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U.S. Industrial Base Analysis for Space Systems
Defense Manufacturing Conference 2011, Anaheim, CA
November 29, 2011
Purpose
ª  Quick turnaround assessment of space industrial base
ª 

ª 

ª 
ª 

Customer: Deputy Assistant Secretary o...
Eight study topics were specified
ª  Topic 1 – U.S. space industry supply chain map
ª  Topic 2 – U.S. space industry sol...
Methodology
ª  Reviewed over fifty studies and relevant documents to identify risk

ª 
ª 
ª 
ª 

ª 

areas and issue...
Topic 1: Supply chain at risk categories
ª  At Risk – Parts of the supply chain that are dependent on a sole

ª 

ª 

ª...
Topic 1: Overview of satellite supply chain elements from prime
contractors to material suppliers

Alloys	
  
Ammonia	
  
...
Topic 1: Satellites – Red and yellow risk areas in supply chain

Alloys	
  
Anodes	
  
Cadmium	
  zinc	
  telluride	
  det...
Topic 1: Overview of launch vehicle supply chain elements from
prime contractors to material suppliers

Alloys	
  
Ammonia...
Topic 1: Launch vehicles – Red and yellow risk areas in supply chain

Alloys	
  
Ammonia	
  
Anodes	
  
Atmospheric	
  nit...
Topic 2: Summary of space technology risk areas
ª Reviewed 135 companies that manufacture space hardware, focusing on 117...
Executive Summary – Topic 2

Table of high risk (red) technologies
Technology

Satellite or
Launch Vehicle

Workforce
Sens...
Executive Summary – Topic 2

Table of at risk (yellow) technologies
Technology
Precision ball bearings

Satellite or Launc...
Topic 3: Space supplier interdependencies
ª  Prime contractors for satellites and launch vehicles

depend on the same sol...
Topic 4: Innovation and future design capabilities
ª  A complete look at this question was beyond the scope of this proje...
Topic 5: Supply chain working capital and investment capital
ª  Space sector less affected by the credit crunch and finan...
Topic 6: Relationships across military, civil, and commercial
interests
ª Satellites
ª 

Satellite manufacturers typical...
Topic 7: Globalization of space industry supply chain
Discuss the level of globalization among suppliers and potential sup...
Topic 7: Possible foreign components of a generic U.S. commercial
satellite
IHI Aerospace liquid apogee
engines (Japan)

Q...
Topic 7: EELV foreign suppliers

RUAG fairing
(Switzerland)
RUAG payload clamp bands
(Switzerland)
CASA interstage structu...
Closing notes
ª  Prime contractors and second tier subcontractors noted that they are

frequently involved in space indus...
Contact information:
Carissa Christensen, Managing Partner
703-647-8070
carissa.christensen@taurigroup.com
The Tauri Group...
BACKUP SLIDES

22
Topic 8: Other factors to consider
ª  New companies in commercial spaceflight sector
ª  Private entrepreneurs with perso...
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Transcript of "US industrial base_analysis_for_space_systems"

  1. 1. U.S. Industrial Base Analysis for Space Systems Defense Manufacturing Conference 2011, Anaheim, CA November 29, 2011
  2. 2. Purpose ª  Quick turnaround assessment of space industrial base ª  ª  ª  ª  Customer: Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manufacturing and Industrial Base Policy This assessment is part of the initial phase of the sector-bysector tier-by-tier (S2T2) Department of Defense (DoD) assessment of the industrial base The initial phase of S2T2 covers 8 sectors The Tauri Group assessed the space sector ª  Objective was to provide greater insight into supply chain tiers of the space industrial base, particularly lower tiers and interdependencies ª  This briefing is a preliminary overview only – Final assessments will be issued by MIBP 2
  3. 3. Eight study topics were specified ª  Topic 1 – U.S. space industry supply chain map ª  Topic 2 – U.S. space industry sole suppliers, potential ª  ª  ª  ª  ª  ª  bottlenecks, and workforce sensitivities Topic 3 – U.S. space industry supply chain interdependencies Topic 4 – U.S. space industry innovation and future design capabilities Topic 5 – U.S. space industry supply chain working capital and investment capital Topic 6 – U.S. space industry supply chain relationships across military, civil, and commercial interests Topic 7 – Globalization of space industry supply chain Topic 8 – Other factors to consider 3
  4. 4. Methodology ª  Reviewed over fifty studies and relevant documents to identify risk ª  ª  ª  ª  ª  areas and issues in the supply chain, components in the tiers of the supply chain, and companies in risk areas Conducted approximately 90 targeted interviews Summarized previously identified supply chain concerns related to the space industrial base and identified new risk areas Researched major space manufacturers and companies associated with identified technology risk areas For each risk area, we identified suppliers, where the risk area was in the supply chain, and mapped the risk area to rest of the supply chain For suppliers in risk areas, we identified other lines of business that the company had and the degree of the company s diversification outside the space business 4
  5. 5. Topic 1: Supply chain at risk categories ª  At Risk – Parts of the supply chain that are dependent on a sole ª  ª  ª  ª  supplier or constrained competition, may become bottlenecks, or have potential financial or workforce issues. Green – Multiple suppliers and suppliers that are financially healthy, have little or no potential to create bottlenecks, and have no workforce issues. Yellow – Constrained competition due to limited (fewer than four) number of suppliers, suppliers with a potential to create bottlenecks, and those with workforce issues. Red – Sole suppliers, suppliers with high potential to create bottlenecks, and those with significant workforce issues. Black – Suppliers that are bankrupt, exiting the market, or supplies are no longer available. 5
  6. 6. Topic 1: Overview of satellite supply chain elements from prime contractors to material suppliers Alloys   Ammonia   Anodes   Atmospheric  nitrogen   Atmospheric  oxygen   Capacitors   Carbon  fillers   Carbonized  cloth   Cast  metal  parts   Cathodes   Coa8ngs   Composite  material   Couplings   Diodes   Electrolytes  (Li-­‐ion)   Fasteners   FiAngs   Gaskets   Hoses   HTPB   Methane   Nano-­‐phase  metals  (Al,  etc.)   Natural  gas   Pipes   Poten8ometers   Precision  ball  bearings   Rayon   Resin   Screws,  bolts,  and  rivets   Sodium  perchlorate  or  chlorine   Weave  cloth   Wires/wire  harnesses                         Tier  4   Atmospheric  probes   Balloons   Ball  screws   Communica8ons  feeds   Communica8ons  panels   Communica8ons  reflectors   Dust  meters   Focal  plane  arrays   Harmonic  drive  transmissions   Hemispheric  resona8ng  gyros  (HRGs)   Ion  counters   Landing  bags   Laser  resona8ng  gyros  (LRGs)   Lidar  op8cal  sensors   Momentum  wheels   Momentum  wheels  plaVorms   Non-­‐sensi8ve  structural  panels   Op8cal  encoders   Orbital  analysis  soXware  for  GEO  satellites   Parachutes   Passive  RF  filtering/coupling  devices   Rate  sensors   Reac8on  wheels   Resolvers   RF  transponder  chains   Sensors  (pressure,  temperature,  etc)   Slip  ring  assemblies   Solar  cells   Torque   Transformers   Travelling  wave  tubes  (TWT)       Tier  3   Al8meters   Antennas   Beacon  tracking  and  ranging  systems   Chemistry  analyzers   Clocks   Command  &  Control  Systems   Command  receivers  and  telemetry  transmi[ers   Commercial  encryp8on  devices   Diaphragm  propellant  tanks   Gamma  ray  telescopes   Gimbal  assemblies   GPS  receivers   Heat  exchangers   Heaters     Hold-­‐down  and  deployment  systems   Interferometers   Infrared  imagers   Lithium  Ion  ba[eries     Low-­‐thrust  propulsion  devices  and  components   Magnetometers   Microscopes   Microwave  telescopes   Mul8spectral  op8cal  sensors   Nickel  cadmium  ba[eries     Nickel  hydrogen  ba[eries     Non-­‐diaphragm  propellant  tanks   On-­‐board  computers   Op8cal  imagers/telescopes  (pan/hyper/mul8)   Plasma  detectors   Power  distribu8on  assemblies   Power  regula8on  electronics   Preamplifiers   Pressurant  tanks   Processors,  routers/hubs  for  data  distribu8on   Radio  frequency  receivers   Radiometers   Sample  retrievers   Solar  array  assemblies   Spectrometers   Spinner  motor  drivers   Sta8onary  plasma  thrusters   Star  trackers   Sun  sensors   Travelling  wave  tube  amplifiers  (TWTA)   TTC&R  antennas   Ultraviolet  telescopes   X-­‐ray  telescopes   Tier  2   Tier  1   Satellite   Satellite  Payload   (Instrumenta8on)   Subsystems:   Power   Propulsion   Structure   Thermal   A5tude  control   Telemetry  and  command   Satellite  Bus   Tier  5   6
  7. 7. Topic 1: Satellites – Red and yellow risk areas in supply chain Alloys   Anodes   Cadmium  zinc  telluride  detectors   Capacitors   Cast  metal  parts   Cathodes   Coa8ngs   Composite  materials   Crystal  scin8llators   Couplings   Diodes     Electrolytes  (Li-­‐ion)   Fasteners   FiAngs   Gaskets   Hoses   Mercury  cadmium  thelluride  detectors   Op8cal  solar  reflectors   Photomul8pliers   Pipes   Poten8ometers   Precision  ball  bearings   Pressure  transducers   Propellants:  Dinitrogen  Tetroxide  (MON-­‐3)   Propellants:  Monomethylhydrazine  (MMH)   Propellants:  Oxidizers   Propellants:  Pressurants   Readout  integrated  circuits   Resistors   Screws,  bolts,  and  rivets   Solar  cell  cover  glass   Thermal  blankets   Thermal  insula8on   Thermistors   Transistors   Wires/wire  harnesses       Tier  4   Amplifiers   Atmospheric  probes   Balloons   Ball  screws   Clocks   Communica8ons  feeds   Communica8ons  panels   Communica8ons  reflectors   Comparators   Converters   Dust  meters   Focal  plane  arrays   Harmonic  drive  transmissions   Hemispheric  resona8ng  gyros  (HRGs)   Ion  counters   Landing  bags   Laser  resona8ng  gyros  (LRGs)   Lidar  op8cal  sensors   Momentum  wheels   Momentum  wheels  plaVorms   Non-­‐sensi8ve  structural  panels   Op8cal  encoders   Orbital  analysis  soXware  for  GEO  satellites   Parachutes   Passive  RF  filtering/coupling  devices   Rate  sensors   Reac8on  wheels   Resolvers   RF  transponder  chains   Sensors  (pressure,  temperature,  etc)   Slip  ring  assemblies   Solar  cells   Switches   Torque  rods   Transformers       Travelling  wave  tubes  (TWT)       Tier  3   Al8meters   Antennas   Beacon  tracking  and  ranging  systems   Chemistry  analyzers   Command  &  Control  Systems   Command  receivers  and  telemetry  transmi[ers   Commercial  encryp8on  devices   Diaphragm  propellant  tanks   Gamma  ray  telescopes   Gimbal  assemblies   GPS  receivers   Heat  exchangers   Heaters     Hold-­‐down  and  deployment  systems   Interferometers   Infrared  imagers   Lithium  Ion  ba[eries     Low-­‐thrust  propulsion  devices  and  components   Magnetometers   Microscopes   Microwave  telescopes   Mul8spectral  op8cal  sensors   Nickel  cadmium  ba[eries     Nickel  hydrogen  ba[eries     Non-­‐diaphragm  propellant  tanks   On-­‐board  computers   Op8cal  imagers/telescopes  (pan/hyper/mul8)   Plasma  detectors   Power  distribu8on  assemblies   Power  regula8on  electronics   Preamplifiers   Pressurant  tanks   Processors,  routers/hubs  for  data  distribu8on   Radio  frequency  receivers   Radiometers   Sample  retrievers   Solar  array  assemblies   Spectrometers   Spinner  motor  drivers   Sta8onary  plasma  thrusters     Scaleable  accuracy  star  trackers     Sun  sensors     Travelling  wave  tube  amplifiers  (TWTA)     TTC&R  antennas   Ultraviolet  telescopes   X-­‐ray  telescopes   Tier  2   Power     Propulsion     Structure     Thermal     AAtude  control     Telemetry  and   command   Tier  1   Satellite  Bus   Tier  5   Satellite   Satellite  Payload   (Instrumenta8on)   7
  8. 8. Topic 1: Overview of launch vehicle supply chain elements from prime contractors to material suppliers Alloys   Ammonia   Anodes   Atmospheric  nitrogen   Atmospheric  oxygen   Capacitors   Carbon  fillers   Carbonized  cloth   Cast  metal  parts   Cathodes   Coa8ngs   Composite  material   Couplings   Diodes   Electrolytes  (Li-­‐ion)   Fasteners   FiAngs   Gaskets   Hoses   HTPB   Methane   Nano-­‐phase  metals  (Al,  etc.)   Natural  gas   Payload  clamp  bands   Pipes   Poten8ometers   Precision  ball  bearings   Rayon   Resin   Screws,  bolts,  and  rivets   Sodium  perchlorate  or  chlorine   Weave  cloth   Wires/wire  harnesses   Tier  4   Accelerometers   Ammonium  perchlorate   Amplifiers   Ball  screws   Comparators   Converters   Engine  actuators   Engine  filters   Engine  gimbal  actuators   Engine  gimbal  assemblies   Engine  igniters  and  catalysts   Engine  injectors   Engine  sensors   Engine  valves   Fairing  separa8on  devices   Hydraulic  reservoir   Hydraulic  filters   Hydraulic  quick  disconnects   Hydraulic  accumulator   Hydraulic  valves   Hydraulic  system  electric  heaters   Hydraulic  actuators   Hydraulic  pump   Hydraulic  flow  restrictor   Hydraulic  connectors   Hydraulic  plumbing   Hydraulic  system  insula8on   Hydraulic  water  spray  boiler   GPS  receivers   Gyroscopes   Ini8ators   Lithium-­‐ion  cells   Nickel-­‐cadmium  cells   Rayon-­‐carbon  cloth  phenolic   Ring  laser  gyros   Silver-­‐zinc  cells   Stage  separa8on  devices   Vehicle  sensors             Tier  3   Liquid  rocket  engines   Tier  5   Airframes   Auxiliary  power  units   Ba[eries   Computers   Control  electronics   Doors  and  panels   Engine  combus8on  chambers   Engine  controllers   Engine  heat  exchangers   Engine  manifolds   Engine  nozzles   Engine  preburners   Engine  propellant  pumps   Fairing  sec8ons   Fairings   Fins   Flight  control  surfaces   Flight  termina8on  systems   Iner8al  flight  systems   Interstages   Landing  gears   Moun8ng  structures   Parachutes   Pressurants  (N,  He,  etc.)   Pressurant  tanks   Propellant  tanks   Propellant:  Fuel  (LH,  etc.)   Propellant:  Oxidizers  (LOX,  etc.)   Propellant:  Solid  (ammonium  perchlorate   composite  propellant)   Range  safety  systems   Radar  al8meters   Skirts   Solid  motor  casings   Star  trackers   Telemetry  electronics   Wings       Tier  2   Tier  1   Payload  fairing   Payload  adapter   Power   Guidance,  naviga8on  and   control  (GNC)   Flight  controls   Structures   Propulsion   8
  9. 9. Topic 1: Launch vehicles – Red and yellow risk areas in supply chain Alloys   Ammonia   Anodes   Atmospheric  nitrogen   Atmospheric  oxygen   Capacitors   Carbon  fillers   Carbonized  cloth   Cast  metal  parts   Cathodes   Coa8ngs   Composite  material   Couplings   Diodes   Electrolytes  (Li-­‐ion)   Fasteners   FiAngs   Gaskets   Hoses   HTPB   Methane   Nano-­‐phase  metals  (Al,  etc.)   Natural  gas   Payload  clamp  bands   Pipes   Poten8ometers   Precision  ball  bearings   Rayon   Resin   Screws,  bolts,  and  rivets   Sodium  perchlorate  or  chlorine   Weave  cloth   Wires/wire  harnesses   Tier  4   Accelerometers   Ammonium  perchlorate   Amplifiers   Ball  screws   Comparators   Converters   Engine  actuators   Engine  filters   Engine  gimbal  actuators   Engine  gimbal  assemblies   Engine  igniters  and  catalysts   Engine  injectors   Engine  sensors   Engine  valves   Fairing  separa8on  devices   Hydraulic  reservoir   Hydraulic  filters   Hydraulic  quick  disconnects   Hydraulic  accumulator   Hydraulic  valves   Hydraulic  system  electric  heaters   Hydraulic  actuators   Hydraulic  pump   Hydraulic  flow  restrictor   Hydraulic  connectors   Hydraulic  plumbing   Hydraulic  system  insula8on   Hydraulic  water  spray  boiler   GPS  receivers   Gyroscopes   Ini8ators   Lithium-­‐ion  cells   Nickel-­‐cadmium  cells   Rayon-­‐carbon  cloth  phenolic   Ring  laser  gyros   Silver-­‐zinc  cells   Stage  separa8on  devices   Vehicle  sensors             Tier  3   Liquid  rocket  engines   Tier  5   Airframes   Auxiliary  power  units   Ba[eries   Computers   Control  electronics   Doors  and  panels   Engine  combus8on  chambers   Engine  controllers   Engine  heat  exchangers   Engine  manifolds   Engine  nozzles   Engine  preburners   Engine  propellant  pumps   Fairing  sec8ons   Fairings   Fins   Flight  control  surfaces   Flight  termina8on  systems   Iner8al  flight  systems   Interstages   Landing  gears   Moun8ng  structures   Parachutes   Pressurants  (N,  He,  etc.)   Pressurant  tanks   Propellant  tanks   Propellant:  Fuel  (LH,  etc.)   Propellant:  Oxidizers  (LOX,  etc.)   Propellant:  Solid  (ammonium  perchlorate   composite  propellant)   Range  safety  systems   Radar  al8meters   Skirts   Solid  motor  casings   Star  trackers   Telemetry  electronics   Wings       Tier  2   Tier  1   Power   Guidance,   naviga8on  and   control  (GNC)   Flight  controls   Launch   vehicle   Payload  fairing   Payload  adapter   Propulsion   Structures   9
  10. 10. Topic 2: Summary of space technology risk areas ª Reviewed 135 companies that manufacture space hardware, focusing on 117 U.S. companies that provide technologies identified as supply chain risks ª There are 11 areas of high risk due to absence of U.S. suppliers or single U.S. supplier ª  6 were previously identified in reports and are or have been addressed under Title III authority ª  5 are newly identified ª There are 17 areas at risk due to limited suppliers, suppliers with a potential to create bottlenecks, those with workforce issues, and anticipated cost increases ª  8 were previously identified in reports and are or have been addressed under Title III authority ª  9 are newly identified ª  Workforce was rarely identified as a supply chain risk ª  Over three-quarters of at risk technologies are due to limited number of U.S. suppliers (2-3) 10
  11. 11. Executive Summary – Topic 2 Table of high risk (red) technologies Technology Satellite or Launch Vehicle Workforce Sensitivities/ Bottlenecks No U.S. Supplier U.S. Sole Suppliers Optical solar reflectors* SAT U.S. stockpile; one foreign supplier Solar cell cover glass* SAT U.S. stockpile; one foreign supplier Space-qualified cadmium-zinc telluride detectors* SAT V Space-qualified harmonic drive transmissions SAT and LV V Space-qualified optical encoders SAT and LV V Space-qualified potentiometers SAT and LV Space-qualified slip ring assemblies SAT and LV V Space-qualified torque rods SAT V Space-qualified travelling wave tubes* SAT V Ammonium perchlorate (AP)* LV V Rayon-based carbon cloth phenolic* LV Degree of Diversification *Technologies  previously  iden3fied  in  industrial  base  reports  and  surveys.   Long lead time V Stockpile Reliant on space business Significant space business Significant non-space business 11
  12. 12. Executive Summary – Topic 2 Table of at risk (yellow) technologies Technology Precision ball bearings Satellite or Launch Vehicle Constrained Competition (<4 U.S. Suppliers) Workforce Sensitivities/ Bottlenecks SAT and LV V Long lead time Cost Issues High cost compared to non-U.S. providers Reaction wheels SAT Scaleable accuracy star trackers* SAT V Space-qualified (SQ) ball screws SAT and LV V SQ diodes* SAT and LV SQ focal plane arrays* High cost compared to non-U.S. providers Long lead time SAT V SQ GPS receivers SAT and LV V SQ lithium-ion batteries* SAT and LV High cost compared to non-U.S. providers Insufficient U.S.-space-qualified Li-ion processing SQ mercury-cadmium telluride detectors* SAT V SQ readout integrated circuits* SAT V SAT and LV V SQ solar cells* SAT V SQ transistors SAT and LV V SQ resolvers Sun sensors (type of optical imager)* High cost compared to non-U.S. providers Long lead time High cost compared to non-U.S. providers SAT Liquid rocket engines LV V Liquid rocket engine propellant pumps LV LV Questions about future costs after Shuttle V Metal powder for solid propellant Workforce V 12 *Technologies  previously  iden3fied  in  industrial  base  reports  and  surveys.  
  13. 13. Topic 3: Space supplier interdependencies ª  Prime contractors for satellites and launch vehicles depend on the same sole source supplier for components ª  For satellites there are 8 single suppliers providing components to a variety of buses and payloads ª  For launch vehicles there is a single supplier for ammonium perchlorate and no supplier of rayon-based carbon cloth phenolic ª  Four U.S. sole suppliers of space-qualified components common to both satellites and launch vehicles ª  Launch facilities and test facilities are shared 13
  14. 14. Topic 4: Innovation and future design capabilities ª  A complete look at this question was beyond the scope of this project. Our analysis did result in several observations: ª  Historically, R&D developments related to satellite manufacturing are conveyed from DoD satellite projects to the commercial satellite sector through the supply chain ª  ª  DoD leads the commercial sector in innovation in areas such as imagery, ruggedization, and miniaturization The commercial sector leads in innovation in consumer-driven areas, such as value-added services and hand-held devices ª  Innovation in the launch vehicle sector is largely driven by process or material improvements arising in the commercial sector (often nonspace commercial sector) rather than from DoD ª  Lower tier companies have indicated that the U.S. Government and Tier 1 companies are less willing to take risk on innovative or unproven technologies 14
  15. 15. Topic 5: Supply chain working capital and investment capital ª  Space sector less affected by the credit crunch and financial crisis than other industries Space has historically been a less attractive investment for most equity firms ª  Low margins ª  Capital intensive ª  Low industry growth ª  Few consumer markets ª  Less benefit for space from financial booms, less exposure to financial retractions ª  Exception – commercial satellite services ª  Working capital ª  Asset-based (rather than cash-flow-based) financing is typical for space industry ª  Credit crunch hit cash-flow businesses significantly harder ª  Financing issues in various tiers ª  No company specifically identified working capital, credit crunch, or financial crisis as a concern ª  Because Tier 1 and sometimes Tier 2 companies typically hold the government prime contract, less money flows to the lower tiers when government budgets tighten. ª  Dynamics of contract relationships can be less favorable for lower tier companies ª  Tier 1: very effective contracting offices; paid by the U.S. Government quickly ª  Lower tier suppliers are more likely to have cash flow issues ª  Possible working capital deficit for low tier suppliers ª  15
  16. 16. Topic 6: Relationships across military, civil, and commercial interests ª Satellites ª  Satellite manufacturers typically serve multiple markets ª  ª  ª  Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital Sciences manufacture military, civil, and commercial satellites SS/Loral makes satellites for the commercial and civil sectors ATK, Ball, and Northrop Grumman manufacture government civil and military satellites Military, civil, and commercial satellites generally use the same standard buses ª  Satellite instrumentation/payloads are differentiated across sectors, reflecting specialized needs ª  There are significant areas of cross-over usage of satellite services between sectors ª  DoD purchases commercial communication satellite bandwidth ª  Commercial users rely on DoD GPS satellites ª  Of the 264 satellites and spacecraft made by major U.S. manufacturers and launched from 2001 to 2010, 132 (50%) were commercial, 59 (22%) government civil, and 73 (28%) military ª Launch vehicles ª  None of the U.S. launch vehicles are strictly for commercial launches ª  The supply chain for U.S. launch vehicles is integrated; essentially the same configurations are used for military, civil, and commercial launches (with the exception of payload-specific elements) ª  Of the 150 launches (2001-2010) by major U.S. launch providers (excluding NASAoperated Shuttle launches) 27 (18%) carried commercial payloads, 53 (35%) government civil payloads, and 70 (47%) military payloads ª  Space Shuttle retirement and the cancellation of the Constellation Program ª  Department of Commerce and NASA extensively studied the effects of the above on the supply chain ª  16
  17. 17. Topic 7: Globalization of space industry supply chain Discuss the level of globalization among suppliers and potential suppliers in the space sector. Highlight any especially desirable or undesirable features of globalization in this sector. Level of globalization of satellite and launch vehicle manufacturing Military MODERATE MODERATE-HIGH Military satellites almost entirely U.S.-built. Exceptions include cover glass and optical solar reflectors made in the U.K.; IHI Aerospace (Japan) liquid apogee engine on AEHF satellite. Often, NASA satellites and spacecraft will feature collaborative systems with Europe, Japan, and other countries. Payload electronics or entire payloads are often made by European and/or Japanese companies. U.S.-built satellite buses provided for satellites primed by European, and, historically, Canadian and Japanese companies. MODERATE Launch Vehicle Manufacturing Commercial LOW Satellite Manufacturing Civil MODERATE MODERATE Atlas V and Delta IV are used for military, civil, and commercial missions. Atlas V incorporates Russian RD-180 engines and components from Europe. Delta IV incorporates engine valves from Japan and components from Europe. Minotaur has a few European components. Taurus XL and Pegasus (rarely used for military missions) incorporate some non-U.S. components. Taurus II core stage built in Ukraine. Pegasus and Taurus vehicles available for commercial missions. Falcon 9 series almost entirely U.S.-built. New Athena may feature foreign-built parts. 17
  18. 18. Topic 7: Possible foreign components of a generic U.S. commercial satellite IHI Aerospace liquid apogee engines (Japan) QST optical solar reflectors (UK) Bus: Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital Sciences, SS/L (USA) Saft batteries (France) Fairchild/BAE or Teledyne/Dalsa focal plane arrays (UK/Canada) QST solar cell cover glass (UK) Thomson/Meggitt ball screws (UK) Thales Alenia payload (France) Only some U.S. satellites use foreign components. Those satellites that use foreign components would typically use the components listed here. 18
  19. 19. Topic 7: EELV foreign suppliers RUAG fairing (Switzerland) RUAG payload clamp bands (Switzerland) CASA interstage structure and adaptors (Spain) SAAB payload adaptors (Sweden) Mitsubishi tank dome development (Japan) SNECMA nozzle extension on RL10-B (France) Saft lithium-ion batteries (France) RD AMROSS RD-180 (Russia-USA partnership) Mitsubishi RS-68 propellant valves (Japan) Delta IV Atlas V 19
  20. 20. Closing notes ª  Prime contractors and second tier subcontractors noted that they are frequently involved in space industrial base studies ª  Companies in the lower tiers of the supply chain typically had not participated in space industrial base studies and were eager to participate ª  Study identified a number of lower tier sole source suppliers and areas of limited competition across the space industrial base, including four U.S. sole suppliers of space-qualified components common to both satellites and launch vehicles ª  There appears to be significant potential benefit from deeper study of lower tiers and cross sector relationships 20
  21. 21. Contact information: Carissa Christensen, Managing Partner 703-647-8070 carissa.christensen@taurigroup.com The Tauri Group 6363 Walker Lane Suite 600 Alexandria, VA 22310 www.taurigroup.com 21
  22. 22. BACKUP SLIDES 22
  23. 23. Topic 8: Other factors to consider ª  New companies in commercial spaceflight sector ª  Private entrepreneurs with personal interest in space invest significant capital in commercial spaceflight ª  ª  ª  ª  NASA is providing funding for the development of crew and cargo transportation capability to low Earth orbit. NASA has contracted for commercial cargo services from some of these new companies, and expects to purchase more services in the future, including crew NASA s commercial cargo and crew development programs: ª  ª  ª  Both orbital and suborbital Intent to use these vehicles for human spaceflight and research Cargo: Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and Commercial ISS resupply (CRS) Crew: Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) DoD provides funding to some of these firms ª  Hosted payloads ª  Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) ª  Nano-satellites and micro-satellites 23
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