PR & Communication Skils

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PR & Communication Skils - presentation ,2004

PR & Communication Skils - presentation ,2004

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  • 1. Basics of PR/Communication Skills Ninth Meeting of the SEE Health Network Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, 8-10 November, 2004 SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE
  • 2. “ Public Relations practice is the deliberate,planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and it’s public. ” The Institute of Public Relations (IPR) SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE What Public Relations Is?
  • 3. “ Public Relations consists of all forms of planned communication, outward and inwards, between an organisation and it’s publics for the purpose of achieving specific objectives concerning mutual understanding. ” Frank Jefkins SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE What Public Relations Is?
  • 4. The Age of Mass Communication /after Gutenberg/ and The Age of the Global Information /McInformation Age/ SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Communication is the core of Public Relations!
  • 5. “ Raison d’aitre” of Communication is Understanding! SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Communication is the core of Public Relations!
  • 6.
    • PR is not “ free ” advertising
    • PR is not propaganda
    • PR is not the same as publicity
    • The main purpose of PR is to establish a two -
    • way communication to resolve conflicts of interest by seeking common ground or areas of mutual interest and to build the confidence between organizations and public /society/.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE What Public Relations is not ?
  • 7. Our main task is to transform: Ignorance into Knowledge , Apathy into Interest , Prejudice into Acceptance , Hostility into Trust ! SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Methodology of public relations
  • 8.
    • Problem definition
    • Creation of strategy
    • Creation of tactics
    • Implementation
    • Monitoring and evaluation
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE How to work with the public?
  • 9.
      • Organization of meetings, seminars, roundtables, discussions, presentations;
      • Informal meetings and contacts;
      • Lobbying (direct, indirect);
      • Public opinion leaders;
      • Printed materials;
      • Notice boards;
      • Telephone hotlines;
      • Internet dialogue;
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Techniques of work with the public
  • 10.
      • Organization of “pseudo”/media/-events:
      • Unveiling a new site;
      • Jubilee of person, organization;
      • Awarding;
      • Problem solution.
      • Answers to citizen complaints, letters and questions;
      • Information bulletins;
      • Reception room;
      • Checks on problem cases, medical errors;
      • Using third persons.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Techniques of work with the public
  • 11.
      • Communication is the core of Public Relations!
      • The Message is the core of Communication!
        • Before you can formulate an effective communications plan you must identify your message(s).
        • Your messages are a road map, but you must know where you want to go.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE The Message
  • 12.
    • - It must answer the questions:
      • Why?
      • Why care?
      • Why act?
      • - It must explain:
      • What is valued?
      • What is at risk?
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE What is a message?
  • 13.
    • A MESSAGE SHOULD BE SHORT, SIMPLE AND REPEATED TO BE HEARD !
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE What is a message?
  • 14.
    • Rule 1: Have one main message with up to three underlying themes to support it.
    • Rule 2: All messages should support the organisation’s main goals.
    • Rule 3: Messages are not necessarily sound bites; they are the ideas you are trying to communicate to the public.
    • Rule 4: Messages don’t change frequently.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE DEVELOPING YOUR MESSAGE
  • 15.
    • Rule 5 : Messages can be tailored for specific audiences, while still remaining constant.
    • Rule 6: Consistent messages should permeate all of your communications efforts, not just contact with the media.
    • Rule 7: Messages must be simple.
    • Rule 8: Remember: messages take time to create. Don’t rush the process.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE DEVELOPING YOUR MESSAGE
  • 16.
    • Space #1 : THRESHOLD MESSAGES
    • What do people need to know,
    • believe, or care about in order
    • to become engaged with your
    • organisation or issue?
    • Space #2: ACTION MESSAGES
    • What obstacles or misconceptions do you need to
    • overcome to get people engaged? What do you want the people who connect to your organisation to do?
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE THE MESSAGE BOX 2 3 1 4
  • 17.
    • Space #3: REINFORCEMENT MESSAGES
    • What needs to happen or what
    • do people need to do to meet
    • your organisation’s goals or have
    • impact on your issue? How do you
    • keep people involved?How do those
    • who are involved convey your messages for your organisation?
    • Space #4: SOLUTION MESSAGES
    • If people did this, how would things be different? What is the projected outcome?
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE THE MESSAGE BOX 2 3 1 4
  • 18. You need a Channel! SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE How to disseminate the messages?
  • 19.
    • Media is the Channel!
    • The Media is:
      • Newspapers and Magazines, Radio,Television, On-line media;
      • Direct mailing, Brochures, Bulletins, Information boards, Multimedia presentations, Web sites, etc.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE How to disseminate the messages?
  • 20.
    • The importance of media coverage
      • The only way to disseminate Your messages
    • Know your target audience /internal and external/
      • There is no general audience – always account for peculiarities
    • Personal communication is the strongest and most persuasive means of putting across a message! Communicator is the Person, not the Organization at all!
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Dealing with the Media
  • 21. Think like a journalist, write for your reader! SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Dealing with the Media
  • 22.
    • Know media rules /how media works/
    • Know media specifics /difference between different media/
    • Know what is the News:
      • something new and actual
      • something important and relevant
      • something close and interesting
      • something that tell story
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Dealing with the Media
  • 23.
    • What is News/Press/release?
    • Most important : A press release must be NEWS!
    • It should be distinctive, easy to read and easy to understand!
    • It should be in an inverted pyramid format!
    • Because journalists receive dozens to hundreds of press releases daily, your release will compete with many others for attention. It's worth spending time to make yours the best it can be!
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Dealing with the Media
  • 24.
    • Inverted pyramid format
    • What is happening?
    • Where will it happen?
    • When is it happening?
    • Who is involved (or will it affect,
    • or benefit)?
    • Why is it happening?
    • How will it happen?
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Release
  • 25.
    • Structure
    • Organization name, head, logo
    • To Whom/Attention to:/ - “For immediate release”
    • Date of Release, Place
    • Headline
    • Information /”body”/
      • Lead
      • Main facts
      • Quotations
      • Additional facts, details
      • Background, “color”
    • Contact person, Phone, fax, mail, address
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Release
  • 26.
    • Format
    • Volume /1-2 pages/
    • Layout /to looking good/
    • Font /size-12, one type, easy to read, use bold and italic where is necessary/
    • Margins /2 sm. from both sides/
    • Spaces /between headline and paragraphs/
    • Paragraphs /short – 4-5 lines/
    • Color /recommended/
    • Pics /better/
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Release
  • 27.
    • Content
    • To answer the 5 “Wh”- and “H”-questions
    • Only 1 news, only 1 point of view /Yours/
    • Maximum Verbs, Minimum Adjectives, shortly
    • Active, Not Passive voice, in 3-rd person
    • To not “sounds” like an advertising, be objective
    • No professional jargon, difficult for understanding phrases and negative sentences
    • No initials, acronyms or abbreviations
    • No Spelling or Grammar mistakes
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Release
  • 28.
    • Useful Tips
    • Assure that Your Press release is newsworthy
    • Has it been reviewed and approved?
    • Where, when and how should you distribute it?
    • Double-check facts, names and all information
    • Say most important but not all – press release is like a hook for journalist interest
    • Find original angle, tell story, try to humanize
    • Enclose fact-sheet, pics, additional info
    • Use the " KISS Method" ( Keep It Simple Stupid !)
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Release
  • 29.
    • Preliminary Preparation
    • You should only hold a news/press/ conference when you have real news to announce!
    • Preparation of speakers
      • Establish the topic; set the objectives of the conference
      • Development of clear and concrete message
      • Review with the speaker/s the agenda and the messages you want to convey
      • Review a sample list of questions and answers
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Conference
  • 30.
    • Preliminary Preparation
    • Preparation of materials
    • Prepare media kits for reporters
      • The kits should include:
        • A copy of the spokesperson's statement
        • A news release detailing the topic.
        • A fact sheet or brochure on your organisation and the project
        • Reproductions of charts or graphs used
        • Biographies of main speakers
        • Photos, CD-Rs
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Conference
  • 31.
    • Preliminary Preparation
    • Logistics and Visuals
    • Choose a room large enough to accommodate the media, cameras and other equipment
    • Make sure there are enough electrical outlets for Your and reporters’ equipment
    • Display an appropriate logo/poster in a prominent spot
    • Provide chairs for reporters, name cards for speakers
    • Display visuals prominently near the front of the room, keep visuals clean and simple
    • Think like a camera!
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Conference
  • 32.
    • Preliminary Preparation
    • Notification
    • Send to media an invitation and news release summing up the purpose of the conference
    • Direct the release to editors, news directors and reporters, giving them the date, time, place and topic of the conference
    • Schedule the conference to coordinate with media deadlines
    • Make follow-up calls the day before the conference, urging reporters to attend.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Conference
  • 33.
    • During the Press Conference
    • Double-check the conference room to make sure everything is set
    • Provide a media sign-in sheet and press kit to the journalists
    • Consider serving refreshments
    • Start the conference on time
    • Introduce the speakers
    • Conduct a question-and-answer session after the statement/conference
    • Have a room available for follow-up interviews
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Conference
  • 34.
    • During the Press Conference
    • Keep to the message, keep Your temper
    • Always answer a question asked
    • If you cannot, give the reason
    • Use understandable language
    • Tell concrete stories
    • Use “bridges” to pass from your answer to your message
    • Use “flag” expressions, which attract attention
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Conference
  • 35.
    • “ Flags” and “Bridges”
    • “ Flags” are expressions that attract attention such as:
    • “ What is most important here is .............”.
    • “ What you should remember is …..”.
    • “ It is of key importance here ..........”.
    • “ The three most important elements are.......”.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Conference
  • 36.
    • “ Flags” and “Bridges”
    • “ Bridges” are phrases, which help You to pass from Your answer to Your message:
    • “ Good question, but I think your audience will be interested to learn that ......”.
    • “ While I haven’t forgotten, I would like to tell You...”.
    • “ Nevertheless, it is important to remember that ...”.
    • “ Before we finish with this subject, allow me to add something:..”.
    • “ This means that ...........”.
    • “ This is not my field precisely, but what I can say is…”.
    • “ As I said ..........”.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Conference
  • 37.
    • After the Press Conference
    • What are the outcomes of the conference?
    • What has been heard, seen and read about the event?
    • Analyse the content – corrections
    • Did you achieve the objectives?
    • What lessons did you learn?
    • Never speak with the reporters and don’t give interviews after conference, except in the cases when this has been approved and agreed with the PR experts!
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE News/Press/Conference
  • 38. Successful interviews are message-driven! Don’t be afraid! Interviews are an opportunity for You, for Your message to reach the audience! SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Successful Interviewing
  • 39.
    • General guidelines:
    • Prepare!
      • Ask yourself, 'What is my goal with this interview?‘
      • Know the one, two or three (max) key points you want to make
      • Collect background information about the journalist, his style of work, the audience of the media he represents.
      • Set time limits of the interview
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Successful Interviewing
  • 40.
    • General guidelines:
    • Use the Three C's:
      • Concise - Focus on getting your points across efficiently. Avoid long words and lengthy sentences
      • Conversational - Use words and descriptions that the average reader/viewer will understand
      • Catchy - The reporter is looking for the catchy phrase or sound bite
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Successful Interviewing
  • 41.
    • General guidelines:
    • Say What You Want to Say!
    • Avoid Reporter Traps:
      • Don't Repeat the Reporter's Words
      • Don't Lose Your Cool
      • There is No Such Thing as "Off the Record”
      • Don't Be Led Into Hypothetical Situations
      • Don't Fill (Awkward) Silent Pauses
      • Never repeat negative phrases and expressions
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Successful Interviewing
  • 42.
    • General guidelines:
    • Be Friendly, Honest and Yourself - Never lie. If you don't know the answer, say that.
    • You Have More Control Than You Think - Reporters are not your ultimate audience, their audience is your audience, so address your points to the public
    • You know more about your story than any reporter you speak to
    • Make the negative positive
    • TELL PEOPLE WHAT YOU ARE,
    • NOT WHAT YOU ARE NOT !
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Successful Interviewing
  • 43.
    • Several questions you want answered before you agree to an interview:
    • What is the format of the media?
    • What is the interview about?
    • What is your organisation’s role in the piece being proposed?
    • Ask if they are a weekly or daily?
    • What is the format of the interview?
    • Are you part of a panel?
    • How long will the interview last?
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE BEFORE THE INTERVIEW
  • 44.
    • Know whom you are talking to when you
    • are being interviewed?
    • Never shoot from the hip
    • Make sure staff answering the phone know
    • the rules
    • Make sure to correct misconceptions
    • Only the answers matter, questions don’t
    • Don't answer personal questions
    • Never use jargon or acronyms, use humor
    • Know your opponents’ viewpoints and
    • have counterpoints ready.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE General Media Interview Tips
  • 45.
    • Remember, journalists are not your friends
    • Don't lose your temper with a reporter
    • Don’t try to say many things at once
    • "No comment" rarely works any more
    • Be prepared for the negative bias of the media
    • Pay attention to the language you use
    • Control your message
    • Support each message
    • Repeat the message - Tell them what are You going to tell, tell them and then tell them what You have said!
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE General Media Interview Tips
  • 46. SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE
    • AFTER THE INTERVIEW
    • Review the coverage
    • Where you on coverage?
    • Did you get your main points across in a concise and easy to understand way?
    • Did your opponents make any compelling arguments for which you will need to construct a good counterpoint in the future?
    • Was the piece in any way inaccurate or unfair?
  • 47.
    • Remember your appearance - viewers will decide within ten seconds if you appear credible.
    • TV screen can intensify messy hair or
    • a crooked tie - distracting clothing gets in the way of your message; avoid very light or very dark colours, fussy accessories and sunglasses.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Specific Guidelines for TV Interviews
  • 48.
    • Maintain eye contact - always look at the interviewer and not at the camera.
    • Always assume the tape is rolling - be aware of what you say even after the formal on-camera interview because it may end up on the air
    • Brief the journalist – ask to know first question
    • Use open gesture
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Specific Guidelines for TV Interviews
  • 49.
    • Find out all you can about the interview before-hand :
      • Area of questioning?
      • Main studio, for which programme , location?
      • What sort of interview? - Live or pre-recorded?
      • Prepare what you want to say - consider the message you want to get across and keep it to 2-3 main points.
      • Remember, no message is complete without supporting information – the audience has only 1 chance to get your meaning.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Specific Guidelines for TV Interviews
  • 50.
    • Keep answers self-contained - try to talk in short, substantive phrases. Keep in mind that reporters are always looking for good sound bites for their stories.
    • Do not try to create an answer if the information is not available.
    • Use everyday words/analogies to explain specialist concepts
    • Look steadily at the interviewer – try to forget the camera
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Specific Guidelines for TV Interviews
  • 51.
    • Find out all you can about the interview before-hand:
      • Which radio, programme?
      • Area of questioning?
      • What sort of interview? - Live or pre-recorded?
      • In the studio? By phone?
      • Discussion panel?
      • Make the most of your voice – most important is how You sound!
      • Brief the journalist – ask to know first question
      • Always assume You are on air !
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Specific Guidelines for Radio Interviews
  • 52.
    • Find out all you can about the interview before-hand:
      • Which paper, magazine?
      • Who is the journalist?
      • Area of questioning?
      • Be assertive - the journalist has come to you because you know something he/she does not. You are important .
      • Anticipate awkward questions – think through all the positive things you can say. Always challenge a negative assumption.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Specific Guidelines for Print Interviews
  • 53. Don't think that because print reporters have more space they may use longer quotes. Don't fall for the "when did you stop beating your wife" or the "isn't it true that"( put you on the defensive) line of questioning . There is no such thing as “Off the record” - assume all you say will be published; always make a record to your interviews. Do not relax until the reporter has gone - some of the best quotes /and worst blunders/ come from a passing shot at the door. SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Specific Guidelines for Print Interviews
  • 54. SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Crisis PR-Communication Crisis communication planning can help you deal effectively with those unexpected disasters, emergencies or other unusual events that may cause unfavourable publicity for your organisation.
  • 55.
    • General tips
    • Before the crisis, successful communication will depend, in large part, on the preparations you make long before the emergency occurs.
    • Be prepared - it is possible to list and prepare for those potential negative scenarios that might occur
    • Do the right thing - In any emergency situation it is imperative that you put the public interest ahead of the organisation's interest
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Crisis PR-Communication
  • 56.
    • General tips
    • Bring the situation under control, if possible , always protect people first and property second.
    • Communicate quickly and accurately positive, assertive communication, give factual information - don't speculate.
    • Report your own bad news , don't allow another source to inform the media first.
    • Avoid panic - o ne of the best ways is to control the flow of information.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Crisis PR-Communication
  • 57.
    • General tips
    • Keep internal public informed
    • In addition to working with the media, a good crisis communication plan allows for communication with members of the organisation.
    • Your spokesperson should be forthright in dealing with media questions
    • Media will expect: complete honest information; background material; some indication of how the organisation intends to proceed; information about the impact on your staff and volunteers; regular updates and after-the-crisis follow up
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Crisis PR-Communication
  • 58.
    • General tips
    • Your spokesperson should not respond to media questions with “No comment"
    • Some good answers examples:
      • "We've just learned about the situation and are trying to get more complete information now."
      • "All our efforts are directed at bringing the situation under control, so I'm not going to speculate on the cause of the incident."
      • "I'm not the authority on that subject. Let me have our Mr. XXX call you right back."
      • "We're preparing a statement on that now. Can I fax it to you in about two hours?"
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Crisis PR-Communication
  • 59.
    • General tips
    • After The Crisis
      • Declare an end to the crisis - it is most important for your organisation to signal an end to the crisis situation
      • Follow up - stay in touch with the community after a crisis, especially with those directly affected; keep the media informed of any updates in the situation
      • Perform an act of goodwill - do this during or immediately after a crisis when appropriate and possible.
      • Revise your crisis communication plan to reflect what you have learned.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Crisis PR-Communication
  • 60. SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Health communication Health communication encompasses the study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
  • 61.
    • Health communication can
    • contribute to all aspects of
    • disease prevention and health
    • promotion and is relevant in
    • a number of contexts, including:
      • Health professional-patient relations,
      • Individuals’ exposure to, search for, and use of health information
      • The construction of public health messages and campaigns
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Health communication
  • 62.
      • Individuals’ adherence to clinical recommendations and regimens,
      • The dissemination of individual and population health risk information, that is, risk communication,
      • Images of health in the mass media and the culture at large,
      • The education of consumers about how to gain access to the public health and health care systems
      • The development of “E-Health”
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Health communication
  • 63.
      • Well-designed health communication activities help individuals better understand their own and their communities’ needs so that they can take appropriate actions to maximize health.
    SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Health communication
  • 64. SOCIAL COHESION INITIATIVE Communicate the Right Way!