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Syntax suuliinh

Syntax suuliinh






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    Syntax suuliinh Syntax suuliinh Presentation Transcript

    • SYNTAX Õýëíèé îíîë – 3 Lecturer : Ts.DAGIIMAA, PH.D
    • Õè ýýëèéí èíäåêñ: ENGL 203 Õè ýýëèéí íýð: Õýëíèé îíîë III / Àíãëè õýëíèé ªã¿¿ëáýð ç¿é / Àãóóëãûí áàãòààìæ: 3 êðåäèò Ñóäëàõ àíãè: Àíãëè õýëíèé áàãø, Àíãëè õýëíèé îð óóëàã Ñóäëàõ óëèðàë: V Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 2
    • Ëåêöèéí àãóóëãà 1. Sentence & Forms of the Subject 2. Complete Subject & Forms of the Predicate 3. Complements & Direct, Indirect Objects 4. Objective, Subject Complements & Adverbials 5. Adjunct, Conjunct, Disjunct & Structure of the sentence 6. Sentence patterns & Simple sentence 7. Compound sentence & Coordinating conjunction 8. Complex sentence, Clauses & Noun clause 9. Relative clauses & Adverbial clause of time Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 3
    • 10. Adverbial clause of place, manner, reason, condition & concession 11. Adverbial clause of purpose, result & Adjective clauses 12. Connectors & Conjunctions 13. Phrase, Appositive, Prepositional, Verbal & Participle phrases 14. Infinitives & Absolute phrase 15. Gerund & Passive Voice 16. Conditional sentences & Forms of Conditions Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 4
    • LECTURE 1 SENTENCE & FORMS OF THE SUBJECT Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 5
    • SYNTAX The term “Syntax” is from the Ancient Greek syntax, is a verbal noun which literally means “arrangement” or “setting out together“. Syn– together, taxis–sequence, order. Traditionally, it refers to the branch of grammar dealing with the ways in which words, with or without appropriate inflections, are arranged to show connections of meaning within the sentence. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 6
    • The expressions of a language involve a relationship between a sequence of sounds and a meaning, and this relationship is mediated by grammar, a core component of which is syntax. The study of sentence structure is syntax. It concerns how different words which are categorized as nouns, adjectives, verbs etc. Are combined into clauses which in turn combine into sentences. It means “Syntax” is concerned with the way words combine to form sentences. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 7
    • Syntax investigate into 5 levels : sentences, clauses, phrases, words, morphemes. Sentence are analyzed into clauses , clauses are analyzed into phrases. Phrases are analyzed into words, words are analyzed into morphemes. In other words, morphemes are used to build words. Words are used to build phrases. Phrases are used to build clauses. Clauses are used to build sentences. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 8
    • Kinds of Sentence Sentences can be classified in several different ways. • Simple, compound, complex, and complex – compound sentences are classifications according to the kinds of clause in them. • Loose, balanced and periodic sentences are classifications according the position of the subject and verb. • An embedded sentence is a grammatical structure that must be attached to an independent. • Declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory sentences are classifications to the way the sentence communicates an idea. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 9
    • 1. A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period. Most sentences that explain or persuade are declarative: They are coming. 2. An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. 3. An imperative sentence is a command and ends with a period: Come here. 4. An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamatory mark. They must come now! An exclamatory sentence has the same grammatical structure as a declarative sentence. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 10
    • Sentence The sentence is the largest unit of syntax. The sentence is the basic unit of communication in English. A sentence is a group of words that expresses and conveys a complete thought from a speaker or writer to a listener or reader. Clauses and phrases are the sub-units of a sentence. The five possible elements of clause structure are subject, predicate, object, complement, adverbial. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 11
    • Parts of the Sentence A simple sentence is a group of words having a subject and predicate and expressing complete thought. All sentences consist of two basic parts : subject ( S ) and predicate ( P ). The simple subject (SS) is the key noun or pronoun (word or group of words acting as a noun) that tells what a sentence is a about. Simple subject is always a noun or a pronoun. SS For example : The purity of revolution usually lasts about 2 weeks. SS Historical books that contain no lies are extremely tedious. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 12
    • Forms of the Subject The subject of the sentence has several formsThe most frequent forms are nouns, proper nouns and pronouns. We shall overcome. [personal pronoun functioning as the subject] Who is on third base? [interrogative pronoun functioning as the subject] Marcus Garvey was a charismatic leader. [proper noun functioning as the subject] Those comments annoyed Jack. [noun functioning as the subject] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 13
    • Occasionally, larger structures, such as noun clauses, gerund, phrases and infinitive phrases, can function as the subject of a sentence. For convenience, nouns, pronouns and these larger structures are called nominals. What he did annoyed Jill. [noun clause functioning as the subject] Playing chess amused Jack. [gerund phrase functioning as the subject] To collect every stamp issued by Mexico was Juanita‟s ambition. [infinitive phrase functioning as the subject] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 14
    • Simple and Complete Subjects The noun or pronoun by itself is the simple subject. This subject is important to identify because it controls the form of the verb. (The simple subject and the verb form it controls are in boldface type in these examples:) One of the ships is sinking. The mayor, as well as the councilmen, has been implicated. The noun phrase – that is, the noun and all its modifiers – is the complete subject. The complete subject (except for the boldface simple subject) is italicized in the examples above and below. The furniture that they had bought on Monday was delivered on Friday. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 15
    • The Compound Subject Sometimes more than one nominal can be used as the subject of the sentence. The combination of several nominals to express the topic of the sentence is called a compound subject . A compound subject is made up of two or more simple subjects that are joined by a conjunction and have the same verb. E.g.: Foxes, wolves and dogs eat only meat .The drivers and the loaders have threatened to strike. Not only the price but also the quality of their products fluctuates wildly. What he did and what he said were not the same. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 16
    • Complete Subject and Complete Predicate The complete subject (CS) consists of the simple subject and all the words that modify it or complete its meaning. The complete predicate (CP) consists of the simple predicate and all the words that modify it or complete its meaning. Complete Subject Complete Predicate The penguins of Antarctica dive into ice-cold water. The light rain will stop within an hour. The gifted Maya Angelou was featured in a newspaper article about contemporary authors. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 17
    • LECTURE 2 Predicate & Forms of the Predicate Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 18
    • Forms of the Predicate The predicate, what is being said about the topic of the sentence, always has a verb. The verb usually has a verb completion called an object or a complement. Like the noun or the pronoun, the verb often has modifiers. The predicate of the sentence is, in effect, made up of a verb, a verb comletion and some verb modifiers. The various forms of the predicate depend on the kind of verb and the kind of verb completion involved. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 19
    • The simple predicate (SP) is a verb or verb phrase that expresses the essential thought about the subject of the sentence. SP For example: Snow will stop. Simple Subject Snow Mary Ice Who Simple Predicate will stop. is playing. melts. flies? Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 20
    • To find the simple subject, ask Who? or What ? about the verb. For example: In the sentence “Mary is playing.” The noun Mary answers the question who played. The addition of other words and phrases to the simple subject and the simple predicate expands or modifies the meaning of a sentence. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 21
    • Predicate with a Transitive Verb The most frequent form of the predicate is one where the verb expresses some kind of action and is followed by a nominal. This nominal is called the object; the verb is called a transitive verb. In the following sentences the verbs brought, tuned and said are transitive verbs. They brought their guitars with them. Betty tuned the piano. After the party Jim said that they would have to clean the place. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 22
    • Most transitive verbs must be completed by their objects. The following examples are not complete English sentence. They brought with them. Betty tuned. After the party, Jim said. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 23
    • Some transitive verbs use two verb completions: a direct object and another structure called an indirect object or a complement, to refer to the object and complete the meaning of the verb. Both structures are needed to complete the thought. Compare : Incomplete Complete He gave his teacher. He gave his teacher the book. [indirect object and direct object] The problem made Jack. The problem made Jack sweat. [infinitive phrase (to) sweat as the complement] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 24
    • Nouns, pronouns and prepositional phrases starting with to or for can function as indirect objects. Eliseo gave twenty pesos to his brother. Eliseo gave his brother twenty pesos. Luis cooked a meal for his sister. Luis cooked his sister a meal. He called her a taxi. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 25
    • Nouns, pronouns, prepositional phrases, adjectives and verbal phrases can function as complements. He called her a star. [The complement a star refers to the object her; they identify the same person. This can easily be confused with the two-object form above: He called her a taxi. ( You‟re a taxi is not what is meant here!)] He thought the whole thing a bad joke. [The noun joke and its modifiers function as the complement.] I made him sick. [adjective as the complement] They heard their father leaving the house. [participle phrase as the complement] He put the book on the table. [The prepositional phrase on the table functions as the complement] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 26
    • Predicate with a Linking Verb When the verb expresses being, seeming or becoming, the verb is called a linking verb. These verbs are followed by a nominal, an adjective or an adverbial. (An adverbial is anything that works like an adverb). Not many verbs function as linking verbs, but those are used frequently: be, seem, become, remain, appear, look, feel, sound, taste, smell, grow. E.g.: Puerto Rico became a commonwealth in 1952. [noun as complement] Her point was that Michael Jordan was the greatest basketball player of all time. [noun clause as complement ] Rita will be at her music teacher‟s house. [the prepositional phrase is the complement. It is an adverbial telling where] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 27
    • Predicate with an Intransitive Verb Some verbs do not need an object to complete them. These verbs can stand by themselves, or they are completed by an adverbial that indicates location or direction. The adverbial is called the complement. The verb with or without the complement is called an intransitive verb. E.g.: The situation deteriorated. [Nothing completes the verb] The clouds vanished. [Nothing completes the verb] He lay down. [the adverbial down completes the verb. One cannot say He lay. This verb needs a complement to indicate where he lay.] He sat on the desk. [the adverbial on the desk is the complement] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 28
    • Compound Predicate A compound predicate (or compound verb) is made up of two or more verbs or verb phrases that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject.For example: Everyone stood and cheered. The silver dollar fell from his pocket and rolled away. Roy will do the dishes, wash the floor and cook dinner. Some sentences have both a compound subject and a compound predicate. S S P P E.g.: Mitsuo and Carrie sat down and ate lunch. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 29
    • Ordering of Subject and Predicate In most sentences in English, the subject precedes the verb. The following are some exceptions to this normal word order. 1. In the case of commands or request „you‟ is understood rather than expressed. E.g.: [You] stop! [You] Stand up. [You] please try again. 2. To add emphasis, a sentence can be written in inverted order, with the predicate coming before the subject. Predicate Subject On the plain are Beyond the river lay two frightened ostriches. freedom. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 30
    • 3. The predicate usually comes before the subject when the words there or here begins a sentence and is followed by a form of the verb To be. Predicate Subject Here is my opinion. There are many reasons to go. Depending on the meaning of the sentence, the same word may be intransitive verb. intransitive The car ran well. transitive Ben ran direct object his car into a telephone pole. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 31
    • LECTURE 3 Complements & Direct and Indirect Objects Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 32
    • Complements A complement is a word that is necessary to complete the meaning of a verb. The four kinds of complements are direct object, indirect object, object complements and subject complements. linking verb predicate adjective Barbara is friendly. transitive verb indirect object Barbara gave Charles direct object the ball. transitive verb direct object objective complement adjective Barbara found the work difficult. transitive verb direct object objective complement noun The committee elected Barbara chairperson. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 33
    • A linking verb must be followed by a predicate adjective and a predicate noun, a pronoun or an adverbial complement. A transitive verb in its active form must be followed by a direct object. Some transitive verbs can also be followed by indirect objects and some can be followed by objectives complement. direct object George found a Kite. indirect object Goerge found us direct object a Kite. direct object George found Henry objective complement difficult. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 34
    • Depending on the meaning of the sentence, the same word may be transitive or linking verb. transitive Arthur grew roses. linking verb Arthur direct object predicate objective grew fat. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 35
    • Direct Object A direct object answers the question What? or Whom? after an action verb. The subject of a sentence performs the action indicated by the verb. That action may be directed toward or received by someone or something - the direct object. Direct objects are nouns, pronouns or words acting as nouns. Only transitive verbs have direct objects. E.g.: Raymond needs money. [Raymond needs what?] Inez saw us at the game. [Inez saw whom?] Jerry explained what you meant. [Jerry exsplained what?] Lian invited Jamal and Paula to the party. [Lian invited whom?] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 36
    • A direct object follows an active verb. Somebody or something ( subject ) acts in some way ( verb ) on somebody or something ( direct object ) Subject Verb Direct object Mary threw the ball. Mary bought some ice-cream. The direct object is something or somebody different from the subject except for the rare direct object that is a reflexive pronoun. Subject Verb John hit John hit elbow. Direct object a ball himself (it) over the fence. (reflexivepronoun) on the Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 37
    • The direct object can be a noun, a noun phrase, an object pronoun, a noun clause, an –ing form, or an infinitive. Subject Verb Mary Mary Mary Mary Mary Mary threw bought bought bought likes likes Direct object the ball. (noun) some ice-cream. (noun phrase) it. (pronoun) whatever we wanted. (noun clause) eating ice-cream. (-ing form) to eat ice-cream. (infinitive) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 38
    • Indirect Object An indirect object answers the question to whom? for whom? to what? for what? after an action verb. In most cases a sentence must have a direct object in order to have an indirect object. The indirect object always appears between the verb and the direct object. E.g.: That noise gives me a headache. [that noise gives a headache to whom?] Michael brought Mary a gift. [Michael brought a gift for whom?] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 39
    • An indirect object is always part of a clause in which the main verb is an active verb. The indirect object is almost always the person to whom or for whom something is done. Active verb Indirect object Direct object Mary threw John the ball. In the sentence above the indirect object comes before direct object. It can also come after the direct object, following to or for. Most verbs can have the indirect object in either place. Active verb Indirect object the ball to John. Indirect object Mary threw Direct object Direct object Mary brought Fred Direct object a sandwich. Indirect object Mary brought a sandwich Ph.D for Fred. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, 40
    • An object pronoun can be an indirect object. Indirect object Mary threw him the ball. (more common word order) Indirect object Mary threw the ball to him. (possible word order) A non personal indirect object is possible with verbs such as give, owe, pay, and send. Indirect object Direct object Frank paid the bank the amount that he owed. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 41
    • Word order of Indirect Objects 1. With most verbs, if the direct object is a noun, the indirect object can be put either before it or after it. Subject Paul Paul Paul Active verb gave gave gave Indirect object Jane her Direct object the book. the book. the book Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D Indirect object to her. 42
    • 2. If the direct object is a pronoun, the indirect object usually comes after the direct object. Direct object / pronoun/ Paul gave it to her. Wilma bought them for John. 3. If either the direct object or the indirect object is long or has many modifiers, it usually comes last. Put an indirect object that is modified by a clause or a long phrase after the direct object. Direct object Indirect object Paul gave the book to the girl who was waiting for it. Terry cooked dinner for the Boy Scout troop. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 43
    • 4. Certain verbs must have to or for with the indirect object. The to or for phrase usually comes after the direct object. Some of the most common of these verbs are: admit: She admitted her mistakes to her mother. communicate: The dean communicated the decision to the student. announce: The judges announced the winner to the crowd. dedicate: The football team dedicated the game to their injured teammate. describe: The tourist described the beautiful view to (for) us. entrust: They entrusted their money to their best friend. explain : The professor explained the problem to ( for ) him. indicate : The guide indicated the way to me. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 44
    • introduce : Albert will introduce you to his friends. mention : Charlotte forgot to mention her accident to her husband. outline : The director outlined the work to ( for ) us. prescribe : The doctor prescribed medicine for the patient. propose : The chairman proposed a new plan to the committee. prove : The lecturer proved his theory to the audience. recommend : My friends have recommended this restaurant to me. repeated : I will repeat the problem to ( for ) you one more time. report : The new members of the team reported to the coach today. return : My brother returned the book to me. suggest : The doctor suggested a vacation to him. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 45
    • 5. If a WH-word is the indirect object in a clause, the sentence will be a question. In that case, follow the word order for questions. Indirect object Direct object Informal: Who(m) did Terry cook dinner for? Formal: For whom did Terry cook dinner? 6. With some verbs, the indirect object can become the subject of a passive sentence. direct object Direct object Active: Paul gave Jane the book. Wilma asked them what the question was. Subject Passive: Jane was given the book ( by Paul )OR The book was given to Jane ( by Paul ) They were asked what the question was. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 46
    • LECTURE 4 Objective, Subject Complements Adverbials & Adjunct, Conjunct, Disjunct Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 47
    • Objective Complement An objective complement modifies or gives additional information about a direct object. An objective complement always follows a direct object. Only a few transitive verbs can take objective complements. Subject verb direct object objective complement Active: The club elected Helen treasurer. (noun) Passive: Helen was elected treasurer. (noun) Active: We found the baby crying. (adjective) Passive: The baby was found crying. (adjective) Active only: Charles made his mother happy. (adjective) Active only: The training made the team a winner. (noun) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 48
    • Only sentences with direct objects can have object complements. Only those sentences with these or similar verbs that have the meaning of “make” or “consider” can have object complements. appoint consider make render call elect name think choose find An object complement may be an adjective, a noun or a pronoun. It usually appears in a sentence after the direct object. For example: The jury found the defendant innocent of all charges. [adjective] Some pet owners consider their dogs children. [noun] The school board made the problem theirs. [pronoun] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 49
    • Subject Complement A subject complement follows a subject and linking verb identifies or describes the subject. The two kinds of subject complements are predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives. A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and points back to the subject to identify it further. E.g.: Many doctors are specialists. The surgeon for this operation was she. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 50
    • The general predicate nominatives appear in sentences with forms of the linking verb be. Predicate nominatives may follow a few other linking verbs. ( For example: remain and become ). E.g.: Ethiopia is an African country. Allergies remain a problem. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman to graduate a medical school in the United States, became a doctor and a teacher. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 51
    • A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and points back to the subject and further describes it. E.g.: Pandas are unique. Airline pilots should be healthy. Predicate adjectives may follow any linking verb. E.g.: The journey will be tiring. The nation grew more hopeful. The dinner is delicious and nutritious. The baby seems sick. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 52
    • Adverbials An adverbial is a construction that modifies or describes verbs. An adverbial is any word, phrase or clause used like an adverb, whether functioning as an element in clause structure or at some other level. E.g.: She speaks English fluently. (word) Hang your coat on a hanger. (phrase) He speaks just like his father did. (clause) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 53
    • When an adverbial modifies a verb, it changes the meaning of that verb. Traditionally adverbs are divided into various meaning related categories, such as manner (which includes many typical – ly adverbs. E.g.: sensibly, sadly), place (here, there, upstairs, downstairs), time (sometimes, yesterday, soon), degree (too, very, only). In modern grammar adverbs are sometimes analyzed in much greater detail. The terms adverb and adverbial are distinct. Adverb is the name of a word class ( or part of speech). An adverb phrase is a phrase headed by and adverb so an adverb can be a head of an adverb phrase. E.g.: Very carefully is an adverb phrase. Carefully is a head of this phrase. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 54
    • Adverbial is the name of constituent of a sentence or clause. An adverb phrase may function as an adverbial: I met my husband here. – an adverbial In every sentence pattarn, the adverbial tells where, when, why, how etc. Adverbials can answer the questions How? How often? When? Where? Why or to What extent? Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 55
    • How: The embers glowed softly. How often: This flower blooms infrequently. When: The exam will be taken tomorrow. Where: The children are playing outside. Why: I could not come to the meeting because of illness. To What extent: Our emergency supplies were nearly gone. Study these examples of adverbials and the questions they answer: How? hurriedly, in a hurry When? finally, at the weekend Where? nearby, in the garden To what extent? very, often Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 56
    • How to identify an adverbial clause? Compare: I try hard, but I can never remember people‟s names. However hard I try, I can never remember people‟s names. Hard is an adverb; however hard I try is an adverbial (or adverb) clause: it is telling us something about (or modifying) can never remember. Adverbs can often be identified by asking and answering the question When? Where? How? Why? and adverbial clauses can be identified in the same way: Time: Tell him as soon as he arrives. (When?) Place: You can sit where you like. (Where?) Manner: He spoke as if he meant business. (How?) Reason: He went to bed because he felt ill. (Why?) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 57
    • Types of adverbials: there are 3 types of adverbials. - adjuncts - conjuncts - disjuncts Adjunct An adjunct is a type of adverbial illustrating the circumstances of the action expressed by the sentence it appears in. It expresses such relations as time, manner, place, frequency, reason and degree etc. Answers the questions : where, when, how and why. E.g.: I saw her yesterday. (time adjunct). Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 58
    • Almost every semantic type of adjunct can be realized by a phrase with either an adverb or a preposition as head (adverb or prepositional phrase). In the following, the first underlined word in each clause is an adverb, the second a preposition: 1. She did it carefully/with great care. [manner] 2. They live locally/in the vicinity. [special location] 3. I haven‟t seen her recently/since August. [temporal location] 4. She is working with us temporarily/for a short time. [duration] 5. They check regularly/at regular intervals. [frequency] 6. I loved her immensely/with all my heart. [degree] 7. It failed consequently/for this reason. [reason] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 59
    • Conjunct A conjunct is an adverbial that adds information to the sentence, but which connects the sentence with previous parts of the discourse. They indicate the connection between what is being said and was said before. For example: The work should be finished sooner. It is therefore necessary to encourage the operators. You may pick three times. However, should you prefer just two, you still have a 25% discount. On the other hand she made an attempt to help the victim. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 60
    • Here are examples of conjuncts, listed semantically: First, second.... ; firstly, secondly....; next, then, finally, last (ly), in the first place, ...; first of all, last of all, to begin with, to start with, likewise, similarly, in the same way, in conclusion, to conclude, to summarize, on the contrary, in contrast, in comparison, on the other hand, anyhow, anyway, besides, however, nevethless, still, though, yet; in any case, at any rate, after all, at the same time, all the same time, incidentally, by the way Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 61
    • Disjunct A disjunct is a type of adverbial that expresses information that is not considered essential to the sentence it appears in, but which is considered to be the speaker‟s or writer‟s attitude towards the propositional content of the sentence. Semantically disjuncts express an evaluation. For instance: Honestly, I didn‟t do it. Fortunately for you I have it right here. In my opinion, the green one is better. To my surprise, the doctor phoned. There are two major types of disjuncts: style disjuncts and content disjuncts. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 62
    • Disjunctives either express the speaker‟s or writer‟s attitude to the content of the sentence (content disjunctives). Style disjuncts can be paraphrased by a clause with a verb of speaking. For example, the style disjunct frankly functions as a manner adverb “ in a frank manner”. Frankly: I say to you frankly..... Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 63
    • Here are examples of style disjuncts, listed semantically: Approximately, briefly, broadly, crudely, generally, roughly, simply, bluntly,confidentially, frankly, honestly, privately, strictly, truly, truthfully, literally, metaphorically, personally. Content disjuncts may be modal or evaluative: This is probably a women‟s size. Moreover, Irish votes have wisely never given him an overall parliamentary majority. Wisely makes a value judgement on the subject of the sentence. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 64
    • Here are examples of content disjuncts (a) modal, (b) evaluative: a/ admittedly, certainly, clearly, evidently, indeed, obviously, plainly, surely, undoubtedly, apparently, arguably, likely, maybe, perhaps, possibly, presumably, probably, supposedly, actually, basically, essentially, ideally, nominally, officially, stensibly,really, superficially, technically, theoretically b/ fortunately, happily, luckily, regrettably, sadly, tragically, unhappily, unfortunately, amazingly, curiously, funnily, incredibly, ironically, oddly, remarkably, strangely, unusually, appropriately, inevitably, naturally, predictably, understandably, amusingly, hopefully, interestingly, significantly, thankfully Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 65
    • LECTURE 5 Structure of the sentence Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 66
    • Structure of the Sentence Sentence structure can be simple, compound, complex or compound-complex according to the kinds of clauses in the sentences. 1. A simple sentence has one independent or main clause (one subject – main verb combination ). E.g.: We were sorry. The car stopped. A simple sentence can be expanded into a very long sentence, but adding modifiers does not change its basic structure. E.g.: Feeling the disappointment of our friends at our early departure, we were sorry to leave before meeting all the guests. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 67
    • In the sentence above, feeling and meeting are verbals, not finite or main verbs. Although the sentence is long, it still has the structure of simple sentence: one subject and one main verb or verb phrase. A simple sentence can have a compound subject (two or more subjects joined by coordinating conjunction). E.g.: Francis and Chris were sorry. Francis, Chris and Joe were sorry. A simple sentence can have a compound verb (two or more verb forms joined by a coordinating conjunction). E.g.: Francis ate peanuts and drank coffee. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 68
    • A simple sentence can have a compound subject and a compound verb. E.g.: Francis and Chris ate peanuts and drank coffee. The verb in one clause (a simple sentence) can be a verb phrase ( more than one word). Verb phrases form most English tenses. Present Tense: Francis eats peanuts often. Verb phrase Future Tense: Francis will eat peanuts tomorrow. Verb phrase Perfect Tense: Francis has been eating peanuts today. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 69
    • 2. A compound sentence has two or more independent clause without any dependent or subordinate clause. Francis has been happy today, and he will be happier still tomorrow. The clause of a compound sentence may be joined either by a semicolon or by a comma and coordinating conjunction ( and, but, or, for, nor, yet, so ) Independent clause + semicolon The bus was crowded ; + independent clause I had to stand all the way. Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + independent clause The bus was crowded and/so I had to stand all the day. Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + independent clause We had to stand all the way, but/yet we were not very tired. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 70
    • 3. A complex sentence has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Independent clause + dependent clause (adverb ) We were sorry when we left early. Independent clause + dependent clause (noun ) James said that he was very pleased. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 71
    • 4. A compound – complex sentence has two or more independent clauses and at least dependent clause. A compound sentence becomes a compound-complex sentence when one or more dependent clauses are added to it. Independent clause Many men and women today are being trained Independent clause on their jobs, and some of them later study at colleges and technical schools where they dependent clause improve their skills. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 72
    • Sentence patterns A written English sentence is a group of words that says something in a fixed structure of grammar and punctuation. Every written declarative sentence must have a subject and predicate. Sentence pattern means the different grammatical constructions a clause that are possible with different kinds of verbs. Patterns with Intransitive Verbs Subject S+V: Verb The man The students S+V+Adv: The children Paul Adverb (optional ) coughed. laughed. walked down the street. hurried away from the door. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 73
    • Patterns with Linking Verbs Subject Verb Predicate noun or adverb, adjective S+V+PN or Adj: The baby is fat. (adj) Maureen seems unhappy. (adj) This building is the library. (noun) Jonathan has become a student. (noun) S+V+Adv: My house is on River Road. The groceries are in the kitchen. Patterns with Active Transitive Verb Subject Verb Predicate S+V+DO: The baby Dogs S+V+DO+Adv: Jerry Phyllis likes chase put treated Direct object Adverb bananas. cats. the key in the door. the old man politely. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 74
    • The Simple Sentence The smallest sentence unit is the simple sentence. A simple sentence normally has one finite verb. It has a subject and a predicate : subject group verb group (predicate ) I „ve eaten. One of our aircraft is missing. The old building opposite our school is being pulled down. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 75
    • Five Simple Sentence Patterns There are five simple sentence patterns. Within each of the five groups there are different sub patterns. The five patterns differ from each other according to what (if anything ) follows the verb: 1. subject+verb: My head aches. 2. subject+verb+complement: Frank is clever. / an architect. 3. subject+verb+direct object: My sister enjoyed the play. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 76
    • 4. Subject+verb+indirect object+direct object: The firm gave Sam watch. 5. subject+verb+object+direct object: They made Sam redundant. / chair man. The examples listed above are reduced to a bare minimum. To this minimum we can add adjectives and adverbs: His old firm gave Sam a beautiful gold watch on his retirement. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 77
    • Sentence patterns: definitions of key terms Any discussion of sentence patterns depends on a clear understanding of the terms object (direct or indirect, complement), transitive verb and intransitive verb. A direct object refers to the person or thing affected by the action of the verb. It comes immediately after a transitive verb : Please don‟t annoy me. Veronica threw the ball over the wall. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 78
    • An indirect object usually refers to the person who „benefits‟ from the action expressed in the verb: someone you give something to, or buy something for. It comes immediately after a verb: Throw me the ball. Buy your father a present. A complement follows the verb be and verbs related to be, such as seem, which cannot be followed by an object. A complement (adjective, noun, pronoun) completes the sense of an utterance by telling us something about the subject. For example, the words following is tell us something about Frank : Frank is clever. Frank is an architect. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 79
    • A transitive verb is not followed by an object. A simple test is to put Who(m)? or What before the question form of the verb. If we get an answer, the verb is transitive: Whquestion form Object I met Jim this morning. Who(m) did you meet? Jim. I‟m reading a book. What are you reading? A book. Most transitive verbs can be used in the passive. Some transitive verbs consist of more than one part: E.g.: listen to. An intransitive verb is not followed by an object and can never be used in the passive. Some intransitive verbs consist of more than one part: E.g.: touch down My head aches. The plane touched down. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 80
    • LECTURE 6 Sentence patterns & Simple sentence Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 81
    • Some verbs, like enjoy, can only be used transitively and must always be followed by an object, others, like ache, always are intransitive. Verbs like open can be used transitively or intransitively: Verb+object (transitive): Someone opened the door. Verb without object (intransitive): The door opened. Pattern 1 : subject + verb My head + aches Intransitive verbs: ache, appear, arrive, come, cough, disappear, fall, go. Quick! The train‟s arrived. It‟s arrived early. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 82
    • Some intransitive verbs are often followed by an adverb particle (come in, get up, run away, sit down, etc) or adverbial phrase: Verb + particle: He came in. He sat down. He stood up. Verb + adverbial phrase: A crowd of people came into the room. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 83
    • Verbs which are sometimes intransitive Many verbs can be used transitively with a object (answering question, like What did you do?) and intransitively without an object (answering the question, like What happened? ) break, burn, close, drop, fly, hurt, move, open, ring, shake, shut, understand: - with an object: I rang the bell. I rang it repeatedly. - without an object: The phone rang. It rang repeatedly. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 84
    • Pattern 2: subject + verb + complement Frank + is + clever. / an architect. The verb in this pattern is always be or a verb related to be, such as appear, become, look, seem, sound and taste. Subject+be+complement:The complement may be - an adjective: Frank is clever. - a noun: Frank is an architect. - an adjective+noun: Frank is a clever architect. - a pronoun: It‟s mine. - an adverb of place or time: The meeting is here. /at 2.30 - a prepositional phrase: Alice is like her father. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 85
    • Pattern 3: subject + verb + direct object My sister + answered + the phone. Most verbs in the language can be used in this pattern. The direct object may take a variety of forms, some of which are: - a noun: We parked the car in the car park. - a pronoun: We fetched her from the station. - reflaxive pronoun: We enjoyed ourselves at the party. - an infinitive: I want to go home now. -ing form: I enjoy sitting in the sun. The passive is formed as follows: The guests were introduced to Jane. The situation was explained to me. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 86
    • To + noun or pronoun normally precedes a that – clause or an indirect question when the object is very long: Catherine explained to me what the situation was. Pattern 4: subject + verb + indirect object + direct object They + gave + him + a watch. Verbs like bring, buy and give can have two objects. The indirect object always follows the verb and usually refers to a person: The firm gave Sam a gold watch. Sam is an indirect object. However, the direct object can come after the verb if we wish to emphasize it. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 87
    • When this is the case, the indirect object is replaced by a prepositional phrase beginning with to or for: The firm gave a watch with a beautiful inscription on it to Sam. They bought a beautiful gold watch for Sam. The indirect object does not have to be a person : I gave the car a wash. If the direct object is a pronoun (very often it or them ) it normally comes after the verb. The indirect object is replaced by a prepositional phrase: They gave it to Sam. They gave it to him. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 88
    • However, if both direct and indirect objects are pronouns, some verbs, such as bring, buy, fetch, give, hand, pass, end, show and teach can be used as follows, particularly in everyday speech: Give me it. Show me it. Give it me. Show it me. Give me it is more common than Give it me. The pattern Give it me does not often occur with verbs other than give. The use of the object pronoun them. ( Give them me ) is very rare. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 89
    • The verbs in Pattern 4 can fall into three categories: Pattern 4: Category 1: Verbs that can be followed by “ to ” Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object He showed me the photo. Subject + verb + direct object + to + noun or pronoun He showed the photo to me. In the passive, the subject can be the person to whom something is „given‟ or the thing which is „given‟, depending on emphasis : I was shown the photo. The photo was shown to me. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 90
    • Here is a selection of verbs that can be used in this way: bring, give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, play, post, promise, read, recommend, sell, send, serve, show, sing, take, teach, tell, throw, and write. Pattern 4: Category 2: Verbs that can be followed by “ for ” Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object He bought Jane a present . Subject + verb + direct object + for + noun He bought a present for Jane. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 91
    • These sentences can be put into the passive in two ways: Jane was bought a present. A present was bought for Jane. Here is a selection of verbs that can be used in this pattern. Normally only bring and buy, can have a person as a subject in the passive: bring, buy, build, call, catch, change, choose, cook, cut, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, leave, make, order, prepare, reach, reserve, save, sing. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 92
    • In Categories 1 and 2, to or for + noun or pronoun can be used when we wish to emphasize the person who benefits from the action or when the indirect object is longer than the direct object: Barbara made a beautiful dress for her daughter. He bought a gift for his niece who lives in Australia. For can be ambiguous and its meaning depends on context. The emphasis can be on „the recipient‟: Mother cooked a lovely meal for me. (=for my benefit) or on the person acting on the recipient‟s behalf: I‟lI cook the dinner for you. (= on your behalf / instead of you) For can ambiguous when used after most of the verbs listed in for can refer to the person acting on the recipient‟s behalf when used after most of the verbs. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 93
    • Pattern 4: Category 3: Verbs that can be used without “ to”or “for” Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object I „ll tell you the truth soon. Subject + verb + indirect object only I „ll tell you soon. The passive can formed in two ways: You will be told the truth soon. The truth will be told to you soon. The direct object may often be omitted but is implied after ask, bet, forgive, grant, owe, pay, promise, show, teach, tell, write: I‟ll write you. I bet you. I grant you. I‟ll promise you. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 94
    • Pattern 5: subject + verb + object + complement They + appointed + him + chairman. Verbs used in this pattern are often in the passive. Here is a selection of common ones: appoint, baptize, call, consider, christen, crown, declare, elect, label, make, name, proclaim, pronounce, vote: They appointed him chairman. He was appointed chairman. They made Sam redundant. Sam was made redundant. The complement is usually a noun, though after call, consider, declare, make, pronounce, it can be an adjective or a noun: They called him foolish / a fool. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 95
    • Here are a few verbs that combine with an object + adjectival complement: drive (me) crazy/mad/wild; get (it) clean/dirty, dry/wet, open/shut; find (it) difficult/easy; hold (it) open/still; keep (it) cool/fresh/shut; leave (it) clean/dirty, open/shut; like (it) hot; make (it) easy/plan/safe; open (it) wide; paint (it) brown/red; prefer (it) fried; pull (it) shut/tight; push (it) open; want (it) raw; wipe (it) clean/dry: Loud music drives me crazy. I‟m driven crazy by loud music. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 96
    • LECTURE 7 Compound and Complex sentence & Coordinating conjunction Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 97
    • The Compound Sentence We often need to join ideas. One way we can do this is to link simple sentences to form compound sentences. This linking is achieved by any of the following: - a semi-colon: We fished all day; we didn’t catch a thing. - a semi-colon, followed by a connecting adverb: We fished all day; however, we didn’t catch a thing. - a co-ordinating conjunction (e.g.: and, but, so, yet) often preceded by a comma: We fished all day; but (we) didn’t catch a thing. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 98
    • In a compound sentence, there is no single main clause with subordinate clauses depending on it : all the clauses are of equal importance and can stand on their own, though of course they follow a logical order as required by the context. We often refer to clauses in a compound sentence as co-ordinate main clauses. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 99
    • Word order and co-ordinating conjunctions The word order of the simple sentence is generally retained in the compound sentence: Subject verb object conjunction subject verb complement Jimmy fell off his bike, but (he) was unhurt. The co-ordinating conjunctions which can be used to form compound sentences are: and, and then, but, for, nor, or, so, yet; ither...or; neither...nor...; not only...; but... (also/as well/too). Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 100
    • These can be used for the purposes of addition (and), contrast (but, yet), choice (or), reason (for), continuation (and then) and consequence or result (so). However, a single conjunction like and can serve a variety of purposes to express: - addition: We were talking and laughing. (= in addition to) - result: He fell heavily and broke his arm. (= so) - condition: Weed the garden and I‟ll pay you 5$. (= if ... then) - sequence: He finished lunch and went shopping. (= then) - contrast: Tom‟s 15 and still sucks his thumb. (= despite this) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 101
    • Joining sentence patterns to make compound sentence The five simple sentence patterns can be joined by means of co-ordinating conjunctions: subject verb manner (P1) + (subject) verb complement (P2) Frank worked hard and he became an architect. subject verb object (P3) + subject verb I subject „ve got a cold, so I verb place (P1) „m going to bed. object complement(P5)+(subject) verb object (P3) They made him chairman, but (they) didn‟t increase his salary. Subject verb complement (P2) + subject verb object Her birthday is next Monday, so I must buy her object(P4) a present. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 102
    • The Use of Coordinating Conjunctions When the subject is the same in all parts of the sentence, it is usual not to repeat it. We do not usually put a comma in front of and, but we generally use one in front of other conjunctions: Addition/sequence: “ and ”, “ both....and “; “ not only .... but ... (too / as well )”; “ not only .... but (also) ....”; “ and then ” He washed the car. He polihsed it. He washed the car and polihsed it. He not only washed the car, but polihsed it. ( too/as well). He washed the car and then polihsed it. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 103
    • When the subjects are different, they must both be used: You can wait here and I‟ll get the car. Jim speaks Spanish, but his wife speaks French. Contrast:“ but ”; “ yet ” He washed the car. He didn‟t polihsed it. He washed the car but didn‟t polihsed it. She sold her house. She can‟t help regretting it. She sold her house, but / yet (she) can‟t help regretting it. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 104
    • Alternatives: “either ... or ...”; “neither ... nor...” He speaks French. Or perhaps he understands it. He either speaks French, or understands it. He doesn‟t speak French. He doesn‟t understand it. He neither speaks French, nor understands it. Result: “so” He couldn‟t find his pen. He wrote in pencil. He couldn‟t find his pen, so he wrote in pencil. (The subject is usually repeated after “so”) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 105
    • Cause: “for ” We rarely stay in hotels. We can‟t afford it. We rarely stay in hotels, for we can‟t afford it. For gives the reason for something that has already been stated. Unlike because, it cannot begin a sentence. The subject must be repeated after for. This use of for is more usual in the written language. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 106
    • Linking simple sentence by commas More than two simple sentence can be joined by commas with only one conjunction which is used before the final clause. The use of a comma before and is optional here: found a bucket, put it in the sink (,) and turned the tap on. I took off my coat, searched all my pockets, but couldn‟t find my key. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 107
    • Sometimes subject and verb can be omitted. In such cases, a sentence is simple, not compound. The hotel was cheap but clean. Does the price include breakfast only, or dinner as well? A second question can be avoided by the use of .... or not: Does the price include breakfast,or not? (=or doesn‟t it ?) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 108
    • The Complex Sentence Many sentences, especially in written language, are complex. They can be formed by linking simple sentences together, but the elements in a complex sentence are not of equal importance. There is always one independent (or „main‟) clause and one or more dependent elements. If removed from a sentence, a main clause can often stand on its own. Complex sentences can be formed in two ways: 1. by joining subordinate clauses to the main clause with conjunctions: The alarm was raised (main clause) as soon as the fire was discovered. (subordinate clause) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 109
    • If you‟re not good at figures, (subordinate clause) it is pointless to apply for a job in a bank. (main clause) 2. by using infinitive or participle constructions: These are non-finite and are phrases rather than clauses, but they form part of complex ( not simple ) sentences because they can be re-expressed as clauses which are subordinate to the main clause: To get into university you have to pass a number of examinations. (=If you want to get into university...) Seeing the door open, the stranger entered the house. (= When he saw the door open ...) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 110
    • Many different constructions can be present in a complex sentences : a) Free trade agreements are always threatened (main clause) b) when individual countries protect their own markets. (subordinate clause defends) c) by imposing duties on imported goods (participle construction dependent on (b)) d) to encourage their own industries. (infinitive construction dependent on (c)) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 111
    • The subject of the main clause must be replaced by a pronoun in a subordinate clause if a reference is made to it: The racing car went out of control before it hit the barrier. A pronoun can occur in a subordinate clause before the subject is mentioned. This is not possible with co-ordinate clauses: When she got on the train, Mrs Tomkins realized she had made a dreadful mistake. Co-ordinate and subordinate clauses can combine in one sentence: The racing car went out of control and hit the barrier several before it came to a stop on a grassy bank. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 112
    • The five simple sentence patterns can be combined in an endless variety of ways. Subordinate clauses can be classified under three headings: noun clauses : E.g.: He told me that the match had been cancelled. - relative or adjectival clauses: E.g.: Holiday resorts which are very crowded are not very pleasant. - adverbial clauses: E.g.: However hard I try I can‟t remember people‟s names. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 113
    • LECTURE 8 Clauses , Noun Clause & Relative Clause Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 114
    • Clauses A clause is a group of words that has a subjectverb combination in it. The verb must be a main or finite verb form. The –ing or the infinitive forms cannot be the main verb. Incorrect: The girl to run down the street. (fragment) Incorrect: The girl running down the street. (fragment) Correct: The girl is running down the street. The girl runs down the street. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 115
    • Independent Clauses Independent clauses (also called main clauses) can be punctuated as separate sentences. They may be long or short. Each independent or main clause has one subject-verb combination in it. Running down the street chasing the bus to school, Greg shouted loudly after it to stop and pick him up. There is only one subject-main verb combination in the sentence above : Greg shouted. Other words in this sentence that are verb forms are running, chasing and to stop and pick up. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 116
    • Independent Clause: Greg ran down the street. Independent Clause: Greg chased the bus down the street. Independent Clause: Greg shouted at the bus driver to stop for him. Independent Clause: Greg will be late to work. Independent Clause: The next bus will stop to pick Greg up. The sentences above are independent clauses. They have a subject and a verb. They do not have a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun that would make them dependent. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 117
    • Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses (also called subordinate clauses) cannot be punctuated as complete sentences except in direct quotations in some transitional uses. 1. A dependent clause must be attached to an independent clause. More than one dependent clause can be attached to the same independent clause. dependent clause independent clause When the alarm clock rang, the boy saw dependent clause that it was time to get up. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 118
    • A dependent clause may come in the middle of an independent clause. independent clause dependent clause The boy got up. The boy who was sleeping got up. 2. A dependent clause may be marked or unmarked. If it is marked, the first word in the clause is a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction. In an unmarked clause, that, which or who (m) is left out. The only markers that can be left out are that, which and who(m) and they can be left out only in certain constructions as explained under adjective clauses and noun clauses. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 119
    • marker This is the story that she read. This is the story she read. (unmarked: she left out) marker They said that they were going. They said they were going. (unmarked: they left out) 3. A dependent clause acts in the sentence like an adjective, an adverb, or a noun. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 120
    • Noun Clauses 1. Noun clause is used as a subject or an object. a) His story was interesting. (story is a noun) What he said was interesting. (what he said is a noun clause) b) I heard his story. (it‟s used as the object of the verb heard) I heard what he said. 2. Noun clauses which begin with a question word. Where does she live? I don‟t know where she lives. Who is she? I don‟t know who she is. What happened? Please tell me what happened. Whose house is that? I wonder whose house that is. When he will come back is uncertain. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 121
    • 3. Noun clauses which begin with whether or if. Will she come? I don‟t know whether she will come. Does he need help? I wonder if he needs help. I wonder if she will come or not. 4. Noun clauses which begin with that. He is a good actor. I think that he is a good actor. The world is round. We know that the world is round. That the world is round is fact. It is fact that the world is round. She doesn‟t understand spoken English. That she doesn‟t understand spoken English is obvious. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 122
    • 5. Noun clauses with what. What Bill said pleased the teacher. I‟m not concerned with what Jack said. I know what Bill said. 6. The subjunctive form in Noun clauses a) Verbs that in the subjunctive form: demand, insist, request, as, recommend, advice, propose b) It‟s + important, necessary, essential, vital, imperative, significant, urgent, crucial that It‟s important that she pass all her exams. It‟s crucial that the food aid be maintained. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 123
    • In these sentences, the subjunctive verb is used only its simple form. It doesn„t have present, past or future form; it is neither singular nor plural. Negative: simple form of be + Past participle. I recommended that she not go to the concert. 7. Every words in Noun clauses Since he is rich, he can buy whatever he wants. Whoever he is, isn‟t important. Whenever you want to leave is fine with me. However you cook it is right with me. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 124
    • Relative clauses ( Defining) a) Using subject pronouns: who, which, that who = used for people, which = used for things, that = for both people and things I thanked the woman. She helped me. I thanked the woman who helped me.(the adjective clause modifies the noun woman.) The book is mine. It is on the table. The book which / that is on the table is mine. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 125
    • b) Using object pronouns: who(m), which, that. The man was Mr. Jones. I saw him. The man who(m) that I saw was Mr. Jones. The movie wasn‟t very good. We saw it last night. The movie which/that we saw last night wasn‟t very good. c) Using Whose: (whose is used to show possession) I know the man. His bicycle was stolen. I know the man whose bicycle was stolen. The student writes well. I read her composition. The student whose composition I read writes well. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 126
    • d) Pronoun used as the object of a preposition. She is the woman. I told you about her. She is the woman about whom I told you. The music was good. We listened to it last night. The music to which we listened last night was good. The music which/that we listened to last night was good. e) Using Where. (where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place: city, country, room) The building is very old. He lives there. The building where he lives is very old. The building in which he lives is very old. The building which he lives in is very old. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 127
    • f) Using When. (when is used in an adjective clause to modify a time: year, day, time, century) I‟ll never forget the day. I met you then. I‟ll never forget the day when / on which / that met you. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 128
    • Relative clauses ( Non-Defining) a) Do not use commas if the adjective clause is necessary to identify the noun it modifies. Use commas if the adjective clause simply gives additional information and is not necessary to identify the noun it modifies. The professor who teaches chemistry 101 is an excellent lecturer. Professor Wilson, who teaches chemistry 101, is an excellent lecturer. Hawaii, which consists of eight principal islands, is a favorite vacation spot. Mrs. Smith, whom I met yesterday, teaches history. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 129
    • b) An adjective clause may contain an expression of quantity with of: some of, most of, many of, none of, two of, half of, both of, neither of, each of, all of, several of, a few of, little of, a number of… Expression of quantity precedes the pronoun. Only whom, which and whose are used. There are 250 stars in the Milky Way. One of them is our sun. There are 250 stars in the Milky Way, one of which is our sun. We have two typists. Both of them are good. We have two typists, both of whom are good. Teachers discussed Jim. One of his problems was poor study habits. Teachers discussed Jim, one of whose problems was poor study habits. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 130
    • c) Using which to modify a whole sentence. Tom was late. That surprised me. Tom was late, which surprised me. The elevator is out or order. This is too bad. The elevator is out of order, which is too bad. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 131
    • LECTURE 9 Adverb clauses Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 132
    • Adverb or Adjective GOOD and WELL. Good is an adjective. It may be used as a subject complement, but it should not be used as an adverb to modify an action verb. Well may be used as either an adjective or adverb. As an adverb, it is the adverb form of good and means capably or effectively. (wrong) Michael spoke quite good on the subject of conservation. (right) Michael spoke quite well on the subject of conservation. As an adjective, well means in good health or having a good appearance. right Howard looks well since his vacation. right Doesn`t Mary Jean look well with her hair done that way? Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 133
    • Adverb clauses Like a single-word adverb, an adverb clause tells when (time), where (place), how (manner), why (cause), and to what extent (degree). An adverb clause can also show cause, concession, condition, control and purpose. independent clause dependent clause We had already gone when Charlotte came. In normal word order, the adverb clause follows the independent clause as in the sentence above. If the adverb clause comes first in the sentence, however, the adverb clause is followed by a comma. dependent clause independent clause When Charlotte came, we had already gone. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 134
    • The marker for an adverb clause is sometimes called a subordinating conjunction or a relative adverb. If you leave out the marker you change the adverb clause into an independent clause and change the basic structure of the sentence. Adverbial Clauses of Time These clauses broadly answer the question When? and can be introduced by the following conjunctions: when, after, as, as long as, as soon as, before, by the time (that), directly, during the time (that), immediately, the moment (that), now (that)once, since, until / till, whenever, and while. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 135
    • We generally use a comma when the adverbial clause comes first: You didn‟t look very well when you got up this morning. After she got married, Madeleine changed completely. I pulled a muscle as I was lifting a heavy suitcase. You can keep these records as long as you like. Once you‟ve seen one penguin, you‟ve seen them all. He hasn‟t stopped complaining since he got back from his holidays. We always have to wait till / until the last customer has left. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 136
    • Tenses in adverbial clauses of time: “no future after temporals” When the time clause refers to the future, we normally use the simple present after, as soon as, before, by the time, directly, immediately, the moment, till, until and when where we might expect a simple future, or we use the present perfect where we might expect the future perfect. These two tenses are often interchangeable after temporal conjunctions : The Owens will move to a new flat when their baby is born. (or has been born) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 137
    • The Present Perfect is often used after once and now that: Once (=when) we have decorated the house, we can move in. Now that we have decorated the house. (action completed) we can‟t move in. Will, after, when Though we do not normally use the future in time clauses, will can be used after when in noun clauses: The hotel receptionist wants to know when we will be checking out tomorrow morning. When meaning “and then” can be followed by present or future : I shall be on holiday till the end of September, when I return (or when I shall return) to London. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 138
    • Adverbial Clauses of Place These clauses answer the question Where? and can be introduced by the conjunctions where, wherever, anywhere and everywhere. Adverbial clauses of place normally come after the main clause: You can‟t camp where/wherever/ anywhere you like these days. Anywhere, everywhere and wherever can begin a sentence, depending on the emphasis we wish to make: Everywhere Jenny goes she‟s mistaken for Princess Diana. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 139
    • Where generally refers to a definite but unspecified place The church was built where there had once been a Roman temple. Wherever, anywhere and everywhere suggest “any place” With a special train ticket you can travel wherever/anywhere/everywhere you like in Europe for just over 100$ Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 140
    • Adverbial Clauses of Manner “As” and “in the way(that)” - clauses answer the question How? and can be introduced by the conjunction as. Adverbial clauses of manner normally come after the main clause: Type this again as I showed you a moment ago. (in the way I showed you) This fish isn‟t cooked as I like it. (in the way I like it) How and in the way can be used colloquially in place of as: This steak is cooked just how / the way I like it. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 141
    • Clauses of manner can also express comparison when they are introduced by expressions like (in) the way, (in) the way that, the way in which, (in) the same way, (in) the same way as: She‟s behaving (in) the same way her elder sister used to. “As if” and “ as though“ after “be”, “seem” etc Adverbial clauses of manner can also be introduced by the conjunctions as if and as though after the verbs be, act, appear, behave, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, taste: I feel as if / as though I‟m floating on air. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 142
    • Note also constructions with It: It sounds as if / as though the situation will get worse. It feels as if / as though it‟s going to rain. As if / as though can be used after any verbs describing behavior: Lillian was trembling as if / as though she had seen a ghost. She acted as if she were mad. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 143
    • Adverbial Clausese of Reason These clauses broadly answer the question Why? and can be introduced by the following conjunctions: because, as, seeing (that) and since: As / Because / Since there was very little support, the strike was not successful. I‟m afraid we don‟t stock refills for pens like yours because there‟s little demand for them. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 144
    • The relative position of clauses of reason and main clauses As a general rule, whatever we want to emphasize (reason or main clause) comes at the end. We often begin sentences with as or since because the reasons they refer to may be known to the person spoken to and therefore do not need to be emphasized: As / since you can‟t type the letter yourself, you‟ll have to ask Susan to do it for you. Because generally follows the main clause to emphasize a reason which is probably not known to the person spoken to: Jim‟s trying to find a place of his own because he wants to feel independent. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 145
    • Because can always be used in place of as, since and for to give a reason or reasons, but these conjunctions cannot always be used in place of because. Adverbial Clauses of Condition These clauses can be introduced by conjunctions such as assuming (that), if, on condition (that), provided (that), providing (that), so / as long as and unless. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 146
    • Adverbial Clauses of Concession Adverbial clauses of concession introduce an element of contrast into a sentence and are sometimes called contrast clauses. They are introduced by the following conjunctions: although, considering (that), though, even though, even if, much as ... while, whereas, however, much/ badly/ good etc..., no matter how much. Even though is probably more usual than though/although in speech: Although/Though/Even though I felt sorry for him, I was secretly pleased that he was having difficulties. We intend to go to India, even if air fares go up again between now and the summer. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 147
    • Much as I‟d like to help, there isn‟t lot I can do. While I disapprove of what you say, I would defend to the death your right to say it. However combines with numerous adjective and adverbs: However far it is, I intend to drive there tonight. No matter can combine with question words (who, when, where etc.) to introduce clauses of concession: No matter where you go, you can‟t escape from yourself. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 148
    • Compounds with-ever can introduce clauses of concession in the same way as No matter: Whatever I say, I seem to say the wrong thing. (No matter what ...) We can use may in formal style in place of the present after all conjunctions introducing clauses of concession: However brilliant you are / may be, you can‟t know everything. Whatever you think / may think, I‟m going ahead with my plans. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 149
    • As and though to mean regardless of the degree to which can be used after some adjectives, adverbs and verbs to introduce clauses of concession in formal style: likely as it sounds / may sound, what I‟m telling you is true. (though it sounds / may sound unlikely...) Beautiful though the necklace was, we thought it was over-priced so we didn‟t buy it. (though the necklace was beautiful ...) Try as he might, he couldn‟t solve the problem. (though he tried he couldn‟t...) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 150
    • LECTURE 10 Adverbial clauses of purpose, result & Adjective clause Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 151
    • Adverbial Clauses of Purpose These clauses answer the questions What for? and For what purpose? and can be introduced by the following conjunctions: so that, in order that, in case, least and for fear (that) So as to and in order to also convey the idea of purpose, but they are variations on the to – infinitive, not conjunctions. They do not introduce a group of words containing a finite verb. Constructions with to, so as to and in order to are much simpler that those with that and are generally preferred. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 152
    • Sequence of verb forms in adverbial clauses of Purpose When the verb in the main clause is in the present, present perfect or future, so that and in order that can be followed by may, can or will. So that is more common than in order that. I‟ve arrived early so that / in order that ... I may / can / will get a good view of the procession. So that and in order that way also be followed by the present: Let us spend a few moments in silence so that / in order that we remember those who died to preserve our freedom. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 153
    • When the verb in the main clause is in the simple past, the past, the past progressive, or the past perfect, so that and in order that are followed by should, could, might or would: I arrived early so that / in order that I should / could / might get a good view of the procession. Infinitive constructions with not to, so as not to and in order not to are more natural: I arrived early so as not to miss anything. They must have worn gloves in order not to leave any fingerprints. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 154
    • “In case”, “Lest” and “ for fear” Should, might or the present must be used after in case when there is a future reference: We‟ve installed an extinguisher next to the cooker in case there is ever ( there should / might ever be) a fire. I‟m taking a raincoat with me in case I need it. Should is optional after (the relatively rare) lest: We have a memorial service every year lest we (should) forget our debt to those who died in battle. (so that / in order that we might not forget ...) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 155
    • The subjunctive could also be used after lest: I avoided mentioning the subject lest he be offended. I asked them to ring first lest we were out. For fear is usually followed by might, but the same idea can be expressed more easily with in case + past: I bought the car at once for fear (that) he might change his mind. I bought the car at once in case he changed his mind. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 156
    • Adverbial Clauses of Result These clauses describe consequences. They can be introduced by that after so + adjective to answer, e.g. How (quick)...? His reactions are so quick (that) no one can match him. And by that after + adverb to answer, e.g. How (quickly) ...? He reacts so quickly (that) no one can match him. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 157
    • They can also be introduced by that after such (a) + noun (or adjective + noun) to answer questions like What‟s (he) like? He is such a marvelous joker (that) you can‟t help laughing. They are such wonderful players (that) no one can beat them. When that is omitted informally, a comma is sometimes used: His reactions are so quick (,) no one can match him. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 158
    • Such + obligatory that can be used in formal English as follows: His reactions are such that no one can match him. Result clauses with and without that can also be used after so + much, many, few, little etc.: There was so much to lose (that) we couldn‟t take any risks. They can also be used after such a lot of : There was such a lot of rain (that) we couldn‟t go out. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 159
    • So and such (heavily stressed in speech) can be used without that, so a that-clause may be strongly implied: He was so angry! (i.e. that there were consequences) The children made such a mess! (that there were consequences) In colloquial English that is sometimes heard in place of so: It was that cold, (that) I could hardly get to sleep. The roads were that icy! (that there were consequences) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 160
    • Adjective Clauses Like a single word, an adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun. dependent clause (adjective) This is the story that she read. (that she read modifies story – it tells which story) dependent clause (adjective) John is the boy who remembered. (who remembered modifies boy – it tells which boy) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 161
    • An adjective clause in English usually comes after the noun or pronoun it modifies. The story about the bears that we liked very much is in this book. ( that we liked very much modifies bears.) The story that we liked very much about the bears is in this book. ( that we liked very much modifies story.) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 162
    • Use of the Adjective Clauses 1. Who, Whom and Whose introduce adjective clauses referring to persons. a) Use Who when the relative pronoun is the subject of the adjective clause. Arthur Wynne, who invented the crossword puzzle, published the first one in 1913. b) Use Whom when the relative pronoun is any kind of object in the adjective clause. Joe Louis, whom I have seen on television, held the heavyweight title longer than anyone else. (whom is the direct object of the verb have seen.) Jim Braddock, from whom he won the title, had beaten Max Bear. (whom is the object of the 163 preposition from.) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D
    • c) Use Whose to introduce an adjective clause showing possession. Lenny, whose voice is loud and clear, makes a good speaker. Aunt Celia is the one whose house we visited. 2. Which, That to introduce an adjective clause when refers to an animal, place, thing, or person. a) Use Which to introduce an adjective clause when refers to an animal, place, or thing, but not to a person. The old magazine, which I found in our attic, belonged to my grandfather. Our musical show, which was given on Friday night, played to a packed house. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 164
    • b) Use That to introduce an adjective clause when that refers to a person, animal, place, or thing. The road that runs past our farm is rough. Here are the plans that we made last night. There is the boy that I talked to yesterday. c) In many sentences, either which or that may be used correctly. Blackie is the horse which followed me. Blackie is the horse that followed me. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 165
    • Connecting Words That join Clauses Two independent clauses can be joined in two ways. 1. Two independent clauses can be joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction. ( and, but, or, for, nor, yet, so ). Coordinating conjunction Independent clause The alarm clock rang, The alarm clock rang, The alarm clock rang, The alarm clock rang, Mark got up, Independent clause and so but yet for Mark got up. Mark got up. Mark did not get up. Mark did not get up. the alarm clock rang. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 166
    • 2. Two independent clauses can be joined by a semicolon. An interrupter may be added to the second clause to show more clearly the relation between the ideas in the two clauses. ( Single-word interrupters are often called conjunctive adverbs.) Independent clause The alarm clock rang, The alarm clock rang, The alarm clock rang, The alarm clock rang, The alarm clock rang, bed. The alarm clock rang, Independent clause the boy got up. therefore, the boy got up. consequently, the boy got up. as a result, the boy got up. nevertheless, the boy stayed in however, the boy stayed in bed. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 167
    • LECTURE 11 Connectors Conjunctions & Phrases Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 168
    • The meaning of Connectors The following connectors show effect or result in the second clause. Coordinating conjunctions: It was raining, so I carried an umbrella. Interrupters: It was raining,therefore, I carried an umbrella. It was raining, consequently, I carried an umbrella. It was raining, as a result, I carried an umbrella. It was raining, thus, I carried an umbrella. It was raining, accordingly, I carried an umbrella. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 169
    • The following connectors show contrast in the second independent clause. Coordinating conjunctions: One of her eyes was blue, but her other eye was green. One of her eyes was blue, yet her other eye was green. Interrupters: One of her eyes was blue, however, her other eye was green. One of her eyes was blue, on the other hand, her other eye was green. One of her eyes was blue, nevertheless, her other eye was green. One of her eyes was blue, even so, her other eye was green. One of her eyes was blue, by / in contrast, her other eye was green. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 170
    • The following connectors show addition of more facts or ideas to the facts or ideas stated in the first clause. Coordinating conjunctions: He was rich, and his brother was rich. Interrupters : He was rich, also, his brother was rich. He was rich, furthermore, his brother was rich. He was rich, in addition, his brother was rich. He was rich, moreover, his brother was rich. He was rich, in fact, his brother was rich. He was rich, his whole family was rich too. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 171
    • Too usually comes in the middle or at the end of a clause. Words of four letters or fewer are not usually set off by commas. The following connectors can be used to introduce an illustration or example in the second independent clause. Interrupters: He seemed very rich; for example, he owned three cars. He seemed very rich; to illustrate, he owned three cars. He seemed very rich; in fact, he owned three cars. He seemed very rich;for instance, he owned three cars. He seemed very rich; for one thing, he owned three cars. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 172
    • Other connectors introduce more illustrations and examples after the first one. For another thing Secondly Thirdly Finally At last He was rich; for one thing, he owned three cars. For another thing, he always wore the most expensive clothes. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 173
    • The following connectors can be used to show choice or alternatives stated in two independent clauses. Coordinating conjunctions: You must pay a fine, or you must go to jail. He did not pay a fine, nor did he go to jail. (negative alternative) Interrupters : You must pay a fine, otherwise,you must go to jail. You must pay a fine, if not, you must go to jail. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 174
    • The following connectors show emphasis. Interrupters: She was a beautiful girl, indeed, she was the most beautiful girl I have ever seen. She was a beautiful girl, in fact, she was the most beautiful girl I have ever seen. The following connectors show repetition and explanation. Interrupters: He seemed very rich to us, in other words, he appeared very wealthy. He seemed very rich to us, that is, appeared very wealthy. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 175
    • Subordinating Conjunctions The idea in an independent clause may be modified or further explained by a dependent clause. An adverb dependent clause can be introduced by a subordinating conjunctions. A subordinating conjunctions is different in several ways from a coordinating conjunctions. (Sometimes certain subordinating conjunctions are called relative adverbs) 1. A clause that begins with a subordinating conjunctions cannot be punctuated as a separated sentence. If it is a separate sentence, it is incorrect. Independent clause Independent clause The alarm clock rang. Mark cooked breakfast. Mark got up. Mark ate breakfast. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 176
    • Independent clause Independent clause When the alarm clock rang, Mark got up. After Mark cooked breakfast, he ate it. Incorrect: When the alarm clock rang. (fragment) Incorrect: After Mark cooked breakfast. (fragment) 1. Some subordinating conjunctions can also be prepositions. Prepositional phrase Since my arrival here, I have made many friends. Dependent clause Since I arrived here, I have made many friends. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 177
    • The preposition form of because is because of. Do not confuse these forms. A preposition must be followed by a noun, pronoun, or noun-form such as the –ing form. Because the alarm clock rang, Mark got up. Because of the ringing of the alarm clock, Mark got up. Not all subordinating conjunctions can also be prepositions. Incorrect: If laks of protein, the body does not develop well. Correct: If the body lacks protein, it does not develop well. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 178
    • Common Subordinating Conjunctions *after because in order that *till although *before once *until -er (comparative adjective + than ) as even though rather than when whenever as far as except that *since where, wherever as if how so that while as long as if sooner than as though in case though Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 179
    • The words preceded by an asterisk (*) can be prepositions. The other words on the list cannot be prepositions. Formal forms: in as much as, whereas, whereby, hereupon The following words can be used in similar sentence patterns as absolutes with or without that. They usually come at the beginning of the sentence. admitting (that) presuming (that) assuming (that) providing (that) considering (that) seeing (that) given (that) supposing (that) granted (that) granting (that) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 180
    • Phrases Appositive An appositive is a noun or pronoun or noun clause that comes directly after noun and gives more information about it. Set appositives off from the rest of the sentence by commas if they are not necessary to identify the noun that they follow. If they identify the noun that they follow, do not use commas to set them off from the rest of the sentence. Noun His brother That dog, a large Two books, both appositive John left yesterday. Collie, barked at us. encyclopedias, are missing. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 181
    • If you use a pronoun as an appositive, use the subject or object form, depending on how the word the pronoun stands for is used in the clause. Subject antecedent positive-antecedent is subject Only two students from out team, Beverly and I, have a chance to win the race. Object of preposition appositive-antecedent is object of The news brought hope to the family, my parents, preposition my brothers, and me. Direct appositiveobject antecedent Mr.Peterson gave the distance runners – Paul, Henry, is object and me - clear directions before the start of the race. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 182
    • Appositive phrases An appositive phrase is an appositive plus any words that modify the appositive. My cousin Carol is studying for a degree in microbiology. (The appositive Carol identifies the noun cousin.) Take your application to City Hall, the large red brick building at 583 San Pablo Avenue. ( The appositive phrase in bold type identifies City Hall.) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 183
    • Compound Appositives A compound appositive is two or more appositives or appositive phrases connected by a conjunction and used to identify the same noun or pronoun. Two cities, Venice and Genoa, were great rivals at one time. Any new car, whether a small compact or a fancy sport model, will be an improvement over this one. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 184
    • Essential and nonessential appositives. Appositives and nonessential appositive phrases function as noun and explain, describe, identify or restate either a noun or pronoun. If the information provided by an appositive is not essential to the meaning of the sentence, use commas to offset it from the rest of the sentence; however, if the information provided by an appositive is essential to the meaning of the sentence use commas. /phrase markers are italicized/ Our company‟s CEO, a hopelessly disorganized man, depends on his secretary to keep his schedule together. A hopelessly disorganized man is an appositive phrase providing nonessential information. The paintings Mona Lisa and Whistler‟s Mother are very famous paintings. Although not phrases, Mona Lisa and Whistler‟s Mother are appositives providing essential information. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 185
    • LECTURE 12 Prepositional phrases, Verbals Verbal phrases, & Participial phrases Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 186
    • Prepositional phrases A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or pronoun, called the object the preposition. The bus goes to the city. [The city is the object of the preposition to.] The bus drove through the tunnel. [Tunnel is the object of the preposition through.] Adjectives and other modifiers may be placed between the preposition and its object. A preposition may also have more than one object. The bus goes to the distant island city. [adjective added]. The bus goes to the city and the airport. [two objects] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 187
    • Several prepositional phrases may occur sequentially in a sentences. The bus goes to the city on the island in the bay. A prepositional phrase normally acts as an adjective or an adverb. When it acts as an adjective, it modifies a noun or pronoun. When it acts as an adverb, it modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. The bus at the corner is an express. [adjective phrase modifying the noun bus] Which of these buses will leave first? [adjective phrase modifying the pronoun which] During the day you should ride this bus into the city.[adverb phrases modifying the verb phrase should ride] The bus will be convenient for you. [adverb phrase modifying the adjective convenient] You are driving too fast for your own good. [adverb phrase modifying the adverb fast] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 188
    • Verbals and Verbal phrases A verbal is a verb form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. A verbal phrase is a verbal plus any complement and modifiers. All verbal – participles, gerunds and infinitive – can be expanses into phrases. Participles and Participial phrases Participles are often used especially in written English. The major types of participles are shown in the table below. Type Present Past Perfect Active voice Writing having written Passive voice being written Written having been written Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 189
    • 1. Present (active) Participle (-ing) The use of the present participle may be summed up as follows: a) As an adjective modifier: Boiling water, a crying child, a barking dog Water that is / was / will be / should be boiling; A child who is / was / will be crying; A dog that is / was / will be barking; b) Reduced relative clauses: (with verbs in progressive tenses) A man (who was) carrying a large suitcase entered the hotel. The visitors (who will be) arriving tomorrow intend to stay over the weekend. The inspector (who has been) dealing with your complaint has just gone away on holiday. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 190
    • c) Duration of time clauses: (with the same subject in each clause) Walking round the museum, I saw two large skeletons. (While I was walking…) I saw two large skeletons while / when / as / I was walking round the museum. Sitting at a table for one, she felt lonely. Wearing her new hat in the rain, she spoilt it. d) When two actions by the same subject happen at the same time, main clause comes first. He walked away. He hummed a tune. (He walked away humming a tune.) She was sitting in an armchair and she was reading a book. (She was sitting in an armchair reading a book.) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 191
    • e) Can replace a subordinate clause: (The present participle can replace as / since / because + subject + verb) Feeling tired, I went to bed early. (as I felt tired.) Not knowing the way to the station, I decided to ask a man. (because I didn‟t know..) Being a student he was naturally interested in museums. (as he was student…) f) On + ing participle: On leaving the church, the man put his hat on. Entering the house, the man took his hat off. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 192
    • g) Present Participle or bare Infinitive: The verbs feel, hear, notice, observe, perceive see, sense, smell, watch may all be followed by the bare infinitive. I heard someone cough outside my door. h) Followed by a main clause: (The subject, marked off by a comma, may precede the –ing clause) Hutch, covering the prisoners with his pistol, moved towards the telephone. Mary, putting on her coat, got ready to go out. i) Noun + ing as adjective: breathtaking, facesaving, life-giving, meat-eating, trouble-making, baby-sitting, brainwashing, back-scratching, selfjustifying… breathtaking beauty – it takes your breath, a face-saving explanation–it saves (someone‟s) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 193 face.
    • 2. Perfect Participle (Active) “Having” + past participle a) The perfect participle emphasizes that the first action is complete before the second one starts. Having read the instructions, he snatched up the fire extinguisher. b) The perfect participle can be used instead of the present participle when one action is immediately followed by another with the same subject. Tying one end of the rope to his bed, he threw the other end out of the window. Having tied one end of the rope to his bed, he threw the other end out of the window. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 194
    • c) The perfect participle and main clause can have different subjects. The rain having stopped, I decided to go out for a walk. Someone having asked for an aspirin, my wife went to get one. d) The joint subject can precede the participial clause, marked off by commas. The staff, having finished work for the day, is going home now. The men, having declared a strike, will not be here again this week. e) Time: Having collected sufficient data, Jim started to write his thesis. (after / when / he had collected ….) Reason: Having already seen the film, Mary doesn‟t want to see it again. (as she has already seen …) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 195
    • 3. Present participle Passive a) Action in the Present: The large building being built in our street is a new school-house. (which is being built in our street…) Yesterday the professor told us about the experiments now being carried on in his laboratory. b) Indicates Reason: Being packed in strong cases the goods arrived in good condition. (as the goods were packed…) c) Indicates Time: Being asked whether he intended to return soon, he answered that he would be away for about three months. (When he was asked…) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 196
    • 4. Past Participle Passive. Use: a) As an adjective: Stolen money, a written report, broken glass b) The past participle can replace a subject + passive verb just as the present participle can replace subject + active verb: She enters, accompanied by her mother. She enters. She is accompanied by her mother. Aroused by the crash, he leapt to his feet. (He was aroused by the crash and leapt to his feet) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 197
    • c) Instead of Relative clauses: All books taken from the library must be returned next week. (which were taken from the library….) They sent us a list of goods imported by that firm. (which are imported by that firm….) d) Time: (when) Asked whether he intended to return soon, he replied that he would be away for about three months. (when he was asked…) e) Reason: (as, because) Squeezed by ice the steamer could not continue her way. (as the steamer was squeezed by ice…) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 198
    • 5. Perfect Participle Passive The perfect participle passive (having been + past participle) is used when it is necessary to emphasize that the action expressed by the next verb: Having been bitten twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog up: (He had been bitten…) a) Time: (after, when, since….) Having been dismissed from school, Tom planned to join the army. After (= When / since he has been dismissed from school, Tom planned to join the Army.) In this the same meaning: Having being sent Sent to the wrong address. Being sent the letter didn‟t reach him. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 199
    • Differences between Gerund and Present Participle - Gerund + noun - Participle + noun Expresses the purpose of the As an adjective modifier: Noun: sleeping child (who is sleeping) drinking water (water for running water drinking) running shoes - Possessive pronouns with - Used as Relative clauses Gerund The boy working in the garden I don‟t mind him (your) coming didn‟t see me come up to him. home late. (the boy who is working... ) - Noun in the genitive case: - Used as Time clauses are Tom‟s coming was unexpected. subordinate clauses. - Used with some Feeling tired, I went to bed prepositions: early. (As I felt…) There are different ways in solving Wearing her new hat in the rain, this problem. she spoilt it. (When, while, as) I can translate these texts by using she was wearing….) dictionary. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 200
    • The perfect gerund and perfect participle are identical in form only, and serve quite different functions, which should not be confused. Having paid the bill, I left the restaurants immediately. (perfect participle) My having paid the bill left me short of ready money. (perfect gerund) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 201
    • LECTURE 13 The infinitive, Infinitive phrases Absolute phrases & Gerund Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 202
    • Infinitives and Infinitive phrases An infinitive is a verb form that is usually preceded by the word to and is used as a noun, an adjective or an adverb. When to precedes the base form of a verb, it is part of an infinitive, not a preposition. To succeed is satisfying. [infinitive as subject] Everyone needs to relax. [infinitive as direct object] His hope is to travel. [infinitive as predicate nominatives] She had the wisdom to cooperate. [infinitive as adjective] We were happy to arrive. [infinitive as adverb] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 203
    • An infinitive phrase contains an infinitive plus any complements and modifiers. They wanted to eat quickly. To arrive at the theater on time was their goal. It was a pleasure to tell her the good news. When an infinitive has its own subject, it is part of a construction called an infinitive clause. The subject of an infinitive clause follows the main verb or the sentence and immediately precedes the infinitive. An infinitive clause can appear only after an action verb. The monitor wanted Lee to sit down. [Lee is the subject of the infinitive to sit. The infinitive clause Lee to sit down acts as the direct object of the sentences.] Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 204
    • Sometimes the word to dropped before an infinitive. I saw a sports car / to / race by. Let me / to / take care of that. Uses of the Infinitive a) As the subject of a sentence: To teach is to learn. b) As the object of a verb: I want to know the answer. c) As the object of a preposition (about, than, except…): They are about to leave. d) As predicative: The report proved to be true. e) As objective complement: He asked me to come. I made him go. f)To modify an adjective. (glad, happy, proud, easer, afraid, sorry, surprised…): He appeared very glad to see me. The child is very happy to be with his mother. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 205
    • g) To modify a verb, generally expressing purpose. You should eat to live, not live to eat. h) The infinitive without to. (after must, can, could, would, should, may, might, needn‟t, had better, would better, make…) You must give your work. You would better wear a coat. It really made me laugh. i) Infinitive constructions: Some verb followed by the simple form or –ing form. See, notice, watch, look out, smell, observe, and hear. I feel my friend run (running) down the street. I heard the rain fall (falling) in the roof. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 206
    • j) Before the question word. Know, learn, find out, understand, remember, forget, discuss, decide, ask, wonder, sure.: I wasn‟t sure who to ask for help. I didn‟t know what to do. It‟s + good (bad) necessary interesting pleasant difficult + to infinitive strange important impossible easy It was important to see that before. It‟s difficult to learn Russian. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 207
    • Time reference in Infinitive Type of Infinitive Present Present Progressive Perfect Active Passive To write To be writing To be written = To have written To have been written Perfect To have been = Progressive writing Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 208
    • 1. Active: a) Present Infinitive: (to indicate that the two actions happen at the same time) I decided to write a story. I helped him to carry the box. b) Continuous form shows that the action expressed by the infinitive takes place at the same time. The situation appears to be improving. (the situation is improving) The weather seems to be changing. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 209
    • c) The Perfect Infinitive shows that the action indicated happened before the action expressed by the main verb. He seems to have been ill. (It seems that he has been ill.) I‟m glad to have met you. d) The Perfect Continuous Infinitive express an action which went on for some time before the action expressed by the main verb. It‟s known to have been taking medicine for a long time. (It‟s known that he has been taking medicine for a long time.) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 210
    • 2. Passive: Present Infinitive (Referring to an action or event occurring at the same time as that of the main verb.) a) I want this assignment to be written in ink. It‟s good to love and to be loved. Perfect Infinitive (Referring to an action or event earlier in time as that of the main verb) b) A lot of people are reported to have been injured because of the flood. The letter is believed to have been written by her. I am happy to have been invited to your yacht. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 211
    • Absolute Phrase An absolute phrase consists of a noun or pronoun that is modified by a participle or a participial phrase. An absolute phrase has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence. Belonging neither to the complete subject nor to the complete predicate an absolute phrase stands “absolutely” by itself in relation to the rest of the sentence. Their throats parched by the searing heat, the firefighters battled the blaze. The participle being is understood rather than stated in some absolute phrases. The fire [being] out, they coiled their hoses. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 212
    • The Gerund Gerunds are –ing forms of the verb that are used as nouns. Gerunds name actions. Subject: Learning the new bus schedule is easy Making new friends can be difficult. Predicate nominative: My student job this year is working in the library. Paul‟s favorite sport is running. Direct Object: Paul likes running. Jim enjoys playing golf. Object of a Preposition: Paul likes most sports except fishing. Some people are afraid of speaking in public. Objective Complement: The police officer considered the offense speeding. The teacher called the children‟s play learning. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 213
    • Although gerunds are used in a clause as nouns, they keep the qualities of verbs. Gerunds can be followed by direct objects, indirect objects, adverb modifiers, and predicate adjectives if their meaning allows these constructions. Gerund followed by Direct Object: Gerund Direct Object Learning the new bus schedule is easy. Making new friends can be difficult. When an article or an adjective modifies the gerund, the gerund is followed by a prepositional phrase instead of by a direct object. Modifier gerund prepositional phrase Constant Learning of new bus schedules is annoying. The building of a lasting friendship can take a long time. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 214
    • Gerund followed by Indirect Object: Indirect object Buying Paula new shoes is expensive. Gerund followed by adverb modifier: Adverb modifier Learning quickly is easier for Pat than for Steve. Eating fast is bad for the digestion. Gerund followed by predicate adjective: predicate adjective Feeling happy makes Ray sing. Being kind can be difficult. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 215
    • Use a possessive pronoun before a gerund. Using an object form of the pronoun changes the meaning and emphasis of the sentence. Use an object pronoun if the –ing form is a participle that modifies the pronoun. Object pronoun followed by Participle: We heard the dog barking. We heard it barking. (emphasis on it-barking modifies it) We saw John sleeping. We saw him sleeping (emphasis on him sleeping modifies him) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 216
    • Possessive pronoun followed by Gerund: We heard the dog’s barking. We heard its barking. (emphasis on barking-its modifies barking) We were annoyed by John’s sleeping. We were annoyed by his sleeping. (emphasis on sleeping-his modifies sleeping) Many compound nouns are made from a gerund and another noun. They usually show the purpose to which the head noun is put. a drinking fountain – a fountain for drinking an ironing board – a board for ironing a parking lot – a lot for parking a swimming pool – a pool for swimming Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 217
    • LECTURE 14 The use of the Gerund Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 218
    • The use of the Gerund 1. Gerund or Verbal noun The gerund in its function as noun is very often called the verbal noun. Noun + gerund in which the activity named in the – ing component is applied to the preceding noun component: brainwashing = (the „washing‟ of brains), air-conditioning, book-keeping, dressmaking, housekeeping, letter-writing, sight-seeing, stocktaking, town planning, watch making Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 219
    • 2. Gerund + noun Gerund expresses the purpose of the noun: drinking water = water for drinking, cooking apples, eating apples, knitting wool, reading material, spending money, writing materials 3. The gerund as Object a) Verbs in the list below followed by gerund and by (that)… acknowledge, admit, advocate, anticipate, deny, doubt, fancy, foresee, imagine, mean, recall, recollect, report, suggest, understand The accountant has acknowledge receiving these payments. The accountant has acknowledged that he received these payments. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 220
    • b) The Gerund derives past, present, future time reference from the verb in the main clause. The didn‟t appreciate living in such a peaceful young don‟t village. couple won‟t fancy being all alone in such a large house. mind driving twenty miles to and from work every day. 4. Gerund with separate subject The subjects of the clauses are different – we and you. The subjective element of a gerund a possessive noun or a possessive adjective. (my, your, his etc) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 221
    • We propose / your standing for election. The accountant has recorded / their (Smith and Company‟s) sending a cheque. Joan mentioned / his (Peter‟s) writing to her once, years ago. When the subjects of the clauses are different, then the gerund takes either a noun in the possessive case or possessive adjective. We appreciate John / John‟s offering to dig the garden. Can you imagine me / my driving my own RollsRoyce? We don‟t foresee the situation‟(s) improving in the near future. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 222
    • 5. Verbs + Gerund a) Verbs in the following list take only gerunds after them, as non-finite verbs: avoid, consider, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, forgive, keep, mind, object, miss, postpone, practice, prevent, prohibit, recent, resist, resume, risk, suffer, tolerate, can‟t bear, can‟t help, can‟t stand …. Father didn‟t mind our staying ashore in such nasty weather. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 223
    • b) Idiomatic expressions are followed by gerunds. It‟s no use worrying about me. This idea is worth supporting. It‟s no good getting angry with me. It‟s a pleasure walking in the fresh air. He is used to getting up early. There‟s no point in finishing this work today. There‟s no hope of getting our money back from him. c) Go + Gerund: Go – boating, dancing, jogging bowling, fishing, running camping, hiking, sailing canoeing, hunting, shopping climbing, swimming, skiing skating, sledding, sightseeing Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 224
    • 6. Gerund or Infinitive a) Same meaning: A group of verbs that may take either infinitive or the gerund after them follows: advice, allows, forbid, permit, recommend, require, urge, continue, start, attempt, begin He is starting writing his novel soon. He‟s starting to write his novel soon. b) Different meaning: 1. a) Forget, regret, remember + gerund (= first do the action and then remember it later) I remember telling you that she was going to Moscow. b) to infinitive = to first + remember and then do the action. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 225
    • 2. a) Try doing this = (make the experiment) He tried sleeping without pillow for a few weeks but it didn‟t help. b) Try to do this = (make an effort) He tried to please everyone and in this he succeeded. 3. a) Stop + gerund = (give up, cease) Can you all stop talking please? b) Stop + infinitive = (purpose) The man stopped to take his mid-day meal. 4. Like, hate + gerund He likes cooking our meals at weekends. (He often does it.) He likes to cook a meal (occasionally once a while) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 226
    • 7. Preposition + gerund After some prepositions after, before, besides, instead of, without, by, for, of, in … There is no possibility of reaching the island in such stormy weather. Ann went to bed instead of finishing her work. Tony tuned off the tape recorder by pushing the stop button. For + gerund + preposition (purpose) We have a large room for playing music in. A refrigerator is for keeping perishable food in. He had a private office for seeing important clients in. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 227
    • 8. Time reference in Gerund Indefinite Active Writing Passive Being written Perfect Having written Having been written a) Indefinite: Two actions that occur at the same time. I like inviting friends to my place (active) I like being invited by my friends (passive) b) Perfect: Two actions that occur at different times. He acknowledged having made a mistake (active) He was surprised at not having been told about it (passive) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 228
    • 9. Perfect Gerund The perfect gerund having + past participle refers to the circumstances and events that had already taken place at any time before the events in finite clauses. Your having won the state lottery Their having become so well-of Her having been left a large fortune His having lost most of his money has changed changed has changed will change Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D circumstances entirely. the family‟s life style. considerably. everyone‟s situation. 229
    • 10. Passive Gerund John‟s being given a private room to himself Their being allowed to use the library during vacations Our being met by your personal representative Your having been trained by experts was appreciated. is very helpful. will be a great help. has been an advantage. Being + past participle of a transitive verb. Having been + past participle of a transitive verb. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 230
    • The activity or event denoted by the gerund accords for timing with the finite verb. Thus in the table above, each gerund clause can combine with each finite verb. As they are shown above, the passive gerund clauses or phrases are subject of the finite verbs. We appreciated John‟s being given a private room (by the management). I‟m pleased about our being allowed to use the library (by the college authorities). Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 231
    • LECTURE 15 Passive Voice Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 232
    • Passive Voice The Passive Voice is formed by means of the verb to be with the Past Participle of the verb. Passive Voice of verb “Destroy” Tense Present Present Perfect Past Past Perfect Future Future Perfect Present Progressive Past Progressive noun The house(s) Singular Plural is has been was had been will be will have been are have been were had been will be will have been is being are being was being were being Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D Past Participle of main verb destroyed. 233
    • The Use of the Passive Voice The Passive Voice is used in English when It is more convenient or important to stress the thing done than the doer of it, or when the doer is unknown. My article was published. In a passive sentence the doer of the action is not mentioned. When the doer is mentioned it is preceded by the preposition by. Tom painted this picture. ( Active) This picture was painted by Tom. ( Passive) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 234
    • A passive verb is a form of transitive verb and passive verbs have specific uses: 1. When the actor is unknown, unimportant, or obvious, or wishes to be unknown. 2. In certain styles of specific writing. 3. In writing about disasters and accidents if the result or the victim is more important than the cause. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 235
    • Active Club members adopted the new rules in 1980. Passive New club rules were adopted in 1980. Active I completed the experiment to show the relation between nutrition and growth. Passive The relation between nutrition and growth was shown. Active A flood destroyed Mr. Jonson‟s house. Passive Mr. Johnson‟s house was destroyed by a flood. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 236
    • Advantages of the Passive Voice 1. A passive construction emphasizes the result in an impersonal style. This use is sometimes desirable in scientific and technical writing. Water was produced by mixing two parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen. The effects of confinement in a small space were repeatedly observed in the experimental animals. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 237
    • 2. A passive verb emphasizes a victim or the result of a disaster. Active: The motorcycle injured the child. Passive: The child was injured. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 238
    • 3. Use a passive verb when the agent or actor is so unimportant or obvious that you do not need to mention it. The school auditorium was built in 1912. (Who did the construction is unimportant.) The thief was arrested. (Unless several law enforcement agencies are working on the same case, you can assume that the agent is the local police.) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 239
    • 4. Use a passive verb if you want to hide the name of the person who is responsible for an unpleasant decision or result. The proposal to raise taxes was approved. (no agent) An increase in tuition fees was proposed. (no agent) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 240
    • LECTURE 16 Conditional Sentence & Forms of Conditions Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 241
    • Conditional sentences ( If Clauses) If – clauses are used to talk about a situation that is hypothetical, or not really the situation when the statement is made. The Forms of Conditions The Present Conditional Tense is formed with should / would + Infinitive for the 1st person and would + Infinitive for the other persons. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 242
    • Affirmative Interrogative I should / would make. You would make. (you‟d make) He would make (he‟d make) Should I guess? Would you guess? Would he guess? Negative I should not (shouldn‟t) guess. You would not (wouldn‟t) guess. He would not (wouldn‟t) guess. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 243
    • The negative-interrogative form is also used. Should I not (shouldn‟t I) speak? Would you not (wouldn‟t you) speak? The Perfect Conditional Tense is formed with should / would + Perfect Infinitive. Affirmative I should have made. You would have made. He would have made. Interrogative Should I have guessed? Would you have guessed? Would he have guessed? Negative I should not (shouldn‟t) have guessed. You would not (wouldn‟t) have guessed. He would not (wouldn‟t) have guessed. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 244
    • The negative-interrogative form is also used. Should I not (shouldn‟t I) have spoken? Would you not (wouldn‟t you) have spoken? The use of Conditional Tenses in Conditional Sentences English can express three important ideas with “ if ”: 1. He will come if you call him. (= smith. will happen if a certain condition is fulfilled.) 2. He would come if you called him. (The action of the “if” clause is not taking place at this moment, but I can imagine the probable result.) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 245
    • 3. He would have come if you had called him. (= but he didn‟t come! Why? Because he didn‟t call him.) Conditional sentences have two parts: * the “if”-clause * the main clause In the sentence: If it rains I shall stay at home. “If it rains” is the “if”-clause “I shall stay at home” is the main clause. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 246
    • Type 1 – Probable Condition The verb in the “if”-clause is in the Present Tense; the verb in the main clause in the Future Indefinite Tense. If he runs all the way he‟ll get there in time. Type 2 – Improbable Condition The verb in the “if”-clause is in the Past Indefinite Tense; the verb in the main clause in the Conditional Tense. If I dropped the cup it would break. Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 247
    • Type 3 – Impossible Condition The verb in the “if”-clause is in the Past Perfect Tense; the verb in the main clause in the Perfect Conditional Tense. If I had known of your arrival I should have met you. (but I didn‟t know so I didn‟t meet you) Lecturer Ts.Dagiimaa, Ph.D 248
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