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Earthquake Vocabulary

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  • 1. Earthquake Vocabulary
  • 2. Fault
    • surface along which rocks move when they pass their elastic limit
  • 3. Earthquake
    • vibrations produced when rocks break along a fault
  • 4. Normal Fault
    • break in rock caused by tension forces, where rock above the fault surface moves down relative to the rock below the fault surface
  • 5.  
  • 6. Reverse Fault
    • break in rock caused by compressive forces, where rock above the fault surface moves upward relative to the rock below the fault surface
  • 7.  
  • 8. Strike-Slip Fault
    • break in rock caused by shear forces, where rocks moves past each other without much vertical movement
  • 9.  
  • 10. Focus
    • The point below the Earth’s surface where energy is released in the form of seismic waves
  • 11. Seismic Wave
    • wave generated by an earthquake
  • 12. Primary Wave (P-Wave)
    • seismic wave that moves rock particles back and forth in the same direction that the wave travels. These waves travel fastest and arrive first.
  • 13. P- Wave
  • 14. Secondary Wave (S-Wave)
    • seismic wave that moves rock particles at right angles to the direction of the wave. These waves arrive second.
  • 15. S- Wave
  • 16. Comparison P-Wave S-Wave
  • 17. Surface Wave
    • Seismic wave that moves rock particles up and down in a backward rolling motion and side to side in a swaying motion. These waves arrive last and are the most destructive.
  • 18. Damage Video
  • 19. Epicenter
    • point on Earth’s surface directly above an earthquake’s focus
  • 20. Seismograph
    • Instrument used to register earthquake waves and record the time that each arrived
  • 21. Magnitude
    • The power of an earthquake. Measured by the Richter Scale (1-10)