JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
1
September 25, 2013
Tim Currie | @tscurrie
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JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
2
1963
• Ted Nelson, Harvard
sociology student
• Formulates the
concept of hyper...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
3
1965
• Nelson, now a sociology prof at Vassar College in upstate
New York
• Gi...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
4
1969
• ARPANET computer network created
by the U.S. Defense Department
• Goal:...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
5
1971
• A loop of ―pages‖
broadcast on TV
• Not interactive, slow
• Service is ...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
6
1974
The British Post Office’s Research
Laboratory demonstrates the first
Vide...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
7
1974
Snapshot: Three competing technologies …
• Not interactive
• Slow
• But a...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
8
1975
Canada begins
developing Telidon, an
advanced videotext
system
By 1979 is...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
9
1975
GOVERNMENT OF CANADA GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
10
1981-82
First computer-based
dial-up services
emerge Eg.:
• Compuserve
• The ...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
11
1981
Video:
Internet News in 1981 (KRON TV report)
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
12
1983-1988
• 1983: Time Magazine names the
computer ―Machine of the Year‖
• 19...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
13
1990
• Tim Berners-Lee
creates Hypertext
Markup Language
CERN
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
14
1993
• January: 26 ―reasonably
reliable‖ servers exist on
the World Wide
Web,...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
15
1993
• October: First journalism site on the Web is
launched at the Universit...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
16
1994
• Jan. 19: The first newspaper
to regularly publish on the
Web, the Palo...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
17
1994
• June:
the first
Canadian
newspaper, t
he Halifax
Daily News
goes online
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
18
1995
April 19: Oklahoma
City Bombing
The first major event in
which people tu...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
19
1997
• March 26: Heaven’s
Gate suicides
The Internet becomes
part of a major ...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
20
1997
Video:
ABC News: March 26, 1997: Heaven's Gate
Cult Suicide
Journalists ...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
21
1997
• The Dallas Morning News
online edition gets an
exclusive that Timothy
...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
22
1998
Jan. 19: Early reports of
U.S. President Clinton’s
involvement with Whit...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
23
1998
A media frenzy
follows both
online and in
the traditional
press
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
24
1998
September: Starr
Report
A new relationship
between politicians
and the p...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
25
2000
Mainstream news
sites begin to involve
their audience
Death of Pierre Tr...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
26
2001
Sept. 11:
Online news
operations
stumble …
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
27
2001
… then recover …
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
28
2003
Classified listings
flee print ... and
take money with
them
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
29
2003
• Canada.com
moves to paid
subscription
model
• Breaking news
is free
• ...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
30
2003
• The dawn of
citizen media
• Blogging software
makes web
publishing eas...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
31
2004
Bloggers
lead the way
in forcing
CBS to
retract its
story on
George W.
B...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
32
Bloggers
beat the
mainstream
media to
tsunami-
ravaged
South-East
Asia …
2004
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
33
2005
Mainstream
media starts
harnessing
user-generated
video
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
34
News sites
rush to
establish
citizen
communities
2005
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
35
2005
Major trend: ―A growing number of news
outlets are chasing relatively st...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
36
Participatory
journalism advocate
Dan Gillmor tries
(and fails) to put
his em...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
37
2006
Web 2.0: The
Collaborative Web
Time Magazine Person
of the Year
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
38
2007
Bloggers face
greater legal
scrutiny
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
39
2007
Citizen media grows in importance
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
40
2007
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
41
1. “Journalism is becoming a smaller part of
people’s information mix”
2. ―Th...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
42
2007
• September:
Journalism sites
move away from
subscription-based
news
• A...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
43
2009
Use of citizen
content is
commonplace
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
44
2009
“Power is shifting to
the individual
journalist and away,
by degrees, fr...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
45
2010
Experiments with mobile
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
46
2011
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
47
2012
“A more fundamental challenge that we identified
last year has intensifi...
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
48
2012
JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM
49
2013
Instagram
―arrives‖
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History of Online Journalism 2013

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From hypertext pioneer Ted Nelson to 9/11 to paywalls. A look at technological and journalistic milestones in the history of online news. Undergraduate lecture by Tim Currie, Assistant Professor at the University of King's College School of Journalism in Halifax, Canada.

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  • A 1981 report from KRON-TV in San Franciscisabout how eight newspapers, including The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Los Angeles Times had joined a service that would send digital newspaper copies to home-computer
  • Start at 1:38First time the web is used as the main reporting source in a storyThe minute the Heaven's Gate Web address was read over the air on NBC’s "Today" show Thursday morning, the Minneapolis-based Internet service that hosted it nearly crashed.People rush to the original sources to find out more.What is The Higher Source (website)
  • A first - The front page of the Globe and Mail (print edition) has six photos of violence in Urumqui -- all of them from TwitterThe verification is done be people’s reputations online – not their real names
  • The audience for online news appeared to jump - a lot of people made the jump from print to onlineAlt news sites not gaining advertisingRecession is hitting mainstream media hard – bleak!!! “Journalism, deluded by its profitability and fearful of technology, let others outside the industry steal chance after chance online. Now the global recession has made that harder.”Journalists becoming their own brand - Social media – people follow people, not institutionsSocial media is breaking down journalism to the “article” levelFewer people are going to home pages – they are using social recommendation enginesMashable Ad 090918 – requirement: must have at least 500 people following you on Twitter
  • A strange thing happenedHeavily promoted a tie in with a print subscription
  • Instagram “arrives” when the NYT publishes an imageWhy important?A little bit about acceptance of filtersAlso about the technological advances of the cameras in phonesIt’s also about the NYT laying off staff photographers and putting the work of contracted photographers on the front pageAbout Nick LahamHe’s a freelancer. He’s got his own distribution channel. He licensed this to Getty images. He doesn’t need the New York Times.FYI: all of his iPhone photos <http://www.nicklaham.com/blog/?p=630>
  • History of Online Journalism 2013

    1. 1. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 1 September 25, 2013 Tim Currie | @tscurrie Download this presentation: slideshare.net/tscurrie/history-of-online-journalism Some themes borrowed from David Carlson, University of Florida History of Online Journalism
    2. 2. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 2 1963 • Ted Nelson, Harvard sociology student • Formulates the concept of hypertext TED NELSON / HYPERLAND.COM
    3. 3. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 3 1965 • Nelson, now a sociology prof at Vassar College in upstate New York • Gives a lecture which is covered in the student newspaper. The first print reference of ―hypertext‖ appears, Feb. 3, 1965
    4. 4. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 4 1969 • ARPANET computer network created by the U.S. Defense Department • Goal: Design a computer network to withstand nuclear attack • Decentralized system created under the basic assumption that parts of the network will fail • Lays the foundation for the Internet as a medium that is controlled by no single entity
    5. 5. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 5 1971 • A loop of ―pages‖ broadcast on TV • Not interactive, slow • Service is limited to a few hundred available pages • Slow BBC patents a new technology… Teletext:
    6. 6. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 6 1974 The British Post Office’s Research Laboratory demonstrates the first Videotext service • It’s truly interactive, supporting two-way communication • You use your TV, hooked up to cable and a phone line • You make entries using a keyboard, dedicated terminal or computer • Better graphics than teletext; even photo display.
    7. 7. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 7 1974 Snapshot: Three competing technologies … • Not interactive • Slow • But all you need is a TV and a decoder box VideotextTeletext • Interactive • You need cable TV and an expensive subscription • Interactive • Very expensive • Poorly networked • Almost no one has one Computers
    8. 8. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 8 1975 Canada begins developing Telidon, an advanced videotext system By 1979 is considered a world leader with advanced graphics technology GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
    9. 9. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 9 1975 GOVERNMENT OF CANADA GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
    10. 10. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 10 1981-82 First computer-based dial-up services emerge Eg.: • Compuserve • The Source • Prodigy These are closed systems — only subscribers have access EVAN AMOS / WIKIPEDIA BILBY / WIKIPEDIA COMPUSERVE
    11. 11. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 11 1981 Video: Internet News in 1981 (KRON TV report)
    12. 12. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 12 1983-1988 • 1983: Time Magazine names the computer ―Machine of the Year‖ • 1985: Worldwide 22 nations are said to be involved in videotext and teletext • 1986: Computers readily available in university computer labs, offices • 1988: DARPA makes the Internet public TIME
    13. 13. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 13 1990 • Tim Berners-Lee creates Hypertext Markup Language CERN
    14. 14. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 14 1993 • January: 26 ―reasonably reliable‖ servers exist on the World Wide Web, according to CERN • August: Mosaic, the first graphical Web browser for Windows, is released by the University of Illinois.
    15. 15. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 15 1993 • October: First journalism site on the Web is launched at the University of Florida. There now are about 200 web servers in the world • Dec. 8: First article about the web appears in the New York Times
    16. 16. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 16 1994 • Jan. 19: The first newspaper to regularly publish on the Web, the Palo Alto Weekly in California, begins twice- weekly postings of its full content • April: The Yahoo ―Internet index‖ is started by Stanford PhD candidates David Filo and Jerry Yang
    17. 17. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 17 1994 • June: the first Canadian newspaper, t he Halifax Daily News goes online
    18. 18. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 18 1995 April 19: Oklahoma City Bombing The first major event in which people turn to the Internet for current information PRESTON CHASTEEN / WIKIPEDIA
    19. 19. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 19 1997 • March 26: Heaven’s Gate suicides The Internet becomes part of a major news story when members of the Heaven’s Gate cult create a website before committing suicide KTTV LOS ANGELES
    20. 20. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 20 1997 Video: ABC News: March 26, 1997: Heaven's Gate Cult Suicide Journalists point readers to their source material
    21. 21. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 21 1997 • The Dallas Morning News online edition gets an exclusive that Timothy McVeigh has claimed responsibility for the Oklahoma City Bombing • First time a mainstream news organization breaks a major story on its website -- not in its newspaper
    22. 22. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 22 1998 Jan. 19: Early reports of U.S. President Clinton’s involvement with White House intern Monica Lewinsky demonstrate how a small independent news site can seize a national news agenda DEFENSE DEPT. / WIKIPEDIA BOB MCNEELY / WIKIPEDIA
    23. 23. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 23 1998 A media frenzy follows both online and in the traditional press
    24. 24. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 24 1998 September: Starr Report A new relationship between politicians and the public – Starr bypasses the press and distributes a major political document online first Kenneth Starr U.S. GOVERNMENT
    25. 25. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 25 2000 Mainstream news sites begin to involve their audience Death of Pierre Trudeau: Canadians share their stories on news websites GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
    26. 26. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 26 2001 Sept. 11: Online news operations stumble …
    27. 27. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 27 2001 … then recover …
    28. 28. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 28 2003 Classified listings flee print ... and take money with them
    29. 29. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 29 2003 • Canada.com moves to paid subscription model • Breaking news is free • Other content requires $$
    30. 30. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 30 2003 • The dawn of citizen media • Blogging software makes web publishing easy • The ―Baghdad Blogger‖ captivates the world
    31. 31. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 31 2004 Bloggers lead the way in forcing CBS to retract its story on George W. Bush’s military service
    32. 32. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 32 Bloggers beat the mainstream media to tsunami- ravaged South-East Asia … 2004
    33. 33. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 33 2005 Mainstream media starts harnessing user-generated video
    34. 34. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 34 News sites rush to establish citizen communities 2005
    35. 35. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 35 2005 Major trend: ―A growing number of news outlets are chasing relatively static or even shrinking audiences for news. One result of this is that most sectors of the news media are losing audience. The only sectors seeing general audience growth today are online, ethnic and alternative media.”
    36. 36. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 36 Participatory journalism advocate Dan Gillmor tries (and fails) to put his emerging ideas into practice 2006
    37. 37. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 37 2006 Web 2.0: The Collaborative Web Time Magazine Person of the Year
    38. 38. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 38 2007 Bloggers face greater legal scrutiny
    39. 39. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 39 2007 Citizen media grows in importance
    40. 40. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 40 2007
    41. 41. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 41 1. “Journalism is becoming a smaller part of people’s information mix” 2. ―The signs are clearer that advertising works differently online than in older media. The consequence is that advertisers may not need journalism as they once did, particularly online.” 2007
    42. 42. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 42 2007 • September: Journalism sites move away from subscription-based news • Advertising is seen as the only workable funding model
    43. 43. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 43 2009 Use of citizen content is commonplace
    44. 44. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 44 2009 “Power is shifting to the individual journalist and away, by degrees, from journalistic institutions." MARK LUCKIE / GETLUCKIE.NET
    45. 45. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 45 2010 Experiments with mobile
    46. 46. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 46 2011
    47. 47. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 47 2012 “A more fundamental challenge that we identified last year has intensified — the extent to which technology intermediaries (Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple) now control the future of news.”
    48. 48. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 48 2012
    49. 49. JOUR 5121: HISTORY & ETHICS OF JOURNALISM 49 2013 Instagram ―arrives‖
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