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Urban and Rural sanitation in india
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Urban and Rural sanitation in india

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This presentation is about urban and rural sanitation programmes in India and their success stories

This presentation is about urban and rural sanitation programmes in India and their success stories

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Urban and Rural sanitation in india Presentation Transcript

  • 1. SANITATION : ISSUES AND PRACTICES IN INDIATRYAMBAKESH SHUKLA AMIT KUMAR DEOBRAT KUMARBP/463/2008 BP/454/2008 BP/431/2007
  • 2. FINGERS• SANITATION IS ONE OF THE BASIC DETERMINANTS OF QUALITY OF LIFE ANDHUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX.• EARLIER CONCEPT OF SANITATION WAS ONLY LIMITED TO DISPOSAL OF HUMANEXCRETA.• BUT IT ALSO INCLUDES LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL, FOOD HYGIENE ANDPERSONAL, DOMESTIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE.INTRODUCTIONTransmission route of diseases due to lack of sanitationFOOD NEW HOSTFLUIDSFLIESFIELDSFAECESNOSANITATION
  • 3. VISION-GOVERNMENT OF INDIA“ALL INDIAN CITIES AND TOWNS BECOME TOTALLY SANITIZED, HEALTHY ANDLIVEABLE AND ENSURE AND SUSTAIN GOOD PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTALOUTCOMES FOR ALL THEIR CITIZENS WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON HYGIENIC ANDAFFORDABLE SANITATION FACILITIES FOR THE URBAN POOR AND WOMEN.”GOAL 7 OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS), WHICH CALLS ON COUNTRIES TO HALVE, BY2015, THE PROPORTION OF PEOPLE WITHOUT IMPROVED SANITATION FACILITIES ; AND INDIA’S MOREAMBITIOUS GOAL OF PROVIDING “SANITATION FOR ALL” BY 2012, ESTABLISHED UNDER ITS TOTALSANITATION CAMPAIGN.Unsafe drinking water is a major cause of waterborne disease
  • 4. RURAL SANITATION IN INDIA• INDIA’S FIRST NATIONWIDE PROGRAM FOR RURAL SANITATION, THE CENTRALRURAL SANITATION PROGRAM WAS LAUNCHED IN 1986.• THE BASIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROGRAM WAS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFEOF RURAL PEOPLE AND TO PROVIDE PRIVACY AND DIGNITY TO WOMEN.Toilet construction in rural india• THE PROGRAM WAS RECONSTRUCTEDAGAIN IN APRIL, 1999 WHICH FOCUSESON DEMAND DRIVEN APPROACH IN APHASED MANNER WITH A VIEW TOCOVER THE WIDER RANGE OF RURALPOPULATION BY THE END OF 9TH FIVEYEAR PLAN.• THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLYAND SANITATION IS RESPONSIBLE FORTHE SANITATION IN RURAL AREAS.
  • 5. TOTAL SANITATION SCHEME• THE TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN (TSC) IS A PROGRAM TO ENSURE SANITATIONFACILITIES IN RURAL AREAS TO ERADICATE OPEN DEFECATION.• IT WAS LAUNCHED IN THE YEAR 1999.• THE MAJOR GOAL IS TO STOP OPEN DEFECATION BY 2012.• IT FOLLOWS PRINCIPLE OF “NO TO LOW SUBSIDY” WHERE NOMINAL SUBSIDY ISGIVEN IN FORM OF INCENTIVES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TOILET.Students being aware of sanitation and hygiene issues
  • 6. TOTAL SANITATION SCHEME - OBJECTIVES• TO BRING ABOUT IMPROVEMENT IN GENERAL QUALITY OF LIFE.• TO PROVIDE ACCESS TO TOILETS TO ALL BY 2012.• MOTIVATE COMMUNITIES AND PANCHYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS (LOCALGOVERNMENT) FOR PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE SANITATION FACILITIES THROUGHAWARENESS CREATION AND HEALTH EDUCATION.• COVER SCHOOL AND ANGANWADIS WITH SANITATION FACILITIES AND PROMOTEHYGIENE.• ENCOURAGE COST EFFECTIVE SANITATION FACILITIES.INDIVIDUAL HOUSEHOLDLATRINE COVERAGE HASNEARLY TRIPLED FROM 22%IN 2001 TO 68% IN 2010
  • 7. NIRMAL GRAM PURASKAR• NIRMAL GRAM PURASKAR IS AN INNOVATIVE INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR THOSEGRAM PANCHAYAT, BLOCKS AND DISTRICTS WHICH HAVE ATTAINED CENT PERCENTSANITATION COVERAGE IN THEIR RESPECTIVE GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS.• CENT PERCENT SANITATION INCLUDES ERADICATING THE MENACE OF OPENDEFECATION, PROVISION OF SANITATION FACILITIES IN HOUSEHOLD ANDEDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND GENERAL CLEANLINESS IN VILLAGE.• AN AMOUNT RANGING FROM 50,000 TO 5,00,000 IS GIVEN TO PRIs (DEPENDINGON POPULATION) FOR CREATING OTHER SANITATION INFRASTRUCTURE ANDMAINTENANCE.YEAR NGP AWARDEDGPs2005 382006 7602007 49452008 121442009 45562010 2808NIRMAL GRAM PURAKAR AWARDS INTHE COUNTRY HAVE REACHED AFIGURE OF 25, 251 FROM 38 IN 2005TO 2808 IN 2010.
  • 8. RURAL SANITARY MART• RURAL SANITARY MART PLAYS ANIMPORTANT ROLE IN FACILITATING SUPPLYOF SANITARY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES INRURAL INDIA.• ITS FUNCTION IS TO ACCLERATE THE PACEOF SANITATION PROGRAM AND TOPROVIDE NEED BASED AND ECONOMICALLYVIABLE SANITATION OPTIONS.UNDER RURALSANITATION PROGRAMDURING LAST DECADE1.05 MILLION SCHOOLSIN THE COUNTRY HAVEBEEN PROVIDED WITHSANITATION FACILITIES.0.36 MILLIONANGANWADIS HAVEGAINED ACCES TO SAFESANITATION FACILITY
  • 9. ECOSAN LATRINESEcosan Latrines
  • 10. ECOSAN LATRINESNo. of Ecosan projects: 27• THERE ARE TWO CHAMBERSONE FOR COLLECTING URINEAND ANOTHER FORCOLLECTING FAECALMATERIAL.• THE FAECAL MATERIAL ISUSED AS MANURE IN THEFIELD.
  • 11. SACOSAN• TO DEVELOP A REGIONAL AGENDA ONSANITATION, UNDERSTAND SIMILARITIES INSANITATION CHALLENGES ACROSS THE REGION.SACOSAN I• FOCUSED ON ESTABLISHING SYSTEM FOROPERATIONALIZING A REGIONAL SANITATIONAGENDA.SACOSANII• PROPOSED TO FOCUS ON ISSUES OF SUSTAINABLESANITATION, MAKING IT PEOPLE CENTRIC , GENDERISSUES IN SANITATION, ECONOMIC GAINS ANDLEGAL ASPECTS.SACOSANIII
  • 12. ACHIEVEMENTS IN RURAL SANITATION• SIKKIM HAS BECOME THE FIRST STATE TO ACHIEVE 100PERCENT RURAL SANITATION COVERAGE, BECOMING THEFIRST “NIMRAL RAJYA” IN THE COUNTRY.• INCREASE IN NIRMAL GRAM PURAKAR. 25,251 VILLAGESHAVE ACHIEVED TOTAL SANITATION.• 1.05 MILLION TOILETS HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED INSCHOOL SINCE 1999.• 0.36 MILLION TOILETS HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED INANGANWADIS SINCE 1999.• THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT BUDGET FOR RURALSANITATION HAS INCREASED FROM 1,650 MILLION IN2002-03 TO 16,500 MILLION IN 2011-12.
  • 13. CASE STUDY : HAJIPALLY VILLAGE, ANDHRA• HAJIPALLY IS A GRAM PANCHAYAT (GP) INFAROOQNAGAR MANDAL OFMEHBOOBNAGAR DISTRICT, ONE OF THEMOST BACKWARD DISTRICTS IN ANDHRAPRADESH.• HAJIPALLY, UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF AFEMALE SARPANCH, HAS ACHIEVED TOTALSANITATION WITH ACCESS TO, AND USAGEOF, TOILETS BY 100 PERCENTHOUSEHOLDS. THIS GP BECOME OPENDEFECATION FREE (ODF) BY 2008.• THE HAJIPALLY GP RECEIVED THE HIGHESTAWARD AT THE STATE-LEVEL UNDER THESTATE REWARD SCHEME, THE ‘SHUBRAMAWARDS’ BY THE GOVERNMENT OFANDHRA PRADESH. IT ALSO RECEIVED THENIRMAL GRAM PURASKAR FROM THEGOVERNMENT OF INDIA.
  • 14. THE GP COULD SUSTAIN THE CHANGE ACHIEVED WITH THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES BYTHE GP WITH ALL THE STAKEHOLDERS IN THE VILLAGE:• SEPARATE SCHOOL SANITATION FACILITIES FOR BOYS AND GIRLS, WITH RUNNINGWATER FACILITY.• SCHOOL SANITATION AND HYGIENE COMMITTEE MAINTAINS DEGRADABLE ANDNON-DEGRADABLE DUSTBINS IN THE SCHOOL CAMPUS.•IN WINTER, YOUTH CLUB MEMBERS FORMED TEAMS FOR MONITORING OF OPENDEFECATION PRACTICES AND CAMP FIRES AT OPEN DEFECATION PLACES BY THENIGRANI COMMITTEE.•CLEANING OF BUSHES TO PREVENT OPEN DEFECATION IN GP JURISDICTION ANDFIXING OF LIGHTS IN OPEN DEFECATION AREA.• NOTICES ISSUED BY THE GRAM PANCHAYAT WATER AND SANITATION COMMITTEEDURING FAIRS AND FESTIVALS: GUESTS ARE NOT TO GO OUTSIDE FOR DEFECATION. ARS 500 PENALTY IS BEING IMPOSED PER FAMILY IF ANYBODY GOES OUTSIDE FORDEFECATION.• VISITS BY MANY OFFICIALS, ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES OF THE OTHER VILLAGESAND THE DISTRICTS HAVE ALSO MOTIVATED THE GP TO MAINTAIN THE STATUS.HOW IS SANITATION MAINTAINED?
  • 15. URBAN SANITATION IN INDIA - ISSUESPOOR AWARENESS• LOW PRIORITY TO SANITATION AND LACK OF AWARENESS.POOR INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT• GAPS AND OVERLAPS IN INSTITUTIONAL ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES AT NATIONAL, STATEAND CITY LEVEL.LACK OF INTEGRATED CITY WIDE APPROACH• SANITATION INVESTMENT ARE DONE IN PIECE MEAL MANNER AND DONOT TAKE INTOACCOUNT THE FULL CYCLE OF SAFE CONFINMENT, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL.REACHING THE URBAN POOR• BECAUSE OF LACK OF TENURE, SPACE AND ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS URBAN POOR AREUNABLE TO ACCESS SAFE SANITATION.LACK OF DEMAND RESPONSIVENESS• THE PREFERENCE AND DEMAND OF HOUSEHOLDS ARE NOT TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT.
  • 16. NATIONAL URBAN SANITATION POLICYAWARENESS GENERATION• GENERATING AWARENESS ABOUT SANITATION AND ITS LINKAGE WITHPUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH.OPEN DEFECATION FREE CITIES• PROMOTING ACCESS TO HOUSEHOLD WITH SAFE SANITATIONFACILITIES.• PROPER PLANNIG AND MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNITY TOILETS.INTEGRATED CITY WIDE SANITATION• STRENGTHENING NATIONAL, STATE AND LOCAL LEVEL INSTITUTIONSTO ACCORD PRIORITY TO SANITATION PROVISION INCLUDING PROPERPLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT.
  • 17. ROLE OF GOVERNMENTNATIONAL LEVEL• GENERATINGAWARENESS• PROVIDINGFUNDING ANDASSISTANCE• NATIONAL LEVELMONITORING• MAINSTREAMINGSANITATION INTOURBANINFRASTRUCTUREAND HOUSINGSTATE LEVEL• SETTING STANDARDSAT STATE LEVEL.• RESOLVING ISSUESOF TENURE ANDSPACE FORPROVIDINGSANITATION TOURBAN POOR.• CAPACITY BUILDINGAND TRAINING.• MONITORING ANDEVALUATION AT CITYLEVEL.URBAN LOCAL BODIES• PREPARING CITYSANITATION PLANS.• PLANNING ANDFINANCINGSCHEMES.
  • 18. URBAN SANITATION METHODS
  • 19. DEWAT SYSTEM• DEWAT IS BASED ON MECHANICALAND BIOLOGICAL WASTE WATERMANAGEMENT.• THE MAIN FEATURE OF DEWAT IS LOWLEVEL OF OPERATION ANDMANAGEMENT.DEWAT MODULEUSE• SEDIMENTATION AND PRIMARYTREATMENT IN SETTLERS, SEPTICTANKS OR IMHOFF TANKS.• SECONDARY ANAEROBIC TREATMENTIN FIXED BED FILTERS OR BAFFLEDREACTORS.• SECONDARY AND TERTIARYAEROBIC/ANAEROBIC TREATMENT INPLANTED GRAVEL FILTERS.• SECONDARY AND TERTIARYANAEROBIC AEROBIC TREATMENT INPONDS.TREATMENT SYSTEM
  • 20. CASE STUDY : URBAN SLUM DWELLERSSANITATION FOR THE POOR URBAN SLUM DWELLERS TIRUCHIRAPPALLI•THE TIRUCHIRAPPALLI MODEL OF COMMUNITY-MANAGED TOILETS WITH BATHINGAND WASHING FACILITIES IS AN EXAMPLE OF A PARTNERSHIP OF SENSITIVE CITYAUTHORITIES, COMMUNITIES AND NGOS, WORKING TOGETHER TO ADDRESS THESEPROBLEMS.•TIRUCHIRAPPALLI, LOCATED IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA, HAS A POPULATION OF AROUND750,000, OF WHICH 23 PER CENT LIVE IN 211 APPROVED AND 75 UNAPPROVEDSLUMS.•SANITATION COVERAGE IS REPORTED AT 70 PER CENT WITH MANY HOUSEHOLDSUSING SEPTIC TANKS, DUE TO LOW COVERAGE OF UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE, LESSTHAN A QUARTER OF HOUSEHOLDS CONNECTED.•THERE ARE 339 COMMUNITY TOILETS IN THE CITY, AROUND HALF OF WHICH ARENOW MANAGED BY COMMUNITIES.
  • 21. BENEFITS OF COMMUNITY MANAGED TOILETSWOMEN’S ACTION FOR VILLAGE EMPOWERMENT (WAVE) COMMUNITIES REPORTEDMANY FAR-REACHING BENEFITS RESULTING FROM TAKING OVER MANAGEMENT OFTHEIR COMMUNITY TOILETS.•IMPROVED CLEAN ENVIRONMENT AND ACCESS TO A TOILET – FROM A SITUATIONWHERE WOMEN WANDERED THE CITY LOOKING FOR AN OPEN SPACE TODEFECATE, THEIR COMMUNITIES ARE NOW OPEN DEFECATION-FREE AND THERE IS APROUD SENSE OF CLEANLINESS AND WELL BEING IN THE COMMUNITIES.•HYGIENE AND HEALTH IMPROVEMENT – THE DISEASE BURDEN AND HOUSEHOLDEXPENDITURE ON MEDICATION HAVE BOTH REDUCED DRAMATICALLY.•WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT – WOMEN LEADERS HAVE THE CONFIDENCE AND SKILLSTO SOLVE COMMUNITY AND FAMILY PROBLEMS AND MANAGE FINANCES. THEWOMEN ALSO KNOW HOW TO ACCESS THE GOVERNMENT MACHINERY AND LOBBYFOR IMPROVEMENTS IN THE COMMUNITIES.•OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMPLOYMENT – THE CMTS PROVIDE EMPLOYMENT FOR ALLSHG MEMBERS ON A ROTATION BASIS AND A FEW COMMUNITY MEMBERS ON APERMANENT BASIS.
  • 22. STAKEHOLDERS IN COMMUNITY MANAGED TOILETSA NUMBER OF STAKEHOLDERS HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN SUPPORTING THECOMMUNITY-MANAGED TOILETS.•TRICHY CITY CORPORATION STAFF MONITORS THE CONDITIONS IN THE TOILETS,ALTHOUGH NOT ALWAYS REGULARLY, EMPTY SEPTIC TANKS AND COVER THEELECTRICITY COST IN SOME TOILETS.•WAVE MONITORS THE FINANCIAL VIABILITY OF ITS MEMBER CMTS AND PROVIDESADVICE ON MANAGEMENT AND LOANS WHERE NEEDED. IT ALSO RUNS A STORE OFCLEANING MATERIALS AND LOBBIES WITH THE CITY AUTHORITIES ON BEHALF OF THESHE TEAMS.• GRAMALAYA ESTABLISHES SHGS AND SUPPORTS THEM TO TAKE OVERMANAGEMENT OF THEIR TOILETS. IT ALSO GIVES HYGIENE EDUCATION ANDPROMOTES OPEN DEFECATION-FREE ZONES AS WELL AS SUPPORTING THEDEVELOPMENT OF WAVE.•WARD COUNCILLORS MONITOR THE STATUS OF CMTS IN THEIR AREA AND REQUESTTCC TO UNDERTAKE MAINTENANCE WHEN NEEDED.
  • 23. BENEFITS•THE REVIEW OF COMMUNITY-MANAGED TOILETS IN TIRUCHIRAPPALLI, SIX YEARSAFTER THE WORK BEGAN, HAS SHOWN THAT COMMUNITIES CAN MANAGE THEIROWN TOILET UNITS, WHEN THEY DO THIS THE TOILETS ARE MUCH CLEANER THANWHEN MANAGED BY TCC.•ACHIEVING CLEAN AND HEALTHY SLUMS DOES NOT REQUIRE HUGE FINANCIALINVESTMENT; IT REQUIRES A CITY AUTHORITY SENSITIVE TO THE PROBLEMS FACED BYSLUM COMMUNITIES AND SUPPORTIVE OF COMMUNITY ACTION, DEDICATION OFCOMMUNITIES AND THEIR SUPPORT NGOS.•MANAGING THEIR TOILETS LEADS TO EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN WITH MANYPOSITIVE IMPACTS IN TERMS OF PERSONAL AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT.•TOILETS ARE ONLY PART OF THE SANITATION SOLUTION. SEWAGE, WASTE WATERAND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT MUST ALSO BE TACKLED AND CITY AUTHORITIESMUST PLAY A LEAD ROLE.•TIRUCHIRAPPALLI SHOWS THE WAY – COMMUNITY-MANAGED TOILETS IS A MODELTHAT CAN WORK AT A CITY LEVEL WHEN SUPPORTED BY CITY AUTHORITIES. IT OFFERSA MODEL THAT CAN BE ADAPTED AND INTRODUCED IN MANY OTHER CITIES.
  • 24. RECOMMENDATION COST EFFECTIVE OPTIONS SHOULD BE EXPLORED FOR THE RURAL SANITATION ANDURBAN POOR. AWARENESS PROGRAMME SHOULD BE DONE FOR SCHOOL SANITATION. PROVISION OF SAFE DRINKING WATER. COMMUNITY BASED SOULTIONS SHOULD BE ADOPTED LIKE COMMUNTIY LEDTOTAL SANITATION.
  • 25. REFERENCES• DEPARTMENT OF DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION, COUNTRY PAPER, 2011.• ENHANCED QUALITY OF LIFE THROUGH SUSTAINED SANITATION, INDIA COUNTRYPAPER, 2011.• DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION, www.ddws.nic.in• ANNUAL REPORT, 2009-10, MINISTRY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT• NATIONAL URBAN SANITATION POLICY, MINISTRY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT