Multimedia in    the 21st Century    UNIT CONTENTS    This unit contains the following chapters:    Chapter 1             ...
Exploring the World of                      Multimedia               OVERVIEW                                             ...
WHAT IS MULTIMEDIA?                                     Any means of conveying information can be called a medium. This wo...
Figure 1.1                                                                                    Web sites often include writ...
Figure 1.2Photos are graphics, and so areimages such as navigation but-tons. Most multimedia produc-tions use one or more ...
medical students about heart disease might include sound effects like theheartbeats of a healthy patient and patients with...
TYPES OF MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTIONS                                   There are many different types of multimedia productions...
in a variety of ways. There can also be animations, also known as transitions,or transformations, between screens that sho...
SimulationsFigure 1.7Although simulations are gener-    Multimedia is often used to create simulations, which are computer...
Web PagesWeb pages can include any type of multimedia applications and can beused for entertaining, informing, training, r...
PREPARING FOR A CAREER IN MULTIMEDIAMultimedia technology is used in a wide range of            computer graphic design, i...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIMEDIAAdvances in combined media, such as filmstrips and slide presentations withcoordinated audio ...
Figure 1.11People once gathered aroundradios to listen to news or enter-tainment. Listeners had to imag-ine the action bas...
television shows over the Internet, few people see much reason to do this.Someday soon, though, a personal computer, telev...
THE HISTORY OF MULTIMEDIAIn the strictest sense of the word, multimedia simply       of the mouse with the Macintosh forev...
MULTIMEDIA IN SOCIETYThe use of multimedia is spreading rapidly as more and more organiza-tions harness computing power to...
multimedia experience involving an automated teller machine (ATM). Many                                   ATMs now use tex...
CHAPTER 1                                          SUMMARYWhat Is Multimedia?■   The term multimedia refers to the use of ...
CHAPTER 1                                          KEY TERMS  animation, 5                      Internet, 4               ...
CHAPTER 1                     UNDERSTANDING KEY CONCEPTS1. Planning a Project Think of an activity, organization, or other...
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  1. 1. Multimedia in the 21st Century UNIT CONTENTS This unit contains the following chapters: Chapter 1 Chapter 3 Exploring the World of Multimedia and Society Multimedia Multimedia and Business What Is Multimedia? Multimedia and the Types of Multimedia Workplace Productions Publishing, News, and The Development of Entertainment Multimedia Multimedia and Education Multimedia in Society Multimedia and Health Care Chapter 2 The Internet and Multimedia How the Internet Developed Connecting to the Internet Navigating the Web Searching the Web Communicating via the Internet2
  2. 2. Exploring the World of Multimedia OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES Understand the concept of Integrating Words, Images, and Sounds multimedia. Identify the componentsImagine yourself soaring on a hawk’s wing past the Eiffel Tower, the Grand of multimedia and theCanyon, or the pyramids of Egypt, hearing the wind rush by as you take in forms those componentsthe panoramic view. Picture a baby’s face changing smoothly into that of a can take.five-year-old, then a teenager, and then a middle-aged adult—all in a mat- Identify the types of multimedia presentations.ter of seconds. Consider the colors, sounds, and animation that add textureand realism to a favorite video game. These are all examples of multimedia, Understand how each element of a multimediawith the power to capture the imagination and attention of the viewer. production contributes to the user’s experience.In this book, you will read about the use of computer technology to cre- Discuss the historic devel-ate, distribute, and view multimedia, and about the influence it exerts on opment of multimedia.our lives. You will also read about the individual elements of multimedia Cite examples of howand the use of computers to create and integrate these elements into pow- multimedia is used forerful tools for education, business, and social development. This chapter business, education, and recreation.examines the concept of multimedia and offers an overview of multi-media in today’s world. It also discusses how multimedia developed overthe last century. The explosion of multimedia materi- als in business, education, and recreation has made them important elements of our everyday lives. How does multimedia affect your life at home or school? 3
  3. 3. WHAT IS MULTIMEDIA? Any means of conveying information can be called a medium. This word comes from Latin, and the plural form is media. (When we talk of the media, however, we are referring to avenues of mass communication, that is, radio, television, newspapers and magazines, and the Internet.) Text, which consists of written words, numbers, and symbols, is one kind of media. Sound, video, and animation are other kinds of media. Graphics are a kind of media, too, regardless of whether they are still photographs, sketches, or great works of art. In the strictest sense, a teacher using a slide projector and playing a music tape is delivering a multimedia presentation, because the presentation includesTextbook Web Site the media of sound and images. You could even describe newspapers, newslet-Did you know this book has its ters, magazines, and many books as multimedia, because they also combineown Web site? To find interestinginformation and activities about the media of text and images. In general, though—and throughout thismultimedia, visit the Introduction book—the term multimedia refers to the integration of still and movingto Multimedia Web site at images, text, and sound by means of computer One of the places where multimedia is frequently used is on the Internet. The Internet is a network of computers all over the world that are con- nected to each other. A Web page is a location on the Internet. When images, text, and sounds are linked so users can switch easily from one medium to another, or change screens or position within a program or Web page, multimedia also becomes hypermedia. One example of hypermedia would be a listing of colleges where clicking on the name of a college takes you to a different display with photos of that college and information about it. You will read more about the Internet and Web sites in Chapter 2: The Internet and Multimedia. All of the elements that contribute to multimedia are not necessarily pres- ent in every multimedia production, but the use of computer technology to create and distribute them is common to all. For example, a multimedia Activity 1-1 Working educational program that includes text and graphics might not include with Text in Microsoft sound, but it still qualifies as multimedia if computers are used to create it PowerPoint and to deliver it to students. Practice additional hands-on multimedia Although it depends on computer technology, multimedia is more than just skills on pages 302–303. computers and software, the coded instructions that tell computers how to perform tasks. Its effectiveness and appeal depend on the creativity of the people who develop the visuals, sounds, and text that make up the content of a multimedia production. Publishing a multimedia product takes tech- nical know-how, but creating and assembling the words, sights, and sounds that give the message its power requires imagination, organization, man- agement, and originality. Words Virtually all multimedia productions include words. The words can be written, spoken, or sung. Multimedia productions do not always include sound, but generally do include written text. The text might be in the form 4 Chapter 1
  4. 4. Figure 1.1 Web sites often include written text, especially commercial sites such as the homepage for the McGraw-Hill Companies. How is text used on this page? Do you think it is used effectively?of paragraphs, just as in books and other printed media, or it might glideacross a display screen. Text can also be used to label pictures in a multi-media production, describe the buttons for navigation, and provide linksto other screen displays.What the text says, of course, depends on the purpose of the multimediaproduction. Sometimes the team creating the production is responsiblefor what the text says; sometimes the client may provide the text or theteam may hire outside writers to create the text. Always, though, the teamis responsible for how the text looks in the finished presentation: its color,the way it is arranged with the other elements in a screen display, and thesize and shape of the characters. These attributes must be chosen care-fully to capture and hold the attention of the readers and get the messageof the text across to the viewer. Chapter 7: Text discusses ways of addingvisual appeal to text and integrating it with other elements of a multi-media production.ImagesMultimedia productions nearly always include images. These are calledgraphics, which include drawings, charts, diagrams, paintings, and pho-tographs. Even the buttons, arrows, and other visual elements that help Activity 1-2 Insertusers navigate their way through a multimedia production are consid- Graphics in aered graphics. Presentation Practice additionalGraphics in multimedia productions are often animated. Animation is the hands-on multimediarepresentation of motion in graphics or text. For example, text can be ani- skills on page 304.mated so that it seems to roll or bounce onto a screen. A drawing of a birdmight be animated so that the bird’s wings flap. An elaborate simulation Exploring the World of Multimedia 5
  5. 5. Figure 1.2Photos are graphics, and so areimages such as navigation but-tons. Most multimedia produc-tions use one or more kinds ofgraphics. What are the differenttypes of graphics used in thisWeb page? Activity 1-3 Insert Sound in a Presentation Practice additional might create a virtual environment, which is an invented setting that closely hands-on multimedia resembles a real one. In Chapter 8: Graphics and Animation, you will read skills on pages 305–306. about different kinds of still and animated images in multimedia and the tools and methods used to create them. SoundFigure 1.3 Sound adds interest and appeal to a multimedia presentation. In multi-Audio adds interesting effects media development, live or recorded sound is referred to as audio. Audiothat help to make a multimedia in multimedia can take the form of speech, such as a voice-over or narra-project more dynamic. How doyou think the audio is being tion. The speech could be pre-recorded and played along with the pre-used in this application? sentation, or a presenter may talk during the presentation. Another form of audio is sound effects—sounds that are added to a presentation to emphasize infor- mation. Multimedia may also include music, another form of audio. Music can play in the background during the presentation or be a central element of the production. Music can establish moods, add weight to words and images, and make simulations more realistic. Not all multimedia productions include audio, but in many it is an essential ingredient. A catchy tune, for example, can capture an audience for a multimedia advertisement that might other- wise be ignored. A voice-over recorded with a video can explain the significance of the action you are watching. A multimedia program for 6 Chapter 1
  6. 6. medical students about heart disease might include sound effects like theheartbeats of a healthy patient and patients with various heart conditions—a far more effective training tool than written descriptions of the sounds. Activity 1-4 Add Anima-Most audio in multimedia productions is recorded, but it can also be live. tion to a PresentationFor example, a multimedia conference might include people in far-flung Practice additional hands-on multimedialocations who use Internet connections to carry on a live conversation while skills on pages 307– of them draws a diagram as the others watch. You can also listen to liveradio broadcasts over the Internet. You will read about technology and meth-ods for capturing sound and integrating it into multimedia productions inChapter 9: Audio.Video Figure 1.4Video consists of live or recorded moving images and is found in many Video is often included in a multi- media product to demonstrate amultimedia productions. On the Internet you can find many examples of point or concept. How effectiverecorded video: you can play the latest music video from your favorite is the use of video in thisband, you can see video clips of presentation?recent stories on news sites likeCNN, and you can even watchoriginal movies made just for theInternet. With the appropriatehardware accessories, the Internetcan also provide access to liveaction all over the world. Forexample, an Internet user in LosAngeles can see live video of a vol-cano erupting on Hawaii or cur-rent traffic conditions on a localfreeway. Video is not used only onthe Internet, however. Multimediatraining programs often includevideos to illustrate procedures, andsales presentations may includevideos that demonstrate a prod-uct. In Chapter 10: Video, you willread about capturing video andintegrating it into multimediaproductions.Analyzing Multimedia With your instructor’s supervision, find a Web site thatincorporates the multimedia elements discussed in this section. 1. Identify the components of a multimedia presentation in the Web site. 2. Analyze and discuss the effectiveness of layout, color, special effects, and media objects like graphics, video, and audio. Exploring the World of Multimedia 7
  7. 7. TYPES OF MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTIONS There are many different types of multimedia productions—also called pre- sentations or applications. Which kind of production developers choose to create depends on the information being conveyed and the intended audi- ence. Whether you want to teach, inform, train, entertain, or report, you must decide which production will be the best way to present your topic. The types of multimedia applications discussed in this book are slide show presentations, tutorials, games, simulations and Web pages. Presentations Presentations are sequences of slides, also called pages or screens, that usu- ally incorporate text, sound, graphics, and animations. The term presenta- tion here refers to a specific kind of multimedia production, a digital slide show presentation—but be aware that the term can also be used generically in the multimedia industry to refer to all types of multimedia productions. Presentations are also called slide shows because, in most cases, the viewer or presenter goes from screen to screen in a linear fashion, one screen after another in a prearranged sequence, just like a traditional slide show. Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, and AppleWorks are presentation programs that use linear progression as their basic structure. Presentations are most often viewed on a computer monitor or on a pro- jection screen. The user or presenter presses either a button or mouse to go to the next screen, or the presentation can be set up to automatically move from screen to screen after a set amount of time. The amount of time spent on one screen depends on the amount of information on the screen. Presentations generally have limited amounts of text, often written as lists with bullets or symbols in front of each point. By animating the text, the informa- tion can be viewed one point at a time, with the text moving onto the screenFigure 1.5Multimedia presentations are apopular means of presentinginformation to groups of people.How has multimedia changedthe way some business meet-ings are conducted? 8 Chapter 1
  8. 8. in a variety of ways. There can also be animations, also known as transitions,or transformations, between screens that show a transition when going fromone topic to the next.Presentations are often used in business to present information or reportsto groups of people, such as at sales meetings or in conference settings.Presentations can also be used by teachers or students to deliver course infor-mation in the classroom.TutorialsTutorials are a popular form of computer-based instruction that teachskills or procedures. Computer-based instruction refers to applicationsthat train or teach using a computer. Tutorials can be used for educationalor training purposes. In business they are often used to train people whowant to improve their workplace skills or who need to know about anorganization’s systems, products, or procedures. Educational tutorials canbe used in school or at home to teach subjects like typing, math, foreignlanguages, and computer software. Figure 1.6 Tutorials are an excellent way to teach new skills, making it possi- ble to meet learners’ individual needs and allow them flexibility. Why would a company want to use computer-based tutorials to train employees?Tutorials generally use all of the elements of multimedia—text, graphics,sound, video, and interactivity. Users can move around the tutorials in avariety of ways, choosing from multiple paths pre-set by the developer. Forinstance, you can choose which topic you want to learn. In the lesson, youmay respond to questions or activities that require you to make choices.Usually a correct choice will take you to the next concept and an incorrectchoice will refer you to previous information for review.In the past, companies or instructors often taught large groups of traineesor students at one time. This was ineffective because instruction had to bescheduled for certain times and might include different levels of learners.With interactive computer-based tutorials, an instructor can give a learnerthe exact level of training he or she needs, when the person needs it.Interactive tutorials also allow the learner to choose the subject matter thatis most important and schedule the training time that is most convenient. Exploring the World of Multimedia 9
  9. 9. SimulationsFigure 1.7Although simulations are gener- Multimedia is often used to create simulations, which are computer-basedally included as an important models of real-life situations. Simulations can be used for training, enter-element in computer games, taining, or informing. Training simulations might show a help desk traineethey can be valuable teachingtools as well. What how to deal with customers orare some examples provide practice for a medic’sof simulations used emergency responses. They arein video games ortraining CDs? often used when the “real thing” is dangerous or requires access to locations or materials that are not easily accessible to the user. For example, simulations have been used in the Armed Services to train fighter pilots, using multi- media computer programs rather than actual jets to test the pilots under challenging conditions. Simulations are usually inter- active, allowing a user’s choices to affect the outcome of the experi- ence. They often use animation, video, and sound to reproduce the environment or situation the sim- ulation is imitating. Simulations are also often used for training tutorials, such as teaching a person how to use a computer program or providing customer- service practice for salespeople. Games Games are another type of multimedia. They are played by manipulating images on a monitor or television screen. Games, like tutorials, give the userFigure 1.8 choices because the developer has designed the game to move the user inComputer games are a popular predetermined paths based on the decisions he or she makes. Games gener-form of entertainment but canalso be used to teach and train. ally use all of the elements of multimedia, relying strongly on sound, graph-What multimedia ics, animation, and video for prompts, feedback, andcomponents seem setting. Games are an excellent example of the pow-most important inyour favorite com- erful use of multimedia.puter games? Although games are often used for entertainment, they can be useful training tools as well. Some tuto- rials use games to help teach important information or skills. Games may also include interactive simula- tions. For example, an interactive game that simu- lates car racing would show the car’s steering wheel and dashboard, duplicate the sounds of a speeding car, and show the track moving past as you controlled the car’s speed and direction. 10 Chapter 1
  10. 10. Web PagesWeb pages can include any type of multimedia applications and can beused for entertaining, informing, training, reference, and research. Webpages can make use of all of the best elements that multimedia has tooffer. Many of the newest multimedia developments are first utilized onthe Internet.Since you cannot literally turn a page in a Web site, Web pages use hyper-media, which allows users to skip between pages in any order they wish.Hypermedia also makes it possible to link images, text, and sounds so thatusers can switch easily from one medium to another. You would be usinghypermedia if you were on a band’s Web page and you clicked on a buttonthat let you hear one of their songs and then clicked on a photo that tookyou to another Web page showing photos of the band. Hypermedia pro-grams use links to allow the user to navigate randomly to different screens.The user may or may not choose to use the links, so the original program-mer cannot anticipate where the user will ultimately end up in this chainof events. Figure 1.9 A Web page can be a wonderful use of multimedia, combining text, graphics, video, and sound while allowing for unlimited interaction. Identify the differ- ent media objects on this Web page and analyze their effectiveness.Putting It All Together Text, images, and sounds can be combined intodifferent kinds of multimedia productions or presentations. 1. Identify the types of multimedia presentations and give an example of each. 2. When is multimedia also hypermedia? Give your own example. Exploring the World of Multimedia 11
  11. 11. PREPARING FOR A CAREER IN MULTIMEDIAMultimedia technology is used in a wide range of computer graphic design, it is also helpful to becomefields, and is often used to do amazing things. Doctors comfortable with stylus-based graphic tablets.use graphic simulations of the human bloodstream Business 101 Taking a class on the basics of the busi-to predict the behavior of pathogens. Scientists use ness world and its economy is always a good idea.complex graphic models to determine the paths of Even if you end up working in one of the “fun” fieldsstars and find new planets. Virtual reality simulations of multimedia, like game programming or Web design,help new pilots learn to fly. your job will still be part of the business community and will still play by its rules.Multimedia has become an important teaching tool, both inthe classroom and at home. Operating Systems Every computer in use runs an operating system (OS), and learning to take advan- tage of the strengths of each OS will serve you well. Microsoft Windows and Mac OS are both widely used in the multimedia world, as are more complex sys- tems like UNIX and Linux. Understanding Internet Architecture Even if your career path does not lead you to an Internet- related job, it is very helpful to understand the basic framework of the Internet and how it works. This includes understanding Internet protocols, how domains are assigned and maintained, browser security, and the concepts behind widely distributed networks.Multimedia also plays an important role in the worlds Teamwork Skills Multimedia projects are oftenof business and entertainment. Companies use inter- group affairs—seldom does one person work entirelyactive multimedia presentations to sell their prod- on his or her own. Rather, decisions are often madeucts and educate employees and customers. by committee, and frequent meetings and planningEducational facilities use new streaming technology sessions keep projects on track. Learning how to workto teach students at distant locations. The video and with others and how to share both responsibilitiescomputer game business generates billions of dol- and rewards are crucial skills.lars every year.Although the career options in multimedia are diverse,there are still a handful of basic skills that are neces-sary for any of them, such as being familiar with the Answer the following questions.multimedia process. If you are thinking about work-ing in multimedia, consider focusing on these skills: 1. What are some examples of real-world uses of multimedia?Keyboarding and Mouse Skills Proficiency with stan-dard computer interfaces like the keyboard and the 2. What skills are valuable in preparing for a careermouse is extremely important for any technical career. in multimedia?If you are going to work in artistic fields such as12
  12. 12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIMEDIAAdvances in combined media, such as filmstrips and slide presentations withcoordinated audio tracks, revolutionized training and presentations in theearly 1970s. These advances followed more than a century of breakthroughsin graphics, video, and audio. Multimedia, as discussed in this book, becamepossible as a result of these innovations combined with the development ofpersonal computers powerful enough to store and play audio and video.Graphics Figure 1.10People have been drawing and painting since the days of the cave dwellers. Cameras in the nineteenthWith the invention of photography in the nineteenth century, it became century were unwieldy devices that recorded images on glasspossible for graphics to reproduce images from life rather than from an plates and used gunpowder toartist’s memory and imagination. The earliest cameras were large, heavy create a flash. Who createddevices that recorded images on glass negatives or tin prints. Smaller, less the first camera for the con-expensive cameras that used film became available in sumer market?the early twentieth century. George Eastman createdthe first popular consumer camera. He named itKodak because of the sound it made when the but-ton was pushed to create the photograph.Beginning in the mid-1980s, personal computersbegan to be equipped with devices and software forcreating drawings and other pictures. A few yearslater, moderately priced cameras were introduced thatrecorded images on electronic disks rather than onfilm. They were called digital cameras because of theway they recorded the images. Digitally (electroni-cally) created computer graphics and digitallyrecorded photographs do not need to be scanned intocomputer systems, as images on paper do, and aretherefore much easier to integrate into multimedia.AudioSpeech was almost certainly the first medium that human beings used toconvey information, and it long predates the beginning of writing. Similarly,archeologists have found musical instruments that date back to theNeanderthal era. Although we have long had the ability to write, even towrite musical notation, it was not until the nineteenth century that we devel-oped the means to record sound.The first radio broadcast of voice and music in the United States occurredin 1906. Early radios were large wooden boxes filled with vacuum tubesthat conducted electrical signals. Radios became smaller in the 1950s, afterthe invention of the transistor. The transistor, which replaced vacuum tubes,led to other developments that resulted in smaller electronic devices of manykinds, including computers. Now, some radios are no bigger than wrist-watches, and you can record and play audio on devices smaller than wallets. Exploring the World of Multimedia 13
  13. 13. Figure 1.11People once gathered aroundradios to listen to news or enter-tainment. Listeners had to imag-ine the action based on voices,music, and sound effects. Hasgreater access to televisionencouraged more qualityfamily time or isolatedfamily members? Audio can be recorded on electronic disks rather than magnetic disks, which makes it easier to integrate them into multimedia productions. Movies Movies, like still photography, were invented in the nineteenth century. At first, movies did not include sound. Instead, live piano players provided music to complement the action on the screen. The earliest movies with sound were sometimes called “talkies,” because instead of reading subtitles on the screen, the audience could actually hear the actors speak. Until recently, motion pictures were recorded only on film. Later, cameras were able to record movies on magnetic tape. Cameras that record video electronically were developed in the 1990s. Converting film-based movies for use with a computer is a difficult and expensive process, but movies made with electronic digital video cameras are relatively easy to integrate into multimedia productions. Television Fifty years ago, television was just beginning to make its way into living rooms. Early televisions were expensive. Their screens were small, picture quality was inconsistent, and the images were black and white. Programming was limited to a few channels, which signed off at night with the “Star Spangled Banner.” Television was very different from what we take for granted today: there was no cable or satellite dish service, no 24-hour pro- gramming, no shopping channel, and no such thing as a VCR to record favorite shows. Few people then would have envisioned a time when many houses had a TV in every bedroom. The past few years have seen some merging of television and computer tech- nologies. For example, televisions can now be equipped with devices that use computer technology to record shows on disks that you watch on your television or your computer. So far, although it is possible to watch some 14 Chapter 1
  14. 14. television shows over the Internet, few people see much reason to do this.Someday soon, though, a personal computer, television, and cell phone maybe combined in a single device.Computer TechnologyMultimedia is a new field because computers with enough power to recordand play audio and video have been widely available for only a few years.Your parents and teachers may remember when computers were very large,very expensive devices used mainly for big jobs like processing corporatepayrolls and making complex calculations for scientists and engineers.Personal computers began showing up on desktops in the early 1980s.The earliest PCs were multimedia tools in only the narrowest sense. Theylacked sufficient memory, processing power, and storage capacity to han- Figure 1.12 The modern laptop computer,dle the full-color pictures and animations that you can now produce and so lightweight you can carry itedit on even the least expensive home computers. In fact, most of these wherever you go, is more power-early computers had monitors that displayed text on a green or orange ful than the room-size comput- ers of the 1940s. Who might usebackground and were not capable of displaying color pictures. a laptop computer?Today’s personal desktop computers have many morecapabilities in a much smaller package. Laptop com-puters have now become indispensable to many peoplewho travel for business or take work home from theoffice. Handheld computers such as Personal DigitalAssistants (PDAs) have become very popular for par-ticular tasks, including some that involve multimedia,and many people have access to the Internet from hand-held computers.In Chapter 2: The Internet and Multimedia, you will readhow multimedia presentations have become availableto billions of people around the world through the vastseries of computer connections that make up theInternet. Chapter 4: Hardware and Multimedia willintroduce you to computers and associated devices for creating and playingmultimedia. In Chapter 5: Operating Systems, you will learn about the pro-grams that give computers their startup instructions and enable them torun the software for creating and playing multimedia. Chapter 6: Softwareand Multimedia introduces the programs that make computers useful.Evolving Multimedia Technology New technology has changed the wayinformation can be shared and has helped multimedia evolve. 1. Describe three advances in technology that have contributed to the development of multimedia. 2. Why was multimedia not as widespread 25 years ago as it is today? Exploring the World of Multimedia 15
  15. 15. THE HISTORY OF MULTIMEDIAIn the strictest sense of the word, multimedia simply of the mouse with the Macintosh forever changed themeans “more than one medium.” In other words, tel- way people interacted with the computer.evision programs, movies, even illustrated books are In 1985, Microsoft released the first version of itsall examples of multimedia—they all use combina- Windows operating system. That same year,tions of text, images, sounds, and movement. Commodore released the Amiga, a machine which many experts consider to be the first multimedia com-Multimedia has come a long way from its humble roots to puter due to its advanced graphics processing powertoday’s cutting-edge modern animation and interactivity. and innovative user interface. The Amiga did not fare well over the years, though, and Windows has become the standard for desktop computing. Innovations Both Windows and the Macintosh oper- ating systems paved the way for the lightning-fast developments in multimedia that were to come. Since both Windows and Mac OS handle graphics and sound—something that was previously handled by individual software applications—developers are able to create programs that use multimedia to more powerful effect. One company that has played an important role in multimedia from its very inception is MacromediaIn the real world, though, when most people talk about (formerly called Macromind). In 1988, Macromediamultimedia, they are talking about computer multi- released its landmark Director program, which allowedmedia. The word has come to represent the realm of everyday computer users to create stunning, interac-computer graphics, video games, on-screen presen- tive multimedia presentations. Today, Macromediatations, and a whole world of other possibilities. Flash drives most of the animation and multimedia you see on the Internet, while Director is still used to craftWhere Did It All Begin? That is hard to say, but one high-end interactive productions.of the earliest and best-known examples of multime-dia was the video game Pong. Developed in 1972 by Each new development of each passing year is absorbedNolan Bushnell (the founder of a then-new company into next year’s technology, making the multimediacalled Atari), the game consisted of two simple pad- experience, better, faster, and more interesting.dles that batted a square “ball” back and forth acrossthe screen, like tennis. It started as an arcade game,and eventually ended up in many homes.A New Revolution In 1976, another revolution was Answer the following questions.about to start as friends Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak 1. Describe some examples of multimedia that youfounded a startup company called Apple Computer. A have encountered. Which aspects of multimediayear later they unveiled the Apple II, the first computer interest you the most?to use color graphics. The computer revolution movedquickly: 1981 saw IBM’s first PC, and in 1984 Apple 2. What do you think the next great innovation inreleased the Macintosh, the first computer system to multimedia might be?use a graphical user interface (GUI). The Introduction16
  16. 16. MULTIMEDIA IN SOCIETYThe use of multimedia is spreading rapidly as more and more organiza-tions harness computing power to create and distribute information.Already, multimedia has become a valuable resource for education, busi-ness, and recreation.EducationMultimedia has made it possible for students to learn in new and stimulat-ing ways that textbooks alone cannot provide. It has given them the abilityto integrate and apply their knowledge creatively in reports and presenta-tions that include graphics, sound, and video. Thanks to the Internet andits multimedia features, students have instant access to fascinating informa-tion on an enormous range of subjects. Schools all over the world can bewired to the Internet, which has become a valuable research tool and a wayfor students to communicate with the rest of the world.Educational multimedia also includes computer-based instructional mate-rials that students can use without being on the Internet, such as CD-ROMsoftware. Computer-based instruction may sometimes seem like a gamewith its interactivity and use of media, but it is an essential teaching tool.Increasingly, schools and universities are using computer-based instructionas a way of reaching students in remote locations. Students can watch andhear a lecture on their computer screens that a professor is delivering thou-sands of miles away. They can then take online tests, or they can write papersand e-mail them to the professor.BusinessBanking once required a face-to-face exchange with a teller who stood behinda counter. Today, making a deposit in a bank account is likely to be a Figure 1.13 Computer-based instruction can be entertaining as well as educational. What are some educational CDs that you enjoy using? Why? Exploring the World of Multimedia 17
  17. 17. multimedia experience involving an automated teller machine (ATM). Many ATMs now use text as well as graphics and video to lead customers through the different screens to complete their banking business. Many people use home computers to do their banking online, and multimedia is often used on these Web sites to make the process easier and more interesting. Other businesses are developing much more sophisticated multimedia pro- ductions for a wide range of purposes. Project teams use multimedia tools to collaborate and share resources. Executives use multimedia presentations to enliven speeches and deliver information. Employees learn and practiceMedia History difficult procedures using interactive training programs and tutorials. LivelyGo to the Introduction to combinations of sound, animation, and text advertise goods and servicesMultimedia Web site to learn on computer display screens in public places. Businesses are using multi-more about the history of media. media in all of these ways and more to streamline their operations, train employees, reach new customers, and increase their profits. Leisure and Recreation If you have ever played a video game, saved a music file from the Internet, conversed with friends or strangers in an Internet chat room, or simply surfed the Internet, then you have used multimedia for recreation. Even as computers have become more powerful, their prices have fallen dramati- cally. Their multimedia capabilities have turned them into recreational devices on a par with televisions and DVD players, which in time they might even replace. The increased use of handheld devices, such as game players, PDAs, and multimedia cell phones, allows users to experience multimedia in almost any setting. Leisure time activities may involve multimedia both in the planning and in the execution stages. Travel to various destinations can be planned on computer. Web sites for leisure activities often have extensive multimedia presentations showing what is available at a particular site. Many recre- ational activities have interactive kiosks to direct people to various attrac- tions. Even ordering your food at a restaurant can involve a multimedia experience—some restaurants give you a disk that will light up and make sounds when your order is ready. Many museums have interactive displays incorporating graphics, sound, and text to enhance the viewing of exhibits. Identifying Multimedia Applications With your instructor’s approval, select aCapstone 1 Plan a Web page or a CD-ROM that uses many elements of multimedia.Multimedia ProjectPractice additional 1. Is the site or CD-ROM used for business, education, recreation, or somehands-on multimedia other purpose?skills on page 395. 2. Analyze your example to determine what kind of multimedia application it is and what multimedia elements it includes. 18 Chapter 1
  18. 18. CHAPTER 1 SUMMARYWhat Is Multimedia?■ The term multimedia refers to the use of computers to integrate different media— namely text, images, sound, and video—into a presentation for an audience or user.■ Images can include illustrations, photographs, and other graphics, as well as animations or even video.■ Multimedia can be used to simulate real situations for recreation or training. Simulations are often interactive.Types of Multimedia Productions■ Some types of multimedia applications include presentations, computer-based instruction, tutorials, games, Web pages, and simulations.■ Completed multimedia productions can include one or more of these different kinds of applications.The Development of Multimedia■ The invention of photography in the mid-nineteenth century made it possible to reproduce images from life. Cameras available today at moderate prices can record images electronically for easy integration into multimedia productions.■ The first sound recordings were made in the late nineteenth century. Audio can now be recorded electronically for easy integration into multimedia productions.■ The earliest movies did not include sound. Currently movies can be recorded digitally for easy integration into multimedia productions.■ Today’s computers have more capabilities than earlier ones to utilize the benefits of multimedia and have made multimedia available to people all over the world.Multimedia in Society■ Multimedia is widely used for education, business, and recreation.■ Multimedia in education provides access to concepts and experiences not possible with books and allows students more flexible scheduling for learning.■ In business, multimedia allows for sophisticated sharing of resources, training, and communication through the use of multimedia technology. Exploring the World of Multimedia 19
  19. 19. CHAPTER 1 KEY TERMS animation, 5 Internet, 4 text, 4 audio, 6 media, 4 transition, 9 computer-based instruction, 9 medium, 4 tutorial, 9 games, 10 multimedia, 4 video, 7 graphics, 5 presentation, 8 virtual, 6 hypermedia, 4 simulation, 10 voice-over, 6 interactive, 10 software, 4 Web page, 4 REVIEWING KEY TERMS 1. __________ consists of written words and numbers. 2. The term __________ refers to the integration of still and moving images, text, and sounds by means of computer technology. 3. A(n) __________ is a computer-based representation of a real-life situation. 4. The coded instructions that tell computers how to perform tasks are called __________. 5. __________ consists of live or recorded moving images. REVIEWING KEY FACTS 1. Text, images, and sounds that are linked so that users can move easily from one medium to the other are called A. software. C. interactive. B. hypermedia. D. simulation. 2. Photographs, drawings, charts, and diagrams are all A. multimedia. C. software. B. graphics. D. simulations. 3. Multimedia today owes a great deal to advances in A. combining media. C. powerful computers. B. graphics. D. all of the above 4. The first cameras recorded images on A. glass. C. paper. B. film. D. electronic disks. 5. Early television had no A. sound. C. color. B. animation. D. all of the above 20 Chapter 1
  20. 20. CHAPTER 1 UNDERSTANDING KEY CONCEPTS1. Planning a Project Think of an activity, organization, or other subject that interests you. Possibilities include a hobby, sport, musical group, business organization, club, car, friend, family member, or pet. Then imagine a multimedia production that would inform other people about this subject. Decide whether it would be a tutorial, presentation, Web page, or simulation. Then write a paragraph describing why you chose this type of presentation and how you envision the final production.2. Organizing Information In a table like the one that follows, fill in the columns and rows to outline the multimedia production you chose for the activity above. For example, in the text column, describe any text you would include, and in the graphics column list any pictures you would use. If possible, include the actual graphics in the table. Indicate where you would use animation or interactivity. Subject: Greyhound Rescue Services A Multimedia Presentation Text Graphics Video Audio Interactivity Overview of Photo of Movie of Narration of the User clicks on mission of greyhounds greyhounds need for families still video image Greyhound racing at the getting off to save the to play entire Rescue dog track the plane greyhounds video clip Volunteers Photo of a Video of one of Dog barking User clicks on Listing of local greyhound with the dogs playing hello button to hear contacts its new family with its new audio owner(s) APPLYING MULTIMEDIA SKILLS1. Researching and Developing a Presentation On your own or with a group, research the powerful impact multimedia has had on business. Create an outline for the presentation. Create charts or graphs showing how business has become more and more dependent on technology. Add these and other visual materials to the presentation outline.2. Making a Presentation Make an audiovisual presentation to your class that presents your research about the impact of multimedia on business. Write a short audio script for the narration and use the visuals you created above as you produce your multimedia presentation.3. Analyzing Audio and Visual Media With your teacher’s approval, find two media-rich Web sites about the same subject. Analyze how each site uses its visual and audio elements and then describe which site uses them more effectively and why. Exploring the World of Multimedia 21