ﳝﺜﻞ دور اﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎت ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎح ﺑﻔﺮﺻﺔ أﺧﺮى ﻟﻼﺟﺘﻤﺎع واﲣﺎذ اﻟﻘﺮار.‬ ‫•‬
  39. 39. ‫ﻣﻬﺎرة وﺣﺮﻓﻴﺔ اﻻﺧﺘﻼف‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ اﻟﻘﺮار اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻛﺔ وﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﳒﺎح وﺧﺴﺎرة ﻷﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﱰ‬ ‫•‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﲔ.‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎد اﻷﻓﻜﺎر وﻟﻴﺲ اﻷﺷﺨﺎص.‬ ‫•‬ ‫اﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻗﺪرة اﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ اﲣﺎذ رأي ﳐﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻊ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺘﻬﻢ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ذﻫﺒﻮا إﻟﻴﻪ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮاد ﻣﻦ ردود ﻓﻌﻞ اﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ آراﺋﻬﻢ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫إﺛﺮاء ﺗﻌﺪد اﻵراء ﻗﺒﻞ اﻻﺗﻔﺎق ﻋﻠﻰ رأي �ﺎﺋﻲ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ اﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻘﺪ رأﻳﻪ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫إﻋﻄﺎء ﻛﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ داﺧﻞ ﻤﻟﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة ﺣﻘﻪ ﰲ اﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎع ﻟﻪ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫اﺗﺒﺎع أﻛﺜﺮ اﻵراء ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ وﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺗﻔﺎق ﺣﻮﳍﺎ.‬ ‫•‬
  40. 40. ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ ﻟﻠﺠﺪال اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻧﺘﻘﺪ اﻷﻓﻜﺎر وﻟﻴﺲ اﻷﺷﺨﺎص‬ ‫•‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻧﺎﻗﺶ وأﻓﻨﺪ أﻓﻜﺎر اﳌﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺑﺪون إﻇﻬﺎر أﻧﲏ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎً أﺧﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ.‬ ‫•‬‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﺬﻛﺮ داﺋﻤﺎً أﻧﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬا اﻷﻣﺮ ﺳﻮﻳﺎً ، ﻓﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻛﻴﺰي ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻮﺻﻮل إﱃ أﻓﻀﻞ ﻗﺮار‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﺸﱰك وﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎر ﻟﺮأﻳﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ.‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺷﺠﻊ اﻟﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺔ وأﺣﺎول اﻟﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ اﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﻮﺿﻮع اﲣﺎذ اﻟﻘﺮار.‬ ‫اﳌﺸﺎر‬ ‫•‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺳﺘﻤﻊ إﱃ أﻓﻜﺎر اﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨﺖ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺎً ﳍﺎ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺻﺮﳛﺔ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻛﺮر ﻣﺎ ﲰﻌﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎن ﻏﲑ واﺿﺢ ﻷﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻤﻲ ﻟﻪ ﻓﻬﻤﺎً ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎً.‬ ‫•‬‫أﻧﺎ أﺣﺎول إﻇﻬﺎر ﻛﺎﻓﺔ اﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ واﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﳌﺆﻳﺪ ﻟﻜﻼ اﻟﺮأﻳﲔ ﰒ أﺣﺎول اﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ إذا ﻛﺎن اﳉﻤﻊ ﳑﻜﻨﺎً.‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﺒﲎ اﻟﺮأي اﻟﺬي ﺧﺎﻟﻔﺘﻪ أوﻻً ﻣﱴ ﻇﻬﺮ ﱄ ﻗﻮة ﺣﺠﺘﻪ وﻏﻠﺒﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ اﻵراء.‬ ‫•‬
  41. 41. ‫إﺟﺮاءات اﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﺪال اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪاد ﻟﻠﺘﺪرﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ إﻟﻰ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت واﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫• اﻗﺘﺮاﺣﺎت ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫• اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬ ‫• أﻓﻀﻞ أدﻟﺘﻨﺎ ﻫﻲ ....‬ ‫• إﻋﺪاد وﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ اﻷدﻟﺔ‬ ‫• اﻟﺮأي ﻫﻮ ... واﻷدﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ...‬ ‫• ﻋﺮض اﻷدﻟﺔ‬‫• ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻜﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ.... ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫• ﺣﻮار ﻣﻔﺘﻮح وﻣﺤﺎوﻟﺔ ﻧﻘﺾ أدﻟﺔ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻨﺎ أﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﺎً ﺑﺴﺒﺐ....‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫• ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻜﻢ ﻫﻮ .... ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ....‬ ‫• ﺗﺒﺎدل اﻷدوار‬‫• ﻣﻮﻗﻔﻨﺎ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎً ﺑﻌﺪ اﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻵراء‬ ‫• ﻃﺮح اﻟﺘﺤﻴﺰ وﻣﺤﺎوﻟﺔ اﻟﻮﺻﻮل ﻟﻠﺮأي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻫﻮ ...‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮاب ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬
  42. 42. ‫1- إﻋﺪاد وﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ اﻷدﻟﺔ )5 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Preparing Positions‬‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ اﻟﻨﻘﺎط اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ واﻷدﻟﺔ اﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎ.‬ ‫1.‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺔ ﻋﻀﻮي اﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﰲ ﻋﺮض اﻷدﻟﺔ واﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ.‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎر‬ ‫2.‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل أﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺮأي‬ ‫3.‬‫اﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ اﳌﻮﻗﻒ اﳌﺘﺨﺬ ﺑﻘﻮة واﺣﱰام ﺳﻮاء ﻛﻨﺖ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ اﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ أم ﻻ.‬ ‫4.‬ ‫أﺟﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷدﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ اﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ.‬ ‫ﱢ‬ ‫5.‬
  43. 43. ‫2- ﻋﺮض اﻷدﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ رأي ﻣﺤﺪد )5 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Presenting Positions‬‬‫1. ﻤﻟﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻷوﱃ ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ اﳌﻮﻗﻒ اﳌﺘﺨﺬ ﺑﻘﻮة واﺣﱰام ﺳﻮاء ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﻪ ﰲ‬ ‫اﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ أم ﻻ.‬ ‫2. ﻤﻟﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻷﺧﺮى ﺗﺴﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ وﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻠﺤﻮﻇﺎﻬﺗﺎ ﰲ ورﻗﺔ إن ﺷﺎءت.‬ ‫3. ﺗﺘﺒﺎدل ﻤﻟﻤﻮﻋﺘﺎن اﻟﻌﺮض واﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎع.‬
  44. 44. ‫3- ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻮع )5 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Open Discussion‬‬ ‫ﻋﺮض اﻷدﻟﺔ ﺑﻘﻮة ﺑﻐﺮض إﻗﻨﺎع ﻛﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻶﺧﺮ.‬ ‫1.‬ ‫ﻋﺮض ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ اﻟﺴﻴﺎق.‬ ‫2.‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎع ﺑﻮﻋﻲ ﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻷدﻟﺔ وﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﺳﻴﺎق اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ.‬ ‫3.‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺐ اﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻃﺮف.‬ ‫4.‬ ‫ﻋﺮض أدﻟﺔ ﻣﻀﺎدة ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ.‬ ‫5.‬ ‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮ: ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﳉﺪال اﳌﺘﺤﻀﺮ.‬ ‫6.‬
  45. 45. ‫4- ﺗﺒﺎدل اﻷدوار )3 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Perspective Reversal‬‬ ‫اﻋﺮض أدﻟﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ اﻵﺧﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻣﻜﺎ�ﻢ.‬ ‫1.‬ ‫ﻛﻦ ﻗﻮﻳﺎً ﰲ اﻟﻌﺮض وﻣﻘﻨﻌﺎً.‬ ‫2.‬ ‫أﺻﻠﺢ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺮض إن ﺟﺪﻬﺗﺎ ﻏﲑ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ.‬ ‫3.‬ ‫أﺿﻒ أدﻟﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪة أو ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ أﺧﺮى إن أردت.‬ ‫4.‬
  46. 46. ‫5- اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ إﻟﻰ ﻗﺮار )5 دﻗﺎﺋﻖ( )‪(Reaching a Decision‬‬ ‫ح اﻟﺘﺤﻴﺰ ﻟﺮأي ﻣﻌﲔ.‬ ‫اﻃﺮ‬ ‫1.‬ ‫ﳋﺺ وﲨﻊ أﻓﻀﻞ اﻷدﻟﺔ‬ ‫2.‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ إﱃ اﺗﻔﺎق ﻣﺪﻋﻮم ﲝﻘﺎﺋﻖ أو أﻗﻮى اﻷدﻟﺔ.‬ ‫3.‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮاً ﲟﺎ ﺣﺪث.‬ ‫4.‬ ‫أﻋﺪ ﻛﻼ اﻟﻔﺮﻳﻘﲔ ﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎر ﻓﺮدي ﺣﻮل اﳌﻮﻗﻒ اﳌﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ.‬ ‫5.‬
  47. 47. For Further learning … (Or Internet Research)- Conflict Management- Active/Empathic listening- Teamwork Dynamics (FORM, STORM, NORM, PERFOM)- Groupthink Phenomena in High Stress Cohesive Teams- Leadership Skills (Level 5 Leadership, Harvard Business School)- Knowledge Management- Collaborative Learning Schemes (Pedagogy, Epistemology)- Communities of Practice- Knowledge Management
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×