In traditionalAfrican societies,Music is every Where and usedto heal the sick,praise a leader,ensure successfuldelivery of a child, cure bed wetting,stop a woman from flirtingInvolved with birth, naming of a child, teething, marriage, new moon, death, puberty, agriculture, reenacting of historical events, hunting, preparation for war, victory celebrations and religious rites.
In some African societies music is adynamic and driving force thatanimates the life of the entirecommunity. www.acslink.aone.net.au/christo/histmain.htm
Ceremonial/Ritual Crowning a new king Weddings Birth Funerals Puberty Just about any major milestone in a person’s life
PurposesSocial/Recreational CeremonialMusic and dance that is spontaneous Music and dance done to and full of improvisation recognize the occasion; Can vary each time it is performed Artistic RitualMusic and dance that has a Music and dance that has to be choreographer who has done the same way each time decided what to do and when; it is performedPerformed on stage
Entertainment Songs are sung about all aspects of life – planting, hunting, weather, birth, death – just about anything.
Some Africansocieties haveprofessionalmusicians, calledgriots. Griotsare responsiblefor “recording”tribal historiesand genealogies.Unfortunately,griots are notalways givenrespect.
Ensemble drumming is practiced throughout West Africa. Drum ensembles play for social occaisions, ritual, ceremonies, weddings, funerals, parties, and religious meetings.Other instruments often join the drums to accompanysinging and dancing. Drumming, singing, and dancing areoften performed in a circular formation goingcounterclockwise. Drums are also used in artisticperformances.http://www.sbgmusic.com/html/teacher/reference/cultures/westafr.html
Drum ensembles areoften led by a masterdrummer who plays solosagainst the overlappingpatterns. The masterdrummer also leads theensemble by playingsignals that tell theother players to switchto a different section,change drum patterns,change the tempo, signalthe dancer, or end thepiece.http://www.sbgmusic.com/html/teacher/reference/cultures/westafr.html Master Drummer Yaya Diallo www.onzou.com
Drums are among the most importantart forms in Africa, used both as amusical instrument and as a work ofsculpture significant in manyceremonial functions, including dance,rituals, story-telling andcommunication of messages.http://www.hamillgallery.com/YORUBA/YorubaDrums/YorubaDrum02.html
In West Africa, the music has greatrhythmic vitality, making use ofpolyrhythms, or several rhythmsplayed simultaneously.
InstrumentsAfrican instruments can be divided into three categories: idiophones, chordo- phones, membrano- phones.
IdiophonesIdiophones are self-sounding instruments,such as the balaphon, mbira, and rattle.
The balaphon is also known as themarimba. It has wooden bars andgourd resonators. It looks like a xylophone. Each ethnic group has it’s own shape of balafon.
The mbira,also knownas thethumb piano,is made withflattenedmetal barsand playedwith thethumbs.
The shekere (akathe axatse) is madeby tying a net ofbeads around agourd. Shakers canalso be made byweaving baskets tohold pebblesor seeds.
ChordophonesChordophones are stringed instruments,such as the mouth bow and kora.
The mouth bow is a stringed instrumentthat uses the mouth as a resonator.
The kora is the precursorto our banjo. It is made with a large gourdcovered with animal skin.
MembranophoneMembranophonescreate sound bystretching amembrane overan opening. Thekora might beclassified as amembranophone,but the mostobviousmembranophoneis the drum.
The djembe isprobably the mostfamiliar Africandrum in America.Djembe patternsare mostly made upof three tones,pa (the slap), go(the tone), and gun(the bass).
The talking drums arebased on the tonalquality of many nativeAfrican languages. Thedrum is held under thearm. When the drum issqueezed, thedrumhead tightens andthe pitch goes up.When the pressure isreleased, the pitchgoes down.
Characteristics of African Music Melodies- short, mostly pentatonic scales, one syllable per note Beat-strong beat, pulsating Tempo-steady, polyrhythms, syncopation, repeated rhythmic patterns Form-game songs, work songs, call- response Timbre-open, relaxed, Instruments-percussion, stringed, wind
Children Learn Many SingingGame Songs Words in songs refer to percussive clapping that accompany the song Tue Tue Kye, Key Kule
LessonTue Tue 1-3 grades Learn geographical characteristics of Africa and Ghana Sing Tue Tue Add a rattle and body percussion Learn musical characteristics of African music-strong beat, pentatonic melody
Directions Listen to song Singing repetition of phrases Clap to “feel” the beat Accompany with shekere – rattle Add body percussion in pairs clap hands on beats 1&2, hands on thighs beats 3&4, repeat Change partners, repeat Original partners, repeat
Pitch of Tue Tue On staff, write out pentatonic pitch Play on xylophone and sing along
AssessmentPerform Tue Tue with correct pitch andrhythemWrite outState characteristics of African music –strong beat, pentatonic scale, shekere rattle
Kye, Kye Kule Short melodic phrase Fove-tone pentatonic scale Syncopation Call-and –response form Shekere and other rattles dance/game song Words refer to various parts of the body
American-Jazz Music Obj: “scat” Instruments: saxophone, piano, bass, drums, guitar Types of Jazz: swing, ragtime, Latin, bebop, boogie woogie
Characteristics of Jazz Born in New Orleans, Louisiana Roots song by African slaves brought to Southern plantations while in working fields Jazz is a conversations with saxophone makes a musical statement and drums, bass, and piano answer back. Improvisation – happens on the spot Energetic, happy, moody, wild, or quiet You want to snap your fingers and tap your
Jazzing Up Mary Had a LittleLamb Sing the traditional tune Listen to “Little Lamb Jazz” What do you notice about the words? What parts are same raise hand when heard? What parts are different raise hand when heard? How do new words enhance or change feeling of the song?
Your turn to Jam Mary Had a Little Lamb Improvisation: “Scat” make up your own version on the spot Form: scat Rhythm: change Dynamics: change Texture: Tone: Melody:
Exploring Multiculturalism inMusic China Japan Russia Greek Spanish Ireland American Indian, Folk & Country, Bluegrass, Mexican Spiritual, Blues,
Musical Characteristics to Teach Melody-type of scales Rhythm-meter and beat Texture-lines of music Dynamics-soft or loud Tone Color-played by different instruments Form-song/dance, ex: ABA
American-Bluegrass Music Obj.: listen to and analyze music for theme and instruments used The Arkansas Traveler Instruments: fiddle, banjo, guitar Movement to music-Square Dancing
All lessons should include: Materials: maps, pictures, songs, CDs, DVDs, customs, props, wall displays Map of Country Characteristics of County Characteristics of Music (all 6) Instruments used Objectives Procedure-song to play, sing, dance to Assessment