Philips Lumiled 2001
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Philips Lumiled 2001

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Презентация из по светодиодам из 2001 года.

Презентация из по светодиодам из 2001 года.

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Philips Lumiled 2001 Philips Lumiled 2001 Presentation Transcript

  • High Power White LED Technology for Solid State Lighting Paul S. Martin J. Bhat, C.-H. Chen, D. Collins, W. Goetz, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, C. Bhat, C.- Khare, Krames, Lowery, M. Ludowise, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, D. Steigerwald, Ludowise, Mueller- Rudaz, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, S-C Tan, J. Thompson, T. Trottier Subramanya, S- 1 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company Confidential
  • High Power White LEDs Who is Lumileds • Fully integrated light source supplier that co-develops optimized system solutions! • LED dice • Luxeon™ Power Light Sources • Arrays of High Flux LEDs on a metal core PCB • Automotive, Traffic Signals, Signage & Contour Solutions 2 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Outline • Competition in the market for Illumination, Incandescent & Fluorescent Bulbs. • LED Metrics • Options for making white light from LEDs • Lumileds power white LED performance • Some interesting demos 3 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • Illumination Markets How Much Energy is Used for Lighting • In 1999 the US used 3 Trillion kWhr of Electricity! • 20% or 600 Billion kWhr of Electicity generated was used in Lighting! • Incandescent/Hal. lamps burn 40% of electricity to produce 15% of light! • Fluorescent/HID lamps use 60% to produce 85% of light! • Illumination market is $60Billion/yr and growing slowly, ~2%/yr 4 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • Illumination Markets Incandescent Bulbs • Incandescent = hot light, emitted from a (tungsten) filament at around 2800oK • Disadvantages: • mostly infra-red infra- • glass vacuum envelope & filament both break easily • <15 lm/W luminous (<5% power) efficiency • fire hazard, burnt fingers, maintenance • Advantages: • Radiant cooling black body spectra • Cheap 0.0005$/lumen 2 • klm per package! 1.8 power spectra, norm.@600 nm 3000K 1.6 1.4 4000 1.2 Basic disadvantage: 5500 1 no chance to come close 0.8 to DAYLIGHT = 6500oK 0.6 6500 0.4 7500 0.2 0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 µm 0.8 0.9 Courtesy Gerd Mueller LL 5 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • Illumination Markets Fluorescent Bulbs • Fluorescent = cold light, emitted by phosphors excited by gas discharge. • Advantages: • High efficiency 80+lm/W & High Flux klm/lamp klm/lamp • Moderate cost for large lamps 0.002$/lm • Disadvantages: • Lifetime short <10,000 hrs resulting in high maintenance. • Glass vacuum envelope leaks/breaks, ballast noisy. • Mercury!! 0.025 1.2 1.0 0.02 0.8 black body 3600 K rad. flux, a.u. rad. flux, a.u. 0.015 Basic Advantage: 0.6 fluorescent, CCT=3600 K any color temperature 0.01 Ra = 83 possible by tri-color mixing 0.4 0.005 0.2 0 0.0 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 Courtesy Gerd Mueller LL nm 6 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • Illumination Markets Assumptions for using LEDs in lighting • LED lamps will be far more expensive than incandescent, halogen or fluorescent lamps for at least a decade. • The expensive LED lamp must pay for itself through lifetime energy and maintenance savings. • The lighting industry has spoiled the users with superb color rendering and color control. • Near term LEDs must dominate monochrome and penetrate white niches! 7 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Outline • Competition in the market for Illumination, Incandescent & Fluorescent Bulbs. • LED Technology & metrics • Options for making white light from LEDs • Lumileds power white LED performance • Some interesting demos 8 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • LED Metrics Tower of Babble? optical power out / electric power in = Wall-Plug-Efficiency, WPE, (%,W/W) photons out / electrons in = External Quantum Efficiency, EQE, % photons internally generated / electrons in = Internal Quantum Efficiency , IQE, % photons out / photons generated = extraction efficiency, %, ηext photon energy / applied voltage (times electron charge) = electrical efficiency, %, ηel lumens out / electric power in = luminous efficiency [lm/W] luminous efficacy, LE [lm/W] = luminous equivalent of the emission spectrum luminous efficiency = IQE*ηext*ηel*LE IQE*ηext = EQE EQE*ηel = WPE WPE*LE = lm/W 9 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • LED Metrics LED Skulduggery Paul’s Top 5 Sins What am I hiding? 1) Quoting EQE without Vf or WPE 1) Vf, power efficiency 2) Quoting low duty factor results 2) Thermal resistance, heating 3) Quoting WPE without current or 3) GaN in particular has strong current density & total power out. dependence of WPE on current not much light comes out of a device at very low currents! 4) Quoting WPE without temperature 4) WPE is strongly dependent on junction temperature for AlInGaP, less so for AlInGaN. 5) Quoting Cd without Flux 5) Radiation pattern 10 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • LED Metrics Tower of Babble take 2 for white LEDs How well can a source reproduce “natural” colors = Color-Rendering-Index, Ra, % (100 = sunlight, 85 = office, 60 = cabinet/lantern light) Color Correlated Temperature = CCT, Kelvin (x,y coordinates normal to black body curve) 0.9 CIE1931 Phosphor Converted LED = PCLED 0.8 Planckian locus tungsten, 2850K LED photons pump phosphor which emits secondary, 0.7 halogen, 3100K and longer, wavelength of light. daylight, 6500K 0.6 Stoke’s shift = Difference in wavelength between 0.5 absorbed and emitted photons. Emitted photons always have longer wavelength, i.e. lower 0.4 10,000K energy! 0.3 2500K 3300K 5000K 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 11 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Outline • Competition in the market for Illumination, Incandescent & Fluorescent Bulbs. • LED Technology & metrics • Options for making white light from LEDs • Lumileds power white LED performance • Some interesting demos 12 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White Light from LEDs Three methods of Generating LED White Light • Each method has potential strengths! Red + Green + Blue LEDs UV LED + RGB Phosphor Binary Complimentary UV LED Spectrum Combined Red Peak Spectrum Blue Peak Combined Phosphor Phosphor Spectrum Green Peak Emission Emission Blue LED Spectrum 410 470 525 590 630 (nm) 470 525 590 630 (nm) 470 525 590 630 (nm) RGB LEDs UV LED + RGB phosphor Blue LED + Yellow phosphor 13 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White Light from LEDs Combining Red, Green and Blue LEDs • Advantages: • Long term likely the most efficient! • Dynamic tuning of color temperature possible! • Excellent color rendering! • Very large color Gamut available! • Challenges • Color Feedback required today to account for LED degradation with T & t! • Color mixing tricky! • Yellow-Green Gap! LED CCFL NTSC EBU 14 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • Combining Red, Green and Blue LEDs Lumileds LCD Backlight! • 20 Green, 10 Red, 10 Blue Luxeon’s, ~ 1000 lumens! • Today LED Solution has 140% Color Gamut and 120% CCFL power! Both displays showing the same slide (red only background) via a splitter LED solution CCFL solution 15 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White from RGB LEDs The Yellow-Green Gap! • Eye Sensitivity Peaks right in the middle of the Yellow-Green GaP! 60 Tj = 25ºC VCSEL LEDs 50 40 C o n v e r s i o n Best Laboratory 30 Result 20 Production Average 10 0 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 590 610 630 650 850 Wavelength (nm) 16 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White Light from LEDs UV LED pumped RGB Phosphors • Advantages: • White point determined by phosphors ONLY! (i.e. tolerant to LED variation) • Excellent color rendering possible! • Theoretically “Simple to manufacture!” (Looks like TV or Fluorescent lamp except for pump is now UV LED rather than electrons.) • Temperature stability of phosphors. (Can be great!) • Disadvantages • Potential for damaging UV light leakage. • Fundamental limits on efficiency due to phosphor conversion efficiency, Stokes shift, self absorption,… • Challenges • None available yet!? • Efficient Blue LED pumped phosphor not available yet?! • Color uniformity with angle! • Packaging must be robust to UV exposure. • Temperature stability of phosphors. (Great phosphors not available in all colors!) 17 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • UV LED pumped RGB Phosphors UV LED must be >2x Green LED WPE for same lm/W! • Downshift in color causes fundamental energy loss. • Scattering in phosphor + absorption in package (inc. phosphor) reduces extraction efficiency! Today’s best package efficiency is ~50% for Blue + Yellow phosphor, UV + RGB phosphor likely to be even worse! 100% 90% Power Conversion (%) 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% Red 630nm 30% Blue 460nm 20% Green 540nm 10% White Assuming 50% pkg. Efficiency! White + Pkg 0% 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 UV Pump Wavelength (nm) 18 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White Light from LEDs White from Blue LED + Phosphor(s) • Advantages: • Simple and single Yellow phosphor versions available today! • Decent color rendering (Ra = 75 for Blue LED + Yellow Phosphor) • Temperature stability of phosphors. (Can be great!) • Disadvantages • Limits on efficiency due to phosphor conversion efficiency, Stokes shift, self absorption,… • Better color rendering (i.e. multi phosphor comes at cost of efficiency) • Challenges • Temperature stability of phosphors. (Great phosphors not available in all colors) • Color uniformity vs. angle • Multi phosphor versions to improve color rendering 19 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White from Blue LED + Phosphor(s) Today, PC LEDs are in the 20-30lm/W range! • Todays white LEDs are in the ~20-30lm/W range! 0.9 LED, T = 25C Ce3+ doped garnet family, LED,T = 105C 0.8 e.g.(Y,Gd)3Al5O12 YAG:Ce Planckian locus 0.7 530 CIE1931 Combined with the same LED, Ce3+ 520 540 phosphors hit the Planckian at different 0.6 510 color temperatures: 0.5 500 590 70 0.4 600 60 CCT=4000K, Ra=75 10,000K 50 620 2500K 630 40 0.3 490 3300K 30 640 5000K 20 0.2 10 480 0 400 500 600 700 nm 800 0.1 470 460 450 nm Ra = 75 is not great (good FL has 83) 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 but it is OK for some applications. 20 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White from Blue LED + Phosphor(s) Color Uniformity can be good for PC White! • CCT uniformity of 50-100K is sufficient for high quality illumination. 5400 5200 5000 4800 4600 CCT (K) 4400 800K 4200 4000 3800 3600 80K 3400 3200 3000 -85 -75 -65 -55 -45 -35 -25 -15 -5 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 Theta (degrees) 21 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White from Blue LED + Phosphor(s) Progress on Temperature stability of Phosphors (Y,Gd)AG:Ce measured on powders 1200000 25 C radiance under 460 nm excitation 50 (Y,Gd)AG, 4 mol% Ce 1000000 100 120 100 [Gd] 800000 150 0% 200 600000 80 400000 I(T)/I(25C), % 60 25 200000 40 50 0 75 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 20 nm 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 1200000 Temperature, C 25 1000000 50 100 800000 120 novel phosphors with improved 600000 150 200 color specs emerge; in this case 400000 using a Ce3+ - Pr3+ transfer of 200000 excitation energy and yielding more temperature stable behavior 0 400 500 600 700 800 22 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White from Blue LED + Phosphor(s) The 2-phosphor-converted LED – 2pcLED 0.9 combospec 1 LED + 2 phosphors 2.00 1.50 Ra = 92 Adding green and red to the 0.8 1.00 blue of the LED opens a huge 0.50 0.7 0.00 color gamut and allows for 400 500 600 700 800 530 TG:Eu de-luxe white of any color 520 HP LED, T = 25C 0.6 540 HP LED,T = 105C temperature – our best choice Planckian locus 510 8206 Phosphors • SrGa2S4:Eu2+ - green 7193 CIE1931 0.5 7118 Series15 • SrS:Eu2+ - red 500 590 0.4 600 10,000K 610 SrS:Eu 620 0.3 2500K 630 The dipole-allowed 5d-4f 490 3300K 5000K 640 transitions of Ce3+ and Eu2+ 0.2 1.60 combospec are uniquely suited for color 1.40 480 1.20 1.00 Ra = 92 converters: 0.1 0.80 0.60 high absorption, small 470 0.40 460 0.20 0.00 Stoke’s shift 400 500 600 700 800 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 23 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • White Light from LEDs All three white LED technologies share Three challenges! 90 lm/bulb 1 Maximize efficiency in lm/W 6 lm/W 0.005 $/lm 2 Maximize flux density in lm/package 3 And of coarse reduce cost $/lm 475 lm/bulb 145 lm/bulb 10 lm/W 50 lm/W 0.01 $/lm 0.02 $/lm 24 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Outline • Competition in the market for Illumination, Incandescent & Fluorescent Bulbs. • LED Technology & metrics • Options for making white light from LEDs • Lumileds power white LED performance • Some interesting demos 25 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Gold Wire Bond Epoxy Dome Lens LED Chip p pad Reflector Cup semitransparent contact Cathode Lead Anode Lead n pad Junction area ~ 0.06mm2 Limitations of conventional 5mm Indicator LED lamps • Very high thermal resistance, >200°C/W, • Epoxy limited to <<120°C due to thermal yellowing, • Light utilization efficiency is low. 26 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Luxeon™ approach Die design • Large area die for high power capability, • Electrode design for low spreading resistance, • Flip-chip configuration; Flip- • high extraction efficiency, • low thermal resistance, • ability to integrate electronics. Package design • Low thermal resistance package, • Stable, soft gel inner encapsulant, encapsulant, • Controlled radiation pattern and efficient optics. System design • Low thermal resistance board design, • Efficient secondary optical elements. 27 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Lumileds LuxeonTM Power LED Efficiency • Leading the charge into Solid State Illumination Production Typical R&D Demonstrations 350mA If lm/W lm/LED lm/W lm/LED Red 44 43 50 50 Red-Orange 55 54 65 65 Amber 36 36 44 44 Green 25 30 50 55 Blue 11 14 15 20 White 18 22 30 36 28 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • LED Technology Haitz’s Law for LED Flux • LED Flux per package has doubled every 18-24 months for 30+ Years!! • 1965 Moore’s Law “# of Transistors/chip will double every 18-24 months!” 1000 Flux/Package (lumens) 100 TM Luxeon 10 1 Indicator LEDs 0.1 0.01 0.001 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year 29 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Lumileds LuxeonTM Series A & B LEDs • First ever White LED > 100lm!! (100.2lm and 15lm/W to boot!!) 1000 Luxeon Series B White LED 100 Flux output (lm) Luxeon Series A White LED 10 Indicator White LED 1 0.1 All data AC 1%DF & 25C case 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 30 Power input (mW) Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Lumileds 100 lumen Club! • These are the only LEDs that approach “Illumination” flux! Red 1000 105 February-01 Amber 700 110 December-99 Green 700 108 March-01 White 1870 100.2 July-01 White 1400 >110 1-Sep 31 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs What about Radiometric Power?! • State of the art 400nm indicator LEDs provide 15mW of power. • How much power can a Luxeon part generate? :-) If (mA) W/LED Date Deep Blue 430nm Dan Steigerwald July-01 1400 >1.0 Talk 4445-19 08:30 8/1/2001 32 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Lumileds LuxeonTM Series B Cyan LED • Single Series B Cyan LED can replace an 80W bulb in an 8” traffic ball! 130 lm/bulb 30 lm/W 0.20? $/lm 33 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Lumileds LuxeonTM Ring • Fixture design by Philips Lighting and Lumileds. • 12 Luxeon’s, ~240 lumens. Ring available Now! 34 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Outline • Competition in the market for Illumination, Incandescent & Fluorescent Bulbs. • LED Technology and metrics • Comparison of options for making white LEDs • Lumileds power white LED performance • Some interesting demos 35 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Evolution of LED Package Technology • Power LEDs can handle ~50x power of an Indicator LED! Pmax~0.6-4.0W Pmax~0.2-0.4W 9-14 K/W 50 K/W 1998 LumiLeds LuxeonTM 1994 LumiLeds SnapLEDTM Today’s Power LED Pmax~0.1W 150-200 K/W First Power LED 1970 Standard 5mm Lamp 1962 First Packaged LED Indicator LED Indicator LED 36 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Lumileds LuxeonTM Power LED • Packages designed to handle 1-5W! High-Power Package: Improved thermal properties Heat sink body with good thermal interface Soft gel inner encapsulant Including power AlInGaN or AlInGaP or Phosphor Converted AlInGaN Chip: qjc~ 12°C/W High optical efficiency > 95% 37 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Potential Power Savings vs. Traditional Lighting • Todays white LEDs are in the ~20-30lm/W range, but still low flux! 100 Incandescent 80 Power Saved (%) Halogen 60 CFL 40 Fluorescent 20 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 LED Efficiency (lm/W) 38 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • LED Technology Indicator LEDs vs. Power LEDs • Indicator LEDs have output powers < ~50mW and Thermal resistances > 50K/W 0 10 InGaN LEDs Operating Point -1 λ ~450 nm 10 Output Power (W) Power LED -2 10 Operating Point -3 10 "5 mm" LED -4 10 -3 -2 -1 0 1 10 10 10 10 10 Input Power (W) 39 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company
  • High Power White LEDs Indicator LEDs vs. Power LuxeonTM LEDs! • Luxeon’s are designed for low thermal resistance & high current density! 20 InGaN LEDs 120 InGaN LEDs λd ~530 nm λd ~530 nm 100 Wall Plug Efficiency (%) 16 Power LED Luminous Flux (lm) 80 12 60 Power LED 8 40 "5 mm" LED 4 20 "5 mm" LED 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200 2 2 Current Density (A/cm ) Current Density (A/cm ) 40 Copyright (c) Lumileds Lighting LLC Company