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Boeing 3D printing - technology readiness levels (TRL) 2006

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  • 1. Steps to Improve Direct Manufacturing Readiness Levels Jeffrey DeGrange Senior Manager – Advanced Manufacturing Research & Development St. Louis, Missouri USA EuroMold 2006 Frankfurt, Germany December 1st, 2006 BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company. Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt |1 11/17/2006
  • 2. Digital Manufacturing Technologies Laser Projection Selective Laser Sintering EBM-Direct Metal Fused Deposition Modeling Stereolithography R.E. – ATOS Scanning Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Laser Tracking Filename.ppt |2 SLG50031993-043.ppt 11/17/2006
  • 3. Use of Digital Information to Grow Parts Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Uses a Computer Controlled Laser to Construct Physical Objects Directly From a 3-D Solid Model Using Powdered Materials. Process Overview 1. 2. 3. 4. Create 3-D Model Base Definition (Unigraphics, CATIA, ProEngineer) Electronic Delivery of the 3-D Model to SLS System. 3-D Model Sliced Into Ultra-Thin 2-D Layers and Part Program Created. Laser Will Sinter Loose Powdered Material Together by Drawing and Filling the Crosssectional Cut for Each 2-D Layer. 5. Repeat Process for Each Individual Layer Until Object Is Complete. 6. Remove Objects From Bed of Powder. Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt |3 11/17/2006
  • 4. Stereolithography Applications •High Accuracy (+/-0.003”) •Materials ranging from high modulus to Elastomer replicates •Loaded materials available : Ceramics, Metallic •Known wind tunnel scaling factors Wind Tunnel Test Articles Fit Check Articles Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt |4 11/17/2006
  • 5. Stereolithography Development Work • Supplier Material Development • Low Cost Metal Plating Flight Simulator Control Sticks Metal Plated SLA Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt |5 11/17/2006
  • 6. Selective Laser Sintering Applications 3D CAD MODEL FABRICATED SLS DETAILS ASSEMBLED DRILL PLATE Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. POWER FEED DRILLING USING SLS DRILL PLATE Filename.ppt |6 11/17/2006
  • 7. Selective Laser Sintering Applications Environmental Control System Ducting on military aircraft • Reduced Part Count • Flexible Design • Reduced Cost • No Tooling • Increased Cycle Time Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2006 The Boeing Company. All rights reserved Filename.ppt |7 11/17/2006
  • 8. Selective Laser Sintering Development Work • Larger Build Chamber Machines • Flame Retardant Material for FAA Requirements Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2006 The Boeing Company. All rights reserved Filename.ppt |8 11/17/2006
  • 9. Fused Deposition Modeling Applications • Quick Turn-around of Polycarbonate, ABS, and PPSF components • Sparse Fill feature offers rigid, lightweight components • PPSF is a high-temperature plastic (HDT=372° F) Large Scale Trim Tool and Holding Fixture Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Assembly tool for short run repair work Filename.ppt |9 11/17/2006
  • 10. Fused Deposition Modeling Applications Ground support equipment and tools Box Subsystem Simulators Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2006 The Boeing Company. All rights reserved Filename.ppt | 10 11/17/2006
  • 11. Fused Deposition Modeling Applications Composite Fabrication Tooling Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 11 11/17/2006
  • 12. Electron Beam Melting Electrons are emitted from a filament which is heated to > 2500° C The electrons are accelerated through the anode to half the speed of light A magnetic field lens brings the beam into focus Another magnetic field controls the movement of the beam When the electrons hit the powder kinetic energy is transformed to heat. The heat melts the metal powder Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 12 11/17/2006
  • 13. Electron Beam Melting Development • Low cost Titanium powder • Better control systems • Heat Transfer modeling techniques Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 13 11/17/2006
  • 14. Where Is the Technology Going? Evaluation of Direct Nylon Components for Commercial Applications Meet Flame & Toxicity Requirements Continue the Advancement of Direct Manufacturing of Thermoplastic and Metal Materials Production to Additional Programs and Applications Mainstream the Use for Rapid Tooling and Post-Production Support Applications Enables the Ability to “Design Anywhere, Build Anywhere” Direct Manufacturing Technology will Fundamentally Change How We Think About Design, Manufacture and Support Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 14 11/17/2006
  • 15. Example for Production Applications Multi-Functional Designs New (SLS) Configuration Previous (Kevlar/Rotomold) Configuration Attach Straps Eliminated • Part Count Reduction • Quick & Easy Installation Multiple Ducts Combined to Single-Piece Duct Conformal Shapes Achieved and Internal Flow Features Added Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 15 11/17/2006
  • 16. Example for Production Applications The Value of Direct Manufacturing • Engineering Design: • Direct from 3-D Model Base Definition • Design and Build Flexibility • Production: • Eliminate non-recurring tooling costs • Lower recurring unit part costs • Faster part delivery times • Supplier flexibility • Direct Fabrication: • 50% Cost Reduction • 67% Cycle Time Reduction at Minimum • Product: • Reduced part count and weight • Lower inventory and transportation costs • Improved Life Cycle Product Costs Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 16 11/17/2006
  • 17. Production On Demand Coexistence of Typical Production and Production On-Demand Dynamic Supply Chaining Out Production Parts Sample Part Scanned Results Re-Modeled Developed Build-to Package Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Return to Agenda Reproduced (Prototype) Filename.ppt | 17 11/17/2006
  • 18. Qualification & Certification Definitions • Qualification - Focus on Controlling Variables Within Acceptable Limits - Includes Materials - Included Processing - Also Covers Equipment Certification - Intent is Demonstrating a Stable Material and Process for Use on Applications - Three to Five Batch Qualifications for Each Test to establish B-Basis Material Allowables • Certification Focus is on the Application - Point Insertion - General Insertion Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 18 11/17/2006
  • 19. Candidate Application Selection Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 19 11/17/2006
  • 20. Platform Evaluation Methodology Step 1 Step 2 TRL’s xRL’s Questionnaire Step 3 Step 4 Technology Assessment Conformance Planning Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. • Tailor AIM-C Readiness Level Guides Towards Direct Digital Manufacturing • Process/Equipment • Materials • Establish More Specific Questions to Translate Exit Criteria Into Relative Items • Process/Equipment • Materials • Assess Maturity In Each of the Categories/ Groups/Items • Process/Equipment • Materials • Establish The Specifics For Conformance Activities to Meet Maturity Exit Criteria with the Selected Technologies and Applications • Process, Equipment, Matl’s, Structures Filename.ppt | 20 11/17/2006
  • 21. Initial Overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Guide Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 21 11/17/2006
  • 22. Key Areas- Education of Design Communities • • Remove the ‘Cuffs’ of Design For Manufacturing & Assembly (DFMA) • Complexity is Ok.. Even Good! • Propagate the Design For Function (DFF) Design Mentality • Encourage the Adaptation of Designing MultiFunctional Parts • Encourage sub-systems teams to work together • Industry Service Specifications (SAE, ISO, AMS, etc.) • Universities Must Begin to Teach the Principles of Direct Manufacturing Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 22 11/17/2006
  • 23. Key Areas- System Development Needs Platform Up-time Must Approach 90% Product/Process Consistency • • Thermal Consistency Dimensional Consistency Production Capable Operational Strategies Off-line Cool Down/Warm Up Pallet Shuttle System Approach Platform Modularity to Improve Serviceability Shaping Sub-systems Environmental Control Sub-systems Software Capabilities Process Monitoring/Data Acquisition Software Self Calibrating Capabilities Open Architecture Code (Not Necessarily Control algorithms) Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 23 11/17/2006
  • 24. Required Materials Advancements • Incoming Product Consistency • • • Reasonable Product Cost • • • Pounds Consumed Substantially Increased with the Number of Applications Improved Performance Materials • • The product must be available in bulk buys Sellers must add value to the product Supply Chain Capable of Delivering Production Quantities • • Batch and lot traceability Contaminant free material Temperature, Stiffness, Strength, Toughness, Etc. Base Level Standardization of Property Reporting Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 24 11/17/2006
  • 25. Required Materials Advancements • Improved Performance Materials • • • • • • Base Level Standardization of Property Reporting • • • • Isotropic properties Stiffness (at elevated temperatures) Strength (at elevated temperatures) Toughness (at low/room temperatures) UV Resistance Tensile Impact Hardness Scientific Understanding of Material Characteristics and Processing Characteristics • • Explanations of empirical phenomena Develop materials performance prediction tools Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 25 11/17/2006
  • 26. Key Areas- Industry Short-Comings • Reliable, Prompt Maintenance • • • • Reasonable Cost of Maintenance Contracts • • • Machines cannot be down for extended periods Selected spares stock on-site to reduce delays Train on-site maintenance personnel on some recurring calibrations or repairs to eliminate down time On-site spares stock included in the maintenance contract Bulk buy contracts for vendors with multiple machines Develop Concise Troubleshooting Procedures • • Eliminate the ‘Shot Gun’ approach to repairs Reduce down time as well as cost for the OEM Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 26 11/17/2006
  • 27. Process Repeatability • Dimensional Accuracy and Repeatability • Requirements for Acceptance: • Build test article (shown left) in 9 locations within build chamber; diagonally across the x-y top, middle and bottom. All measurements between cubic facets must be within ±.007”. Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 27 11/17/2006
  • 28. Development of World Wide Supply Base Revenues from rapid prototyping / rapid manufacturing industry reached $705.2M in 2004 and is growing Direct manufacturing for Boeing depends on collaboration with supplier networks across national borders Over (1170) SLS machines currently installed world wide High-speed and large-frame machines enhance productivity and reduce part cost Boeing standards for SLS manufacturing and quality control are well established Certification of SLS manufacturing centers in USA, Europe, and Asia is feasible for production Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 28 11/17/2006
  • 29. Certain Challenges Remain Bigger Batch Sizes Logistics Flow Higher Automation Larger Part Sizes New Part`s Designs Part‘s Homogenity Faster Production New Designs Have to be reflected in .... Quality Control & Standards Machine Design Material Properties Process Technology Production …………… Parts Design Process & & Engineering Control Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 29 11/17/2006
  • 30. Strategic Vision for Direct Manufacturing Production Capable Direct Manufacturing System Repeatable Capable Reliable Broader Marketplace Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Reduce Cost & Part Count Continuous Improvement Filename.ppt | 30 11/17/2006
  • 31. Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Filename.ppt | 31 11/17/2006

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