Veen quote - http://www.abookapart.com/products/responsive-web-designImage taken from presentation - http://johnpolacek.github.com/scrolldeck.js/decks/responsive/This quote from leading web design thinker Jeffery Veen is a call to action for website developers, but what it really indicates is the growing trend where users/researchers now have more choices and options than ever before. We will show how this mix of appliances is indicative of the move to mobile, which in the end really means the move tools and solutions that match researcher needs and behaviors. Mobile is part of the mix but not the entire story.
The driver behind multiple devices is of course the user. Depending on the user’s environment, location, and information task, they will move between different devices. Mobile is part of an overall researcher workflow and can take many forms (laptops, tablets, phones, e-readers, etc.).
MaryMeeker’s Internet Trends – Live at D10. a partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and former financial analysthttp://googlemobile.blogspot.com/2012/02/androidmobile-world-congress-its-all.htmlA major driver in the use of mobile and the proliferation of devices is that users are increasingly expecting that they use their own device. The “openness” and growth of the Android operating system is an example of the abundance of choices that users have. Since Android is used across so many different devices, users have more device options. With more options (other than just Apple devices), we can expect even more users (not just the Apple device holders) to demand to “bring their own device.”
What we see here in this 2011 Google study is that consumers are becoming increasingly comfortable with accessing the Internet with their mobile phones and tablets but they are still using their computers to access the internet.
And yes, we know that lots of people are using mobile phones and will continue to do so globally…An eMarketer April 2011 study breaks out projections in to 2015 this way. 4.85 BILLION PEOPLE WILL USE MOBILE PHONES BY 2015Worldwide Users in millions2012 4,1102013 4,3802014 4,6102015 4,850North America Users in millions2012 2602013 2702014 2702015 280Europe Users in millions2012 6402013 6502014 6602015 670Latin America Users in millions2012 4002013 4202014 4302015 450Middle East & Africa Users in millions2012 4602013 5002014 5302015 560Asia-Pacific Users in millions2012 2,3502013 2,5502014 2,7202015 2,890U.S. Census Bureau projects worldwide population will reach 7.25 billion in2015, so 67% of the world’s population will be using mobile phones.Both data points taken from:Top digital marketing strategies: expert advice on building your brand’sdigital presence.( DIGITAL OPPORTUNITIES 2012: information to guide your strategy in thedigital age )Journal: Editor & Publisher , v 145 , n 3 , p 51Publication Date: March 2012Document Type: Journal; Time Series ISSN: 0013-9172 ( United States )
Even in 2010, this Pew study illustrates the proliferation of mobile devices along with other devices among college students in the US.Other studies and data show similar trends for mobile phone ownership among studentsThe trend seems to be global in nature – a study in Nigeria showed that (95.9 %) of private college students in their sample had mobile phonesUse of mobile phones for project based learning by undergraduate students of Nigerian private universitiesUtulu, Samuel C; Alonge, Ayodele. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology8. 1 (2012): 4-15.Here are some other data points gleaned from Student Monitor survey, Educause, CourseSmart, OutsellOwnership98% of college students have cell phones and almost 50% have smartphones.52% of college students use Android or iPhone. 31% of high school students.24% of college students own a tablet. 20% of high school students.Many universities now require a tablet or laptop.Usage43% of college students use a smartphone or tablet to get on the Internet every day.52% of prospective college students viewed a school’s website on a mobile device in 2011 (2x 2010). Participants wanted access to research databases to begin their research. (Kent State University focus groups, Spring 2009)Few university mobile websites clearly addressed educational needs - opportunity to provide more educational links and applications. (EDUCAUSE Quarterly – 2010)Students expect institutions to provide the same services they enjoy as consumers.
Knowledge Workers have heavily adopted the use of mobile devices across a variety of professions and researcher groups and these percentages will have probably increased since the study was last conducted in 2011.
When conducting strategic planning, universities are considering how to deliver services to students using mobile websites.
While there are varying mobile uses by researchers, the mobile market for researchers is essentially broken up in to two groups. Dedicated apps like the ProQuest ebrary app which is focused on the unique content and workflows associated with their ebooks services, and mobile websites that provide an aggregated view of content and services such as the ProQuest mobile website
http://gizmodo.com/5888543/there-are-nearly-a-half+million-android-apps-nowhttp://www.androidauthority.com/google-play-vs-apple-app-store-2012-76566/http://techcrunch.com/2012/08/19/app-developers-stop-abusing-push/In the consumer market, the explosion in the number of apps available (more than 1 million) on the two dominant mobile platforms is an indicator of the number of choices confronting users of all types. Some consumer reports indicate that there is frustration with apps especially those that push too many updates on the devices. App Store Metrics from 148apps:COUNT OF ACTIVE APPLICATIONS IN THE APP STORE [DETAILS]Total Active Apps (currently available for download): 688,652 Total Inactive Apps (no longer available for download): 265,289Total Apps Seen in US App Store: 953,941Number of Active Publishers in the US App Store: 179,986COUNT OF APPLICATION SUBMISSIONS [DETAILS]As of October 9This Month (Games): 804 ( 101 / day )This Month (Non-Games): 5,500 ( 688 / day ) This Month (Total): 6,304 ( 788 / day )
According to Outsell… (Outsell Mobile in STM: Case Studies of Accelerating Change – May 24, 2012)Publisher-specific apps do not serve researcher needs:Users don’t want different apps for different contentLittle publisher awareness – users have title and content awarenessPublisher-specific tools are incompatible with each otherWhile not on the same scale as the proliferation of apps in the consumer market, the proliferation of apps for researchers is also present – certain publishers provide more than 200 apps in the same discipline area. In a world of BYOD and increasing mobile access, researchers need interoperability and portability – yet are presented with a complicated mix of appsAs we look at how users conduct research, we find that their general workflows and tasks fall in at least five different workflows (Research, Store, Cite, Create, and Collaborate) that are siloed and lack interoperability.
From an institutional level, libraries still have a desire to deliver their services through a mobile app, but they are confronted with the similar level of complexity and choice that consumers and researchers are facing.
While there are still challenges with apps for consumers, researchers, and institutions, there are cases where apps make sense.
An example of an app that is focused on a specific workflow is the ebrary e-book app. This was developed to support the unique workflows associated with e-books and in particular and the acquisition and distribution model for libaries.
Mobile websites afford many opportunities for researchers, and the key benefit is that they have the broadest in the multi-device world.
For the ProQuest platform, our initial offering will be a mobile website as it will provide our users and customers with the broadest access and reach to our aggregated set of content and services.
Responsive Web Design is the design model being adopted by more and more solution providers and publishers. It is an indication and response to the multiple device world – a place where users have lots of choices. “The Boston Globe” and JSTOR are examples of solution providers who use this design model.
ResearcherServicesResearch, Store, Cite, Document, and Collaborate
Expanding Research Landscapes through Mobile Platforms Frankfurt Book Fair – Hot Spot Mobile Timothy Babbitt SVP ProQuest Platforms October 11, 2012
Researcher Continuum Faculty Graduate Student ProfessionalPedagogy driven Undergraduate Domain specific General researcher researcher • Context 9-14 Student • Apply skills • Methods • Critical • Content Early thought Researcher • Develop research skills 2
Researcher “Supply Chain” R&DSecondaryEducation Workforce Professional 2 YR The Early Community Postdoc College Researcher 4YR University/ Masters Doctoral Faculty College The Domain The General Researcher Specific Researcher 3
Challenges for Early Researcher While they value good information, they value more highly the ease and convenience of the Internet They struggle with understanding and valuing source material Timeliness of source Authority Bias Teachers struggle with instructing them on source analysis Both teachers and students see the library as intimidating and inconvenient (accessibility). Strong critique from students of extended features of library databases. They steer toward Google simplicity. Source: R. McClure and K. Clink 2009 4
The General Researcher Focus is on application of research skills in specific domain Learning the domain context Advanced tool use At college and at work 5
Faculty Teaching Includes teaching; grading papers; preparing courses; developing new curricula; advising or supervising students Undergraduates/Masters Lectures Seminars Doctoral Seminars Example workflows: Undergraduate lecture Provide digital materials through CMS/Google docs/class site/faculty site which can include syllabus, slides, worksheets, code, etc. Assign papers or projects which may be individual or team oriented. Printed forms as well as the digital files are now mainstream approaches for submission. Grading of assignments and evaluatives done by self or TAs. For some courses, use of assistive grading technology is used. Plagarism detection resources (i.e. Plagiarism.org) and open search engines (i.e. Google) are used on electronic submissions. Doctoral seminar (2-7 students) Each week assign 3-7 classic/state-of-the-art journal articles/chapters on a theme/topic for extensive review and discussion. Share annotations, article markup, questions with seminar members. Assign semester topic research papers to individuals or pairs that require literature review, propositions/hypotheses, and research design. May require limited data collection, analysis and outcomes. Conclude with seminar presentation. 6
Faculty Research Includes conducting research; reviewing or preparing articles or books; attending or preparing for professional meetings or conferences; reviewing proposals; seeking outside funding; giving performances or exhibitions in the fine or applied arts; or giving speeches. Example workflows: Review article Editor sends advance copies of an author’s work to faculty member They return an evaluation of the work to the editor, noting weaknesses or problems along with suggestions for improvement. Evaluation reviews prior work, citations in the work, methodology, research design. Seek outside funding Search for grant that fits with the needs of the research Create proposal document(s) according to grant requirements which allows the granting agency to inquire about the researcher(s)’s background, the facilities used, the equipment needed, the time involved, and the overall potential of the scientific outcome. 7
Changes in the researcher environmentMultiple device world “Day by day, the number of devices, platforms, and browsers that need to work with your site grows.” Jeffrey Veen – author of "The Art and Science of Web Design“
Each device has it’s own place and use Researchers are consistently moving between different devices Desktops Tablets • Still present in libraries , schools, and offices • High level of portability • Good for tasks requiring high processing speed • Good for consumption and interaction – and memory – content and work product searches, email, document viewing, social and creation professional networks Laptops • Portable creation and production Smartphones • Large screen and keyboard • Most portable device • Most popular tool among all types of • Good for reading, light information researchers consumption, social and professional networks 9
Device ProliferationUser Expectations – Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) Professionals, researchers, and students are increasingly expecting that their personally owned devices will connect to their institutions resources as well as their own personal tools (aka BYOD) Google’s Android operating system has increased the number of device options for users – expanding the BYOD trend More than 800 Android devices in market today 250% year on year growth 850K devices activated each day *Source: 2012 Android World Congress - http://googlemobile.blogspot.com/2012/02/androidmobile-world-congress- its-all.html 10
Mobile Internet Access AdoptionKey Findings Consumers are shifting from feature phones to smartphones and are increasingly using their smartphones for Internet access. However, smartphone owners are continuing to get online on their computers Consumers are embracing tablets as the fourth screen. Tablet usage increased across all five countries with the highest *Source: Google Mobile Internet & Smartphone Adoption Study (2011) penetration in the US. http://services.google.com/fh/files/blogs/Final_Mobile_Internet_Smartphone_Adoption_Insights_201 1v3.pdf 11
Knowledge Worker Adoption% of Knowledge Workers Using Mobile devices *Source: Outsell’s Information Markets & Users Database, January 2011 Survey 14
Mobile Websites at Universities Universities see mobile websites as a strategic imperative. Source: The State of Mobile Web Report (February 2012) by Karine Joly 15
Google Patterns of Mobile Behavior Repetitive Now. The user is someone checking for the same piece of information over and over again, like checking the same stock quotes or weather. Bored Now. They are users who have time on their hands. People on trains or waiting in airports or sitting in cafes. Mobile users in this behavior group look a lot more like casual Web surfers without much user input since mobile devices still suck at that. Urgent Now. These are requests to find something specific fast, like the location of a bakery or directions to the airport.
How do researchers use mobile devices forresearch? As a component of their overall research environment along with other devices… Quick search and document viewing – Urgent Now Look up an author’s work or a document citation – Urgent Now Save a document for later reading – possibly offline – Bored Now Retrieve previously saved documents and citations from cloud based repositories (e.g. Google Drive, Dropbox, iCloud) – Urgent Now Take quick notes and save for later review – Urgent Now Share documents, notes, or citations with colleagues, classmates, network – Urgent Now Receive updates on new research – Repetitive Now 17
Google Study: The mobile movement Among the findings: Short timeframe. 88% of smartphone users took action on a search result within a day Continue research. 67% continue research from a search. 53% carried on more research on their computer. Not “on the go”. 33% of smartphone users used the mobile internet from their couch. 93% used it from home.
Mobile Landscape – current solution space Dedicated Apps Mobile Websites Specific applications targeting content Websites that are optimized for use sets, workflows, devices and platforms across a wide spectrum of mobile Available from domain specific devices and platforms (iOS, Android, publishers and a smaller number of Blackberry) aggregator services Available from some aggregators and General support for basic search, larger publishers saving content, sharing via email, and General support for basic searching, some use of location services viewing documents, and sharing via email ProQuest ProQuest Mobile ebrary App Website 19
App Explosion – consumer market Google Android has nearly 500K apps – up from 150K in 2011 Apple iOS has almost 700K apps in 2012 (*Source: 148apps http://148apps.biz/app-store-metrics/) Consumer frustration is building with the overuse of App “push” updates Source: Techcrunch, App Developers: Stop Abusing Push! http://techcrunch.com/2012/08/19/app-developers-stop-abusing-push/ 20
Researcher Apps – Siloed Access Model Research Store Cite Create CollaborateResearchers are presented with a complicated mix of apps – often siloed apart from one another
App Challenges for Libraries Outsell states that there is a… Great desire to make content available for mobile – 9% have an app but… Too many unique solutions – each publisher and vendor is different Dependent on database vendors Must adapt to each new content set Replication of effort for tool development or selection App development is not a library’s core competency Insufficient funding *Source: Outsell Mobile in STM: Case Studies of Accelerating Change – May 24, 2012 22
Do apps still make sense for researchers? Apps DO make sense for researchers for: Addressing the work flow of professionals in specific markets Fully-contained resource for specific users and use cases (e.g. drug reference) Premier publications and media – esp. that can’t be found anywhere else *Source: Outsell Mobile in STM: Case Studies of Accelerating Change – May 24, 2012 23
ebrary – Why a Mobile App? Customized to the unique workflows for E-book consumption and distribution • Integration with the library’s E-book acquisition model • Workflows and features for handling this specific type of media which has different use cases – e.g. large file downloads
ebrary Mobile AppAvailable Now• Online and offline reading• Seamless downloading of full titles• Sign-in with Facebook user name and password• Simple and advanced search• Table of contents with relevancy rankings• Early check-in of ebrary’s e-books• Copy and paste with automatic citation (offline)• User configurable download size warnings• Import and use documents from other sources• Available on the iPhone®, iPad®, iPod Touch® and Android™
What about Mobile Websites? Jason Grigsby, @grigs “Not every mobile device will have your app on it but every mobile device will have a browser.” “Links don’t open apps.” search + links = mobile web first
ProQuest – Why a Mobile Website? Beta Fall 2012 Broadest reach – everyone has a browser on their phone Connects to mobile university sites Nothing to download or install Device and platform independent 27
Responsive Web Design – Device continuumPublishers and solution providers are being encouraged to respond to user demand by adhering to the principles ofResponsive Web Design (RWD) – deliver solutions across all devices and platforms The US based newspaper “The Boston Globe” is considered an example of full RWD deployment.
How Can We Improve the ResearcherEnvironment with Mobile? Develop Apps when they provide value and enhance workflows Subject specific apps – government, news, scientific research Workflow specific apps – ebooks, document and reference management, social/professional networks Provide integrated views of content and services through mobile web sites Journals > ebooks > Reference Management > Collaboration > Personalized Research Spaces Focus on the researcher workflows and not the device or platform Ensure portability of research across multiple devices (not just mobile) through cloud based services 29
Not really about mobile, but about cloud… Desktop /Laptop Research in a cloud Tablet Research, Store, Cite, Document, and Collaborate E-reader E-reader 30
Summary Mobile is a driving force in expanding the research experience The use of mobile devices for research tasks have been and will continue to rise globally but “traditional” devices continue to be used – Think personal research assistant The use of mobile devices is increasingly being seen in professional and research settings The App vs. Mobile Website debate remains but the app landscape is complicated and siloed When the researcher landscape is analyzed we see that there a core group of tasks that users want to accomplish regardless of device or platform – a challenge, but good The future of mobile development should be focused on these workflows and determining how “mobile” plays a role in accomplishing the tasks of researchers It’s not really about mobile, but “Research in a Cloud” 31
Thank you!Questions? Tim Babbitt SVP ProQuest Platforms firstname.lastname@example.org 32