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Location-aware Digital Collections: Opportunities and Challenges Tito Sierra, Brian Dietz, and Markus Wust NCSU Libraries ...
Outline <ul><li>The Mobile Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Location-aware Digital Collections </li></ul><ul><li>The WolfWalk...
The Mobile Opportunity
Guessing Game
Source:  Flickr user  ted.sali
23rd Century  Star Trek Tricorder (designed in the 1960s)
Source:  Flickr user  clarksworth
24th Century  Star Trek Tricorder (designed in the 1980s)
Star Trek Tricorder <ul><li>Location scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Data communication (to/from starship) </li></ul><ul><li>Ho...
Star Trek Tricorder <ul><li>Location scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Data communication (to/from starship) </li></ul><ul><li>Ho...
fast forward several years…
Apple iPhone (2007) Source:  Flickr user shapeshift
Apple iPhone 4 (2010) Source: www.apple.com
The Future is Now <ul><li>Star Trek Tricorder </li></ul><ul><li>Location scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Data communication (to...
Apple iPhone 4 (2010) <ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Audio microphone </li></ul><ul><li>Digital compass </li></ul><ul><l...
Not Just Apple <ul><li>Google Android </li></ul><ul><li>Palm Pre </li></ul><ul><li>Blackberry </li></ul>
<ul><li>Today’s mobile computing technology provides a rich toolset for  significantly   enhancing the   user experience  ...
<ul><li>How should libraries approach this opportunity? </li></ul>
Location-aware Digital Collections
Defining ‘Location-aware DCs’ <ul><li>An emerging model for providing access to digital collections and archives that leve...
Defining ‘Location-aware DCs’ <ul><li>An emerging model for providing access to digital collections and archives that leve...
‘ In Situ  Learning’ Concept <ul><li>Learning that happens within a real-world physical context. </li></ul>
‘ In Situ  Learning’ Concept <ul><li>Learning that happens within a real-world physical context. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a n...
Traditional Examples
Source:  Flickr user  Corey Ann
Source:  Flickr user  garryknight
Source:  Flickr user  unforth
Technology Enhanced Examples
Source:  Flickr user  opacity
Source:  Flickr user  HowardLake
 
Source:  Flickr user  inju
Source:  Flickr user  inju
Location-aware Examples
PhillyHistory.org
PhillyHistory.org
PhillyHistory.org
LookBackMaps
LookBackMaps
LookBackMaps
LookBackMaps
Gowalla Trips
Gowalla Trips
Gowalla Trips
The WolfWalk Project
The WolfWalk Project <ul><li>A historical guide to NC State campus </li></ul><ul><li>University Archives Photo Collection ...
User Perspective <ul><li>Make it easy for the NC State campus community to learn about the history of campus  while on cam...
User Perspective Jason Casden, NCSU Libraries
Library Perspective <ul><li>Increase the impact of library archives and special collections by creating a new access model...
Access Models <ul><li>Physical materials access </li></ul><ul><li>Digital library website access </li></ul><ul><li>Locatio...
Todd Kosmerick and Adam Berenbak, NCSU Libraries
Albums from UA023.005 Campus Views and Facilities Sub-Group
Markus Wust, NCSU Libraries
Jason Casden, NCSU Libraries
 
WolfWalk Project Scope <ul><li>WolfWalk is a curated collection of new and existing content organized around campus sites ...
WolfWalk Project Scope <ul><li>WolfWalk is a curated collection of new and existing content organized around campus sites ...
About the Collection <ul><li>90 campus sites </li></ul>
About the Collection <ul><li>90 campus sites </li></ul><ul><li>Newly authored site descriptions </li></ul>
About the Collection <ul><li>90 campus sites </li></ul><ul><li>Newly authored site descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>600 imag...
About the Collection <ul><li>90 campus sites </li></ul><ul><li>Newly authored site descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>600 imag...
WolfWalk Project Scope <ul><li>WolfWalk is not designed to be a comprehensive interface to all of our digitized collection...
 
DukeMobile Library Collections Source:  news.duke.com
WolfWalk Demo
WolfWalk Mobile Web http://m.lib.ncsu.edu/wolfwalk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
WolfWalk iPhone App Search the App Store for ‘wolfwalk’
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Project Team <ul><li>Tito Sierra , Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Jason Casden , Digital Library Initiative...
Break for Q&A
Implementation Challenges
Content Copyright and Reuse <ul><li>How does providing a new access method to digitized collections affect terms of use? <...
Content Copyright and Reuse <ul><li>How does providing a new access method to digitized collections affect terms of use? <...
Metadata Issues <ul><li>Is metadata created for one form of access adequate or appropriate for others?  </li></ul>
 
Historical State  <ul><li>Title:  President D. H. Hill and staff, North Carolina College of Agriculture and  Mechanic Arts...
WolfWalk <ul><li>Title:  D.H. Hill (with pocket watch) and NC State staff </li></ul><ul><li>Site:  DH Hill Library </li></...
Media Formatting for Mobile <ul><li>How best to provide high quality images/audio/video without bogging down a device? </l...
Media Formatting for Mobile <ul><li>Two options for mobile apps:  </li></ul><ul><li>Bundle media with the downloaded app o...
Geo Metadata Issues  <ul><li>How do you geotag very large digital collections in a scalable way? </li></ul>
Geo Metadata Issues  <ul><li>How do you geotag very large digital collections in a scalable way? </li></ul><ul><li>How doe...
Geo Metadata Issues <ul><li>Do you geotag individual objects, such as photographs, or groups of objects representing the s...
Practical Considerations <ul><li>The mobile device landscape is diverse, and will continue to be so in the foreseeable fut...
Practical Considerations <ul><li>Location-aware mobile interfaces assume some level of data connectivity, which may vary i...
Future Directions
Organizational Collaboration <ul><li>Cross-institutional collaboration to create metadata aggregators </li></ul><ul><li>Gr...
Growth of Geo Platforms <ul><li>Commercial, location-aware social platforms (e.g., Foursquare, Gowalla) are becoming incre...
Growth of Geo Platforms <ul><li>New models for promotion of collections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get “rewards” for visiting p...
New Access Models <ul><li>Augmented Reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blending the real and the virtual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Layar Source: layar.eu
Situated Simulations
Situated Simulations
Final Thoughts
The Future is Too Bright  <ul><li>We've only scratched the surface of what is already possible technologically, let alone ...
Adaptability <ul><li>The current “state-of-the-art” in mobile computing will become commonplace in only a few years time. ...
Learn by Doing <ul><li>Mobile and location-aware access to collections is an emerging area with few existing models.  Work...
Thank You! <ul><li>Tito Sierra </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Head, Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>[email_addr...
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Location-aware Digital Collections: Opportunities and Challenges

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Recent advances in mobile computing have created enormous opportunities for libraries to provide innovative user experiences with library services and collections. New mobile device platforms include technologies that enable the creation of location-aware services that utilize the user’s current location to enhance information discovery or content filtering. This presentation will focus on the application of these technologies to archives and special collections, using the recently developed NCSU Libraries WolfWalk project as a case study. We will examine the opportunities and challenges of building location-aware digital collections in the near term, and highlight possible future directions.

Delivered at the TRLN Annual Meeting in 2010.

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  • An tri-fold guide from the National Park Service about a Civil War battle in northern Virginia.
  • National Botanical Gardens, Wales.
  • Existing metadata is organized around a resource—the photograph—rather than a site.
  • Existing digital image collections, such as the University Archives Photograph Collection. Shown is an image of the Agricultural and Mechanical College Annual Cross County Run Hillsborough Street in 1910.
  • Existing digital image collections, such as the Edward T. Funkhouser Photographs. Shown is an image of the Krispy Kreme Challenge on Hillsborough Street in 2010.
  • UAPC physical collection: about 250,000 prints, negatives, and slides Digital content from UAPC: about 16,000 Edward T. Funkhouser Photographs: about 6,000 WolfWalk: about 600 images
  • Description of pictured sites vary in extent, quality, and structure, and, at the time WolfWalk began, was stored in production and legacy metadata databases.
  • Providing mobile access to digital content introduces some opportunities and challenges that are distinct from online digital collections.
  • For the WolfWalk project we opted to delivery images over the network, rather than package them with the app. To make this work well we had to strike a balance in terms of image quality and low network latency. We wanted to provide a quality image that afforded pinch to zoom without bogging down users’ devices. The benefit of sourcing media over the network is that we can add and edit content behind the scenes without requiring the user to re-download the app. The downside of this approach is that users are unable to access the content offline… a persistent data connection is required. We do not have an image server that could provide pre-sized images through a call to the server. All derivatives were created by hand and were reviewed for quality.
  • Transcript of "Location-aware Digital Collections: Opportunities and Challenges"

    1. 1. Location-aware Digital Collections: Opportunities and Challenges Tito Sierra, Brian Dietz, and Markus Wust NCSU Libraries TRLN Annual Meeting 2010 July 19, 2010
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>The Mobile Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Location-aware Digital Collections </li></ul><ul><li>The WolfWalk Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Future Directions </li></ul><ul><li>Final Thoughts </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Mobile Opportunity
    4. 4. Guessing Game
    5. 5. Source: Flickr user ted.sali
    6. 6. 23rd Century Star Trek Tricorder (designed in the 1960s)
    7. 7. Source: Flickr user clarksworth
    8. 8. 24th Century Star Trek Tricorder (designed in the 1980s)
    9. 9. Star Trek Tricorder <ul><li>Location scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Data communication (to/from starship) </li></ul><ul><li>Holographic messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Touch screen interface </li></ul><ul><li>Universal translator (alien languages) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Star Trek Tricorder <ul><li>Location scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Data communication (to/from starship) </li></ul><ul><li>Holographic messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Touch screen interface </li></ul><ul><li>Universal translator (alien languages) </li></ul><ul><li>SCIENCE FICTION </li></ul>
    11. 11. fast forward several years…
    12. 12. Apple iPhone (2007) Source: Flickr user shapeshift
    13. 13. Apple iPhone 4 (2010) Source: www.apple.com
    14. 14. The Future is Now <ul><li>Star Trek Tricorder </li></ul><ul><li>Location scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Data communication (to/from starship) </li></ul><ul><li>Holographic messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Touch screen interface </li></ul><ul><li>Universal translator (alien languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Apple iPhone 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted GPS </li></ul><ul><li>Data communication (3G and wifi) </li></ul><ul><li>Video calling </li></ul><ul><li>Touch screen interface </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-lingual support (human languages) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Apple iPhone 4 (2010) <ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Audio microphone </li></ul><ul><li>Digital compass </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerometer </li></ul><ul><li>Photo and video geotagging </li></ul><ul><li>High-definition screen display </li></ul>
    16. 16. Not Just Apple <ul><li>Google Android </li></ul><ul><li>Palm Pre </li></ul><ul><li>Blackberry </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Today’s mobile computing technology provides a rich toolset for significantly enhancing the user experience with library digital collections. </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>How should libraries approach this opportunity? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Location-aware Digital Collections
    20. 20. Defining ‘Location-aware DCs’ <ul><li>An emerging model for providing access to digital collections and archives that leverages the user’s current location to enhance information discovery, access, and interpretation. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Defining ‘Location-aware DCs’ <ul><li>An emerging model for providing access to digital collections and archives that leverages the user’s current location to enhance information discovery, access, and interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>An approach for creating in situ learning experiences with library collections. </li></ul>
    22. 22. ‘ In Situ Learning’ Concept <ul><li>Learning that happens within a real-world physical context. </li></ul>
    23. 23. ‘ In Situ Learning’ Concept <ul><li>Learning that happens within a real-world physical context. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a new concept! </li></ul>
    24. 24. Traditional Examples
    25. 25. Source: Flickr user Corey Ann
    26. 26. Source: Flickr user garryknight
    27. 27. Source: Flickr user unforth
    28. 28. Technology Enhanced Examples
    29. 29. Source: Flickr user opacity
    30. 30. Source: Flickr user HowardLake
    31. 32. Source: Flickr user inju
    32. 33. Source: Flickr user inju
    33. 34. Location-aware Examples
    34. 35. PhillyHistory.org
    35. 36. PhillyHistory.org
    36. 37. PhillyHistory.org
    37. 38. LookBackMaps
    38. 39. LookBackMaps
    39. 40. LookBackMaps
    40. 41. LookBackMaps
    41. 42. Gowalla Trips
    42. 43. Gowalla Trips
    43. 44. Gowalla Trips
    44. 45. The WolfWalk Project
    45. 46. The WolfWalk Project <ul><li>A historical guide to NC State campus </li></ul><ul><li>University Archives Photo Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Location-aware </li></ul><ul><li>Two versions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile web app </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPhone App </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. User Perspective <ul><li>Make it easy for the NC State campus community to learn about the history of campus while on campus . </li></ul>
    47. 48. User Perspective Jason Casden, NCSU Libraries
    48. 49. Library Perspective <ul><li>Increase the impact of library archives and special collections by creating a new access model for people to access and interpret this content. </li></ul>
    49. 50. Access Models <ul><li>Physical materials access </li></ul><ul><li>Digital library website access </li></ul><ul><li>Location-aware mobile access </li></ul>
    50. 51. Todd Kosmerick and Adam Berenbak, NCSU Libraries
    51. 52. Albums from UA023.005 Campus Views and Facilities Sub-Group
    52. 53. Markus Wust, NCSU Libraries
    53. 54. Jason Casden, NCSU Libraries
    54. 56. WolfWalk Project Scope <ul><li>WolfWalk is a curated collection of new and existing content organized around campus sites to enable a self-guided walking tour. </li></ul>
    55. 57. WolfWalk Project Scope <ul><li>WolfWalk is a curated collection of new and existing content organized around campus sites to enable a self-guided walking tour. </li></ul><ul><li>Target audience is the NC State community (alumni, students, parents) and visitors to campus. </li></ul>
    56. 58. About the Collection <ul><li>90 campus sites </li></ul>
    57. 59. About the Collection <ul><li>90 campus sites </li></ul><ul><li>Newly authored site descriptions </li></ul>
    58. 60. About the Collection <ul><li>90 campus sites </li></ul><ul><li>Newly authored site descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>600 images sourced from existing digital image collections </li></ul>NC State University Archives Photographic Collection
    59. 61. About the Collection <ul><li>90 campus sites </li></ul><ul><li>Newly authored site descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>600 images sourced from existing digital image collections </li></ul>Edward T. Funkhouser Photographs
    60. 62. WolfWalk Project Scope <ul><li>WolfWalk is not designed to be a comprehensive interface to all of our digitized collections. </li></ul>
    61. 64. DukeMobile Library Collections Source: news.duke.com
    62. 65. WolfWalk Demo
    63. 66. WolfWalk Mobile Web http://m.lib.ncsu.edu/wolfwalk
    64. 81. WolfWalk iPhone App Search the App Store for ‘wolfwalk’
    65. 92. Project Team <ul><li>Tito Sierra , Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Jason Casden , Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Markus Wust , Digital Scholarship and Publishing Center </li></ul><ul><li>Brian Dietz , Special Collections Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>Todd Kosmerick , Special Collections Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>Steven Morris , Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Ryan , Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul>
    66. 93. Break for Q&A
    67. 94. Implementation Challenges
    68. 95. Content Copyright and Reuse <ul><li>How does providing a new access method to digitized collections affect terms of use? </li></ul>
    69. 96. Content Copyright and Reuse <ul><li>How does providing a new access method to digitized collections affect terms of use? </li></ul><ul><li>Were the original terms of use clear to begin with? </li></ul>
    70. 97. Metadata Issues <ul><li>Is metadata created for one form of access adequate or appropriate for others? </li></ul>
    71. 99. Historical State <ul><li>Title: President D. H. Hill and staff, North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects: College presidents; Hill, D. H. (Daniel Harvey), 1859-1924; North Carolina State University; People; Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Site: [D. H. Hill Library (Raleigh, N.C.)] </li></ul><ul><li>Description: [D. H. Hill Library is named for Daniel Harvey Hill (1859-1924), an English professor at North Carolina State University and one of the college’s first five faculty members. He was president of the University from 1908-1916. The Library was built in four stages, the east wing first in 1953, the Erdahl-Cloyd Student Union or west wing second in 1954, the old book stack tower third in 1971, and the new book stack tower fourth in 1990. In 2007, a major renovation of the east wing of the library was completed. D. H. Hill Library is the main library of the NCSU Libraries system, which is composed of five library facilities.] </li></ul>
    72. 100. WolfWalk <ul><li>Title: D.H. Hill (with pocket watch) and NC State staff </li></ul><ul><li>Site: DH Hill Library </li></ul><ul><li>Description: After the first library, located in Brooks Hall, became too small, a new D.H. Hill Library was built in 1953. It was expanded in 1954 and towers were added in 1972 (Bookstack North) and 1990 (Bookstack South). Its namesake, D.H. Hill, was appointed professor of English and bookkeeping in 1889 and became one of the university's first five faculty members. He selected most of the library's books and served as the university's vice president from 1905 to 1908 and president from 1908 to 1916. </li></ul>
    73. 101. Media Formatting for Mobile <ul><li>How best to provide high quality images/audio/video without bogging down a device? </li></ul>
    74. 102. Media Formatting for Mobile <ul><li>Two options for mobile apps: </li></ul><ul><li>Bundle media with the downloaded app or serve media over the network. </li></ul>
    75. 103. Geo Metadata Issues <ul><li>How do you geotag very large digital collections in a scalable way? </li></ul>
    76. 104. Geo Metadata Issues <ul><li>How do you geotag very large digital collections in a scalable way? </li></ul><ul><li>How does geotagging fit into existing digitization workflows, if at all? </li></ul>
    77. 105. Geo Metadata Issues <ul><li>Do you geotag individual objects, such as photographs, or groups of objects representing the same geographic place? </li></ul>
    78. 106. Practical Considerations <ul><li>The mobile device landscape is diverse, and will continue to be so in the foreseeable future. The costs of testing mobile applications increases with the number of devices supported. </li></ul>
    79. 107. Practical Considerations <ul><li>Location-aware mobile interfaces assume some level of data connectivity, which may vary in quality from one geographic location to the next. </li></ul>
    80. 108. Future Directions
    81. 109. Organizational Collaboration <ul><li>Cross-institutional collaboration to create metadata aggregators </li></ul><ul><li>Greater geographical coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Greater content density </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location-aware interface to all available historical postcards in North Carolina </li></ul></ul>
    82. 110. Growth of Geo Platforms <ul><li>Commercial, location-aware social platforms (e.g., Foursquare, Gowalla) are becoming increasingly popular </li></ul><ul><li>Additional features (e.g., creation of tours/trips, uploading/linking images) may provide libraries, archives, and museums an option to reach a broader audience </li></ul>
    83. 111. Growth of Geo Platforms <ul><li>New models for promotion of collections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get “rewards” for visiting physical locations of images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move up in site visit rankings, become “Mayor” of a place of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share images with and recommend to other people in network </li></ul></ul>
    84. 112. New Access Models <ul><li>Augmented Reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blending the real and the virtual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlay virtual content on top of real-time images of physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple augmented reality already possible </li></ul>
    85. 113. Layar Source: layar.eu
    86. 114. Situated Simulations
    87. 115. Situated Simulations
    88. 116. Final Thoughts
    89. 117. The Future is Too Bright <ul><li>We've only scratched the surface of what is already possible technologically, let alone what will be possible in the next year or two. </li></ul>
    90. 118. Adaptability <ul><li>The current “state-of-the-art” in mobile computing will become commonplace in only a few years time. How do you keep up with evolving technology and user expectations? </li></ul>
    91. 119. Learn by Doing <ul><li>Mobile and location-aware access to collections is an emerging area with few existing models. Working in this space requires a willingness to experiment and openness to new ideas. </li></ul>
    92. 120. Thank You! <ul><li>Tito Sierra </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Head, Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Brian Dietz </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Program Librarian for Special Collections </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Markus Wust </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Collections and Preservation Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
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