National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCommercial Space andWhy Are We Doing It?November 7, 2012Philip McAlisterNASA HQ, HEOMD
The Future State• The vision of commercial human spaceflight to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is a robust, vibrant, profit- making commercial enterprise with many providers and a wide range of private and public users.• NASA’s commercial spaceflight initiatives are helping to make this vision a reality. 2
“Commercial” at NASA Program Characteristic Early Space Age Commercial-Oriented Approach Approach Owner NASA Industry Contract Fee-Type Cost Plus Fixed Price Contract Management Prime Contractor Public-Private Partnership Customer(s) NASA Government and Non- Government Funding for Capability NASA procures capability NASA provides investment Demonstration via milestone payments NASA’s Role in Capability NASA defines “what” and NASA only defines “what” Development “how” (Industry defines “how”) Requirements Definition NASA defines detailed NASA defines top-level requirements capabilities needed Cost Structure NASA incurs total cost NASA and Industry cost share 3
Commercial Crew ApproachTraditional NASA Development Non-Traditional DevelopmentGoal: ISS Crew Mission Goal: Commercial Human TransportExtensive Government Involvement Limited Government InvolvementNo Cost Sharing Cost SharingGovernment Owns IP Commercial Partner Owns IPDetailed Design Requirements Tailored Human-Rating RequirementsUnlimited Data and Lots of Deliverables Pay-for-Performance MilestonesHigher Costs Lower Costs NASA had clearly chosen a non-traditional development approach for the Commercial Crew Program. 4
Unique Approach to a Unique Situation• Over the years, NASA has used a variety of a different approaches to overseeing and understanding the development of spacecraft. Each approach was tailored to meet the specific needs of the program.• Within the context of CCP, the following key ingredients are present which enable the adoption of these key paradigm changes: – No technology breakthroughs were required – we are not pushing the technological state of the art by flying people to and from low Earth orbit – Very real prospect of other customers beyond NASA – spaceflight participants and sovereign clients are existing markets with substantial growth potential – Government foundational customer base – the International Space Station represents a long term, repeatable market – Strong industrial base – many U.S. companies have the capability to develop safe and reliable crew transportation systems. 5
Approach Summary• The purpose of contrasting NASA’s traditional and non-traditional approaches does not mean one is better than the other.• Each approach is appropriate for the type of program required. – For technically-ambitious, one-of-a-kind programs where NASA is the only customer and production is limited to only one (or a few) of the systems, then a traditional approach is more appropriate. – For more commercial-like programs that feature the key ingredients mentioned previously, the approach being followed by the CCP is more appropriate.• The combination of a unique contracting mechanism and an innovative technical approach should enable the development of a safe, reliable, and cost effective crew transportation system for use by a wide range of public and private users. 6
Commercial Cargo Status• SpaceX – After 72 months, 40 milestones, and a $396M investment from NASA, SpaceX developed and brought into operations: • A new U.S. intermediate class commercial launch vehicle (Falcon 9), • A spacecraft (Dragon), and • A launch pad (LC-40) capable of safely transporting cargo to the ISS and returning cargo to the Earth.• Orbital Sciences Corporation – Orbital Sciences has completed 24 of 29 milestones and received $266.5M out of $288. – The maiden test flight date of the Antares is under review but could occur in October 2012. The Demonstration Mission will potentially occur 3 months after the maiden flight. 7
Commercial Crew Program Roadmap 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017Commercial CCDevCrewDevelopment Partners: Blue Origin, Boeing, Paragon, Sierra Nevada, ULA (5) Scope: Crew Transportation System Technologies and Concepts Total Amount Awarded: $50MCommercial CCDev 2CrewDevelopment Partners: Blue Origin, Boeing, Sierra Nevada, SpaceX (4)Round 2 Scope: Elements of a Crew Transportation System Total Amount Awarded: $315MCommercial CCiCAP (Base Period) CCiCAP (Optional Period)CrewIntegrated Partners: Boeing, Sierra Nevada, SpaceX (3) Partners: TBD Scope: Integrated Crew Transportation Systems Scope: Final Development and Test(s)Capability Total Amount Awarded: $1,112MNASA Crew CPC (Phase 1) Certification (Phase 2)Certification Partners: TBD Partners: TBD Scope: Early Certification Products Scope: Full Certification Total Amount Awarded: $40M (maximum)CrewTransportationServices forNASA-SponsoredPersonnel 8
Sierra Nevada Corporation • Descriptions & Features – Dream Chaser spacecraft is a reusable, piloted, lifting body, derived from NASA HL-20 concept • Carries up to 7 crew members • Utilizes non-toxic propellants • Primary Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, Florida Artist rendition of Dream Chaser in low- Earth orbit • Primary Landing Site: Shuttle Landing Facility, Florida • Abort scenario leverages primary propulsion system with an ability to abort to a runway landing – Atlas V vehicle launched from the Space Launch Complex 41 launch pad • Base Period – $212.5M total NASA funding for 9 milestones – Significant progress toward completion of critical design – Two major safety reviews and significant subsystem technology maturation and hardware testing Artist rendition of Dream Chaser and Atlas V on launch pad Artist rendition of Dream Chaser landing on a runway 9
SpaceX • Descriptions & Features – Spacecraft uses a crewed version of the SpaceX Dragon capsule • Carries up to 7 Crew • Primary Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, Florida Artist rendition of Dragon attached to • Primary Landing Site: “On land” landing, specific landing ISS site in work • Integrated, side-mounted launch abort system utilizing SuperDraco engines – Upgraded Falcon 9 vehicle launched from the Space Launch Complex 40 launch pad – Mid calendar year 2015 crewed test flight (dependent on funding and technical progress) • Base Period – $440M total NASA funding for 14 milestones – Culminates in an integrated critical design review Picture of Falcon 9 rocket on launch pad in Florida – Includes a pad abort test and an in-flight abort test Artist rendition of Dragon re-entering Earth’s atmosphere 10
Boeing • Descriptions & Features – CST-100 spacecraft is a reusable capsule design utilizing many proven flight components • Carries up to 7 people • Primary Launch Site: Cape Canaveral, Florida • Primary Landing Site: “On Land” landing, specific landing Artist rendition of the CST-100 spacecraft site in work • “Pusher” launch abort system – Atlas V launch vehicle using the dual engine Centaur upper stage configuration and launched from the Space Launch Complex 41 launch pad – Late calendar year 2016 crewed test flight (dependent on funding and technical progress) • Base period – $460M total NASA funding for 19 milestones Artist rendition of CST-100 and – Culminates in an integrated critical design review Atlas V on the launch pad – Significant propulsion system, avionics, and wind tunnel development and testing Successful parachute drop test accomplished during CCDev2 11
Accomplishments and Status• CCDev1 successfully completed; the majority of CCDev2 milestones completed; CCiCAP underway, ISS safety and performance requirements baselined.• Industry is making significant progress on multiple crew transportation system designs.• Budget status reflects steady progress. 900 $830M* 800 700 600 500 $406M 400 $312M 300 200 100 $50M 0 2009/2010 2011 2012 2013 * FY2013 President’s Budget Request• Together with the capabilities to explore deep space provided by the Space Launch System and the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, NASA has a robust, complementary U.S. human space flight program. 12
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