GRAMMAR COMPANIONVOCABULARY INTERNET: Browser (the programmers) -> Navegador, explorador de Web. Button -> Botón Check the box -> Marcar la casilla Laptop -> Ordenador portàtil Virtual -> Virtual Habbo-> Habbo Avatar->avatar Chatting->chatar Computer->ordenador Online->en linea Blog->blog-> Web-> web Offline -> Fuera de linia Net-> Internet Chat room-> Download-> Email-> File sharing-> Instant messaging-> Message board-> Online game-> Personal webpage-> Search engine->PRESENT PERFECTThe present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on orthat stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It putsemphasis on the result.
FORM OF PRESENT PERFECT: 1. POSITIVE Subject have +verbs in the 3 rd (irregular verbs) Has +verbs in –ed (regular verbs) 2. NEGATIVE Subject haven’t + verbs in the 3 rd (irregular verbs) Hasn’t +verbs in –ed (regular verbs) 3. QUESTIONS (Wh.) Has subject + in the 3rd (irregular verbs) Have +verbs in –ed (regular verbs)EXCEPTIONS: after a final e only add d. Final consonant after a short, stressed vowel or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled. Final y after a consonant becomes i.USES OF PRESENT PERFECT : puts emphasis on the result Example: She has written five letters. action that is still going on Example: School has not started yet. action that stopped recently Example: She has cooked dinner. finished action that has an influence on the present Example: I have lost my key. action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking Example: I have never been to AustraliaUnspecified Time Before Now
We use the present perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. You cannot use the present perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We can use the present perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet..SIGNAL WORDS OF PRESENT PERFECT:Already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to nowFOR/SINCE We use for with a period of time, for example: a few days, half an hour, two years. We use since with the time when the action started, for example: last year, June 8, I met you.Examples I have had this computer for about a year. I havent seen Julia since September.PRESENT PERFECT VS. PRESENT SIMPLEWe use the Past Simple tense to talk about a definite finished time in thepast. For example: when, yesterday, last week, when I was at school,then, after etc.Examples I finished university three years ago. Where did we first meet? I didnt study French at school.We use the Present Perfect tense with time references that refer to thetime up to now. For example: today, this week, this month, ever, never,already, recently, yet etc.