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Lexicon. Characteristics of word formation in English. Prefixation, suffixation and compounding . Unit 10
1. Lexicon 1.1. Lexicography. 1.2.The Evolution of the modern dictionary.
Types of Lexicography <ul><li>Alphabetical lexicography </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic Lexicography </li></ul>
Products of lexicography <ul><li>If account for size </li></ul><ul><li>20-volume Oxford Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>The C...
The evolution of modern dictionaries. First English to English word list “ A Table Alphabeticall” by Robert Cawdrey  1603....
In 1700,  John Kersey   dares to add frequent  words in dictionaries. The gratest figure in English lexicography in  the X...
Dictionaries in America <ul><li>Noah Webster  is the great pioneer in lexicography. </li></ul><ul><li>His dictonary publis...
English word formation <ul><li>Affixation. </li></ul><ul><li>Compounding. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Prefixation <ul><li>Characteristics of prefixes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally they do not alter the word class of the ba...
Negative Prefixes <ul><li>“ un-”  unfair, unadorned, unfortunately. </li></ul><ul><li>“ non-”  non-conformist, non-existen...
Reversible Prefixes <ul><li>“ un-”  undo, undress, unhorse. </li></ul><ul><li>“ de-”  defrost, depoliticize. </li></ul><ul...
Pejorative Prefixes <ul><li>“ mis-”  mishear, misconduct, misleading, misrepresentation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ mal-”  maltre...
Prefixes of degree and size <ul><li>“ arch-”  archduke, archenemy. </li></ul><ul><li>“ super-”  supermarket, superman. </l...
Prefixes of attitude <ul><li>“ co-”  cooperative, cohabit, co-director, co-proprietor. </li></ul><ul><li>“ counter-”  coun...
Locative Prefixes <ul><li>“ super-”  super-structure. </li></ul><ul><li>“ sub-”  subway, subconscious, subdivide. </li></u...
Prefixes of time and order <ul><li>“ fore-”  foretell, foreman, forewarn. </li></ul><ul><li>“ pre-/post-”  pre-historial, ...
Number Prefixes <ul><li>“ uni-/mono-”  monosyllable, unilateral. </li></ul><ul><li>“ bi-/di-”  dichotomy, bifocal. </li></...
Conversion prefixes <ul><li>“ be-”  bewigged, bewitch, bedazzle,    befriend ( a dog ). </li></ul><ul><li>“ en-/em-”  enda...
To Summarize <ul><li>Negative Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Pejorative Prefixes. </li...
Suffixation <ul><li>Characteristics of suffixes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They normally alter the word type of the base. </li...
Noun suffixes <ul><li>Occupational. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -eer”  engineer, auctitioneer. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ster”  gangste...
Noun Suffixes <ul><li>Diminutive and femenine. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -let”  booklet, owlet, piglet. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ett...
Noun Suffixes ( Abstract ) <ul><li>Status, domain, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -hood”  boyhood, brotherhood, flasehood, likel...
Noun Suffixes <ul><li>Quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ful”  handful, spoonful </li></ul>
Noun/adjective suffixes <ul><li>“ -ite”  Israelite, Rafaelite. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -(i)an”  Shakespearian, Elizabethan. </...
De-verbal suffixes <ul><li>“ -er”  worker, onlooker, drinker. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ant”  inhabitant, occupant. </li></ul><...
De-adjectival suffixes <ul><li>“ -ness”  goodness, happiness, selfishness. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ity”/”-able”/”-ible”/”-al”...
Verb suffixes <ul><li>“ -ify”  certify, identify. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ize”  scandalize, organise. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -en...
Adjective Suffixes <ul><li>“ -able”  readable, drinkable. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -al”  chemical, criminal, special. </li></ul...
Adverb suffixes <ul><li>“ -ly”  happily, freely, instantly. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -wards”  onwards, eastwards. </li></ul><ul...
To Summarize Suffixes <ul><li>Noun Suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun/Adjective suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>De-verbal suffix...
Compounding. <ul><li>Oil paper </li></ul><ul><li>Paperclip </li></ul><ul><li>Paper aeroplane </li></ul><ul><li>(to)wallpap...
Characteristics of compounds. <ul><li>The can be written together, (solid) separately or with a hyphen. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Other compound nouns come from... <ul><li>Verb + Noun. </li></ul><ul><li>pickpoket. </li></ul><ul><li>Verb + Verb. </li></...
Groups of compound nouns. <ul><li>Compound nouns can be countable, uncountable, singular or plural and grouped like that. ...
Common countable compound nouns. <ul><li>Address book </li></ul><ul><li>Air conditioner </li></ul><ul><li>Air raid </li></...
Common uncoutable compound nouns <ul><li>Birth control </li></ul><ul><li>Central heating </li></ul><ul><li>Common sense </...
Common singular compound nouns <ul><li>Cost of living </li></ul><ul><li>Fire brigade </li></ul><ul><li>Generation gap </li...
Common plural compound nouns. <ul><li>Armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>High heels </li></ul><...
Compound adjectives. <ul><li>They are made up of two or more words, usually written with hyphens between them. They may be...
Common patterns to make compound adjectives. <ul><li>Adjective or number + noun + “-ed” red-haired </li></ul><ul><li>Adjec...
Rule for compound adjectives <ul><li>A few compound adjectives are made up of more than two words and they are often writt...
Groups of Compound adjectives. <ul><li>Compound qualitative adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Absent minded. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Groups of Compound adjectives. <ul><li>Compound classifying adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-visual </li></ul><ul><li>Br...
Groups of Compound adjectives. <ul><li>Compound colour adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Blood-red </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle-gre...
Compound Verbs. <ul><li>They are usually written with an hyphen. </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern formation: </li></ul><ul><li>no...
Groups of compound verbs <ul><li>Intransitive compound verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>Baby-sit hitch-hike </li></ul><ul><li>Ice-...
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Word formation-in-english3443

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  • Word formation is of great interest for linguists as it sheds light on other aspects of language. There is not, though, no single “theory of word formation” The way words are constructed are interesting for linguists in the sense that it help them to classify the grammar group of words. Word formation process is a good indicator to trace back the most productive means of creating words within a language. Rinaissance and neoclacissicism have been vital for the borrowing of Latin and Greek affixes into English, especially when we talk about the fields of science, technology and medicine.
  • Lexicography is the procedure and profession, which deal with arranging and describing items of vocabulary in works such as dictionaries, glossaries, thesauri, synonym guides and usage guides. Alphabetical lexicography deals with the alphabetical order of wordes while as thematic lexicography classifies words by topic.
  • Cawdrey did not pick his 2,500 words from nowhere. For the most part, he copied from an elarlies Latin word list. Mid XVII Century Etylologies were included into dictionaries. ( around the 1650´s) In 1700 John Kersey took the step of including frequent words, too.
  • Doctor Johnson very much contributed to the groth of lexicography. His definitions, on the whole, are strong and clear. He made a couple of lexicographical innovations: the practice of separating and number word meanings and citing contexts to demonstrate the meaning of a word or particular usages of a word. In the XVIII Century, synonyms were added to entries in dictionaries, and some dictionaries even included lists of pronunciation. The Oxford English Dictionary would include all words in use between the year 1100 and the date of publication. The Philological Society in England intended to cite the first occurrence of each word in English writing and the last occurrence if the word had dropped out of use, together with other quotations accross the centuries to show debelopments in meaning.
  • In 1843 the rights of publication were purchased by Charles and G. Merrian, and the Merrian firm continued, and continues, to bring out editions of all sizes, all bering the Webster name
  • The form to which a rule of word formation is applied is called BASE. Once a BASE has suffered a rule of word formation may become the BASE for another derivation. “ Friend, friendly, unfriendly and undfriendlyness” is one example of this. It is possible to mix various devices, for example: compounding and derivation as in “colour blindness”
  • Please note that prefix “non-” is always follwed by an hyphen. Most prefixes in English has a Latin, Greeek or French origin except for “be-”,”fore”,”mis-”, “un”.
  • Please note that “in-” becomes “il-” before “l”, or “im-” before labials, or “ir-” before “r”.
  • Please note that prefix “co-” when used to refer to position of status will be written with an hyphen.
  • English uses a mixture of Greek and Latin prefixes to express number.
  • The following are suffixes which may be added to verbs to form nouns.
  • The following are suffixes which may be added to adjectives to form an abstract nouns expressing state, quality....
  • There are very few of these in English.
  • Compounding – or composition – is, roughly speaking, the process of putting two words together to forma third, as in the examples above.
  • Compounds can be divided according to the function they play in the sentence, or according to the type of item that make up the compound, or its semantic type and its semantic funciton.
  • The plural forms of compound nouns change according to the type of words they consist of. If the final word of a compound nouns is a countable noun, the plural form is placed in this word when the compound noun is plural. Coumpound nouns which consist on two nouns linked by the prepositions of or in, or a noun followed by “to be”, have a plural form in which first noun in the compound is plural.
  • Transcript of "Word formation-in-english3443"

    1. 1. Lexicon. Characteristics of word formation in English. Prefixation, suffixation and compounding . Unit 10
    2. 2. 1. Lexicon 1.1. Lexicography. 1.2.The Evolution of the modern dictionary.
    3. 3. Types of Lexicography <ul><li>Alphabetical lexicography </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic Lexicography </li></ul>
    4. 4. Products of lexicography <ul><li>If account for size </li></ul><ul><li>20-volume Oxford Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>The Concise Oxford Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>The Pocket Oxford Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>The Collins Gem </li></ul><ul><li>If account for type </li></ul><ul><li>Monolingual </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetical </li></ul><ul><li>Etymologies </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms and antonyms.etc. </li></ul>
    5. 5. The evolution of modern dictionaries. First English to English word list “ A Table Alphabeticall” by Robert Cawdrey 1603. It contained 2,500 words. By the 50´s of XVII Century “Etylomologies” were Included in dictionaries as well
    6. 6. In 1700, John Kersey dares to add frequent words in dictionaries. The gratest figure in English lexicography in the XVIII was Samuel Johnson. The gratest lexicographical effort ever made was The Oxford English Dictionary.
    7. 7. Dictionaries in America <ul><li>Noah Webster is the great pioneer in lexicography. </li></ul><ul><li>His dictonary published in 1828 had the title “An American Dictionary of the English Language” </li></ul>
    8. 8. English word formation <ul><li>Affixation. </li></ul><ul><li>Compounding. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Other devices: reduplication, clipping, blending, acronyms. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Prefixation <ul><li>Characteristics of prefixes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally they do not alter the word class of the base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The are normally written together with the base as a single word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main stress falls normally on the base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be grouped according to their meaning. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Negative Prefixes <ul><li>“ un-” unfair, unadorned, unfortunately. </li></ul><ul><li>“ non-” non-conformist, non-existent. </li></ul><ul><li>“ in-” invisible, illogical, impossible, irresponsible. </li></ul><ul><li>“ a(n)-” amoral, atheist. </li></ul><ul><li>“ dis-” disloyal, disobey, disfavour </li></ul>
    11. 11. Reversible Prefixes <ul><li>“ un-” undo, undress, unhorse. </li></ul><ul><li>“ de-” defrost, depoliticize. </li></ul><ul><li>“ dis-” discouraging, disheartened,desinterested. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Pejorative Prefixes <ul><li>“ mis-” mishear, misconduct, misleading, misrepresentation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ mal-” maltreat, malformed, malfunction. </li></ul><ul><li>“ pseudo-” pseudo-scientific, </li></ul><ul><li>pseudo- classicism. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Prefixes of degree and size <ul><li>“ arch-” archduke, archenemy. </li></ul><ul><li>“ super-” supermarket, superman. </li></ul><ul><li>“ out-” outlive, outdo, outrun. </li></ul><ul><li>“ sur-” surcharge, </li></ul><ul><li>“ sub-” subnormal, substandard. </li></ul><ul><li>“ over-”/under-” overdo, undertook </li></ul><ul><li>“ hyper-/ultra-” hypersensitive. </li></ul><ul><li>“ mini-/macro-/micro-” microwave. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Prefixes of attitude <ul><li>“ co-” cooperative, cohabit, co-director, co-proprietor. </li></ul><ul><li>“ counter-” counter-espionage, counter-attack. </li></ul><ul><li>“ anti-/pro-” anti-nuclear, anti-democracy. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Locative Prefixes <ul><li>“ super-” super-structure. </li></ul><ul><li>“ sub-” subway, subconscious, subdivide. </li></ul><ul><li>“ inter-” international, intermarry, interwave, interplay. </li></ul><ul><li>“ trans-” transatlantic, transplant. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Prefixes of time and order <ul><li>“ fore-” foretell, foreman, forewarn. </li></ul><ul><li>“ pre-/post-” pre-historial, pre-marital. </li></ul><ul><li>“ ex-” ex-minister, ex-wife. </li></ul><ul><li>“ re-” rebuild, relocation, re-elegible. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Number Prefixes <ul><li>“ uni-/mono-” monosyllable, unilateral. </li></ul><ul><li>“ bi-/di-” dichotomy, bifocal. </li></ul><ul><li>“ multi-/poly-/pluri” multiracial </li></ul>
    18. 18. Conversion prefixes <ul><li>“ be-” bewigged, bewitch, bedazzle, befriend ( a dog ). </li></ul><ul><li>“ en-/em-” endanger, empower. </li></ul><ul><li>“ a-” afloat. </li></ul>
    19. 19. To Summarize <ul><li>Negative Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Pejorative Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes of degree and size. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes of attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Locative prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes of time and order. </li></ul><ul><li>Number Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion Prefixes. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Suffixation <ul><li>Characteristics of suffixes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They normally alter the word type of the base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffixes rarely have a distinct meaning on their own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The change the word into which they are included into another part of speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The can be classified according to the speech part they form, or according to the type of base the are added to. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Noun suffixes <ul><li>Occupational. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -eer” engineer, auctitioneer. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ster” gangster, gamester, trickster. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -er” Londoner, banker </li></ul>
    22. 22. Noun Suffixes <ul><li>Diminutive and femenine. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -let” booklet, owlet, piglet. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ette” cigarrette, kitchenette. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ess” countess, hostess. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -y” Johnny, daddy, pussy </li></ul>
    23. 23. Noun Suffixes ( Abstract ) <ul><li>Status, domain, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -hood” boyhood, brotherhood, flasehood, likelihood. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ship” friendship, companionship </li></ul><ul><li>“ -dom”,”-ocracy”, “-ery/-ry”. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Noun Suffixes <ul><li>Quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ful” handful, spoonful </li></ul>
    25. 25. Noun/adjective suffixes <ul><li>“ -ite” Israelite, Rafaelite. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -(i)an” Shakespearian, Elizabethan. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ese” Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ist” novelist, violinist, typist. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ism” Cummunism, Imperialistm. </li></ul>
    26. 26. De-verbal suffixes <ul><li>“ -er” worker, onlooker, drinker. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ant” inhabitant, occupant. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ation” operation, exploration. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ment” arrangement, argument. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -al” approval, refusal </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ing” swimming, living, painting, building. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -age” package, peerage, shortage. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ee” trainee, employee. </li></ul>
    27. 27. De-adjectival suffixes <ul><li>“ -ness” goodness, happiness, selfishness. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ity”/”-able”/”-ible”/”-al” readable, readability, sentimental, sentimentality. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Verb suffixes <ul><li>“ -ify” certify, identify. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ize” scandalize, organise. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -en” blacken, sadden. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Adjective Suffixes <ul><li>“ -able” readable, drinkable. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -al” chemical, criminal, special. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ful” beautiful, plentiful. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ed” blue-eyed, odd-shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -en” wooden, leaden. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ic” Germanic, specific. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ish” foolish, boyish, snobbish. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -less” helpless, hopeless. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -like” friendly, child-like </li></ul>
    30. 30. Adverb suffixes <ul><li>“ -ly” happily, freely, instantly. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -wards” onwards, eastwards. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -wise” clockwise. </li></ul>
    31. 31. To Summarize Suffixes <ul><li>Noun Suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun/Adjective suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>De-verbal suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>De-adjectival suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Verb suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb suffixes. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Compounding. <ul><li>Oil paper </li></ul><ul><li>Paperclip </li></ul><ul><li>Paper aeroplane </li></ul><ul><li>(to)wallpaper </li></ul><ul><li>Wastepaper </li></ul><ul><li>Wastepaper basket </li></ul>
    33. 33. Characteristics of compounds. <ul><li>The can be written together, (solid) separately or with a hyphen. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonologically are identified as for having the main stress on the first element. </li></ul><ul><li>blackbird ´_____,_____ a species of bird. </li></ul><ul><li>blackbird _____ ´_____ a bird which is back </li></ul><ul><li>They can consist of two or three words. </li></ul><ul><li>sister-in-law, baby-sitter, air-conditioner. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Other compound nouns come from... <ul><li>Verb + Noun. </li></ul><ul><li>pickpoket. </li></ul><ul><li>Verb + Verb. </li></ul><ul><li>make-belive. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective + Noun. </li></ul><ul><li>fast-food. </li></ul><ul><li>Particle + Noun </li></ul><ul><li>overkill. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb + Noun. </li></ul><ul><li>new generation </li></ul><ul><li>Verb + Particle </li></ul><ul><li>press down </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Whisky and soda </li></ul>
    35. 35. Groups of compound nouns. <ul><li>Compound nouns can be countable, uncountable, singular or plural and grouped like that. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Common countable compound nouns. <ul><li>Address book </li></ul><ul><li>Air conditioner </li></ul><ul><li>Air raid </li></ul><ul><li>Baby-sitter </li></ul><ul><li>Bank account </li></ul><ul><li>Brother-in-law </li></ul><ul><li>Bus-stop </li></ul><ul><li>Can opener </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attack </li></ul><ul><li>High school </li></ul><ul><li>Human being </li></ul><ul><li>Letter-box </li></ul><ul><li>Passer-by </li></ul><ul><li>Pen-friend </li></ul><ul><li>Polar bear </li></ul><ul><li>Police station. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Common uncoutable compound nouns <ul><li>Birth control </li></ul><ul><li>Central heating </li></ul><ul><li>Common sense </li></ul><ul><li>Dry-cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Family planning </li></ul><ul><li>Fancy dress </li></ul><ul><li>Fast-food </li></ul><ul><li>Income tax </li></ul><ul><li>Lost property </li></ul><ul><li>Mail order </li></ul><ul><li>Make up </li></ul><ul><li>Old age </li></ul><ul><li>Remote control </li></ul><ul><li>Social security </li></ul><ul><li>First aid </li></ul><ul><li>Water-skiing </li></ul>
    38. 38. Common singular compound nouns <ul><li>Cost of living </li></ul><ul><li>Fire brigade </li></ul><ul><li>Generation gap </li></ul><ul><li>Human race </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector </li></ul><ul><li>Solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare state. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Common plural compound nouns. <ul><li>Armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>High heels </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Luxury goods </li></ul><ul><li>Road works </li></ul><ul><li>Social services </li></ul><ul><li>Winter sports </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow pages </li></ul>
    40. 40. Compound adjectives. <ul><li>They are made up of two or more words, usually written with hyphens between them. They may be qualitative classifying or colour adjectives. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Common patterns to make compound adjectives. <ul><li>Adjective or number + noun + “-ed” red-haired </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective or adverb + past participle low-paid </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective, adverb or noun +present participle </li></ul><ul><li>good-looking </li></ul>
    42. 42. Rule for compound adjectives <ul><li>A few compound adjectives are made up of more than two words and they are often written with hyphens when they are used in front of nouns, and without hyphens when they are used as the complement of a link verb. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a free-and-easy relatioship. </li></ul><ul><li>That book is out of date. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Groups of Compound adjectives. <ul><li>Compound qualitative adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Absent minded. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy-going. </li></ul><ul><li>Low-paid </li></ul><ul><li>Nice looking </li></ul><ul><li>Old fashioned </li></ul><ul><li>Open-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Second-class </li></ul><ul><li>Starry-eyed </li></ul><ul><li>Tender-hearted </li></ul><ul><li>Well-behaved </li></ul><ul><li>Well-dressed </li></ul><ul><li>Well-known. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Groups of Compound adjectives. <ul><li>Compound classifying adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-visual </li></ul><ul><li>Brand-new </li></ul><ul><li>Built-up </li></ul><ul><li>Deep-sea </li></ul><ul><li>Duty-free </li></ul><ul><li>Long-distance </li></ul><ul><li>Made-up </li></ul><ul><li>North-east </li></ul><ul><li>One-way </li></ul><ul><li>Second-hand </li></ul><ul><li>Tax-free </li></ul><ul><li>Top-secret </li></ul>
    45. 45. Groups of Compound adjectives. <ul><li>Compound colour adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Blood-red </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle-green </li></ul><ul><li>Nut-brown </li></ul><ul><li>Royal-blue </li></ul><ul><li>Sky-blue </li></ul><ul><li>Snow-white. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Compound Verbs. <ul><li>They are usually written with an hyphen. </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern formation: </li></ul><ul><li>noun + verb “sky-dive” </li></ul><ul><li>verb + noun “shun-pike” </li></ul><ul><li>verb + verb “freeze-dry” </li></ul><ul><li>adjective + verb “double-book” </li></ul><ul><li>particle + verb “overbook” </li></ul>
    47. 47. Groups of compound verbs <ul><li>Intransitive compound verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>Baby-sit hitch-hike </li></ul><ul><li>Ice-skate roller-skate </li></ul><ul><li>Water-ski window-shop </li></ul><ul><li>Transitive compound verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>Back-comb ill-treat </li></ul><ul><li>Dry-clean tape record </li></ul><ul><li>Compound verbs used in transitive or intransitive </li></ul><ul><li>clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle-feed sight-read </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-produce spring-clean </li></ul><ul><li>Shrt-circuit tie-dye </li></ul>
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