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Anhvan thay hai   trung tam luyen thi dai hoc qsc-45 - part 2 - chapter 2 - unit 4
Anhvan thay hai   trung tam luyen thi dai hoc qsc-45 - part 2 - chapter 2 - unit 4
Anhvan thay hai   trung tam luyen thi dai hoc qsc-45 - part 2 - chapter 2 - unit 4
Anhvan thay hai   trung tam luyen thi dai hoc qsc-45 - part 2 - chapter 2 - unit 4
Anhvan thay hai   trung tam luyen thi dai hoc qsc-45 - part 2 - chapter 2 - unit 4
Anhvan thay hai   trung tam luyen thi dai hoc qsc-45 - part 2 - chapter 2 - unit 4
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Anhvan thay hai trung tam luyen thi dai hoc qsc-45 - part 2 - chapter 2 - unit 4

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  • 1. Trung tâm Luyện thi Đại học CLC QSC-45 Giảng viên: LÝ SIÊU HẢI PART 2: SOME KEY GRAMMAR POINTS CHAPTER 2: THE PROBLEMS OF VERB UNIT 4: THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 1. Định nghĩa - Câu giả định hay còn gọi là câu cầu khiến là loại câu đối tượng thứ nhất muốn đối tượng thứ hai làm một việc gì. Câu giả định có tính chất cầu khiến chứ không mang tính ép buộc như câu mệnh lệnh. - Trong câu giả định, người ta dùng dạng nguyên thể không có to (thức hiện tại) và V2 / Ved (thức quá khứ, to be: were cho tất cả các ngôi) của các động từ sau một số động từ chính mang tính cầu khiến. Thường có that trong câu giả định trừ một số trường hợp đặc biệt. 2. Cấu trúc giả định hiện tại (Present subjunctive) 2.1 Dùng với would rather (that) - Ngữ pháp hiện đại cho phép dùng would rather mà không cần dùng that trong loại câu này. We would rather (that) he not take this train. 2.2 Dùng với động từ. - Những động từ dưới đây đòi h i mệnh đề sau nó phải ở dạng giả định và trong câu bắt buộc phải có that advise demand prefer require ask request propose suggest command move recommend stipulate decree order insist urge - Động từ sau chủ ngữ thứ 2 ở dạng nguyên thể không chia (không có to). Nếu muốn thành lập thể phủ định đặt not sau chủ ngữ thứ 2 trước nguyên thể không to. Subject + verb + that + subject + [verb in simple form] + ... The doctor suggested that his patient stop smoking. The doctor suggested that his patient not stop smoking. - Nếu b that đi thì chủ ngữ 2 sẽ trở về dạng tân ngữ và động từ sau nó trở vềdạng nguyên thể có to, câu mất tính chất giả định, trở thành một dạng mệnh lệnh thức gián tiếp. The doctor suggested his patient to stop smoking. The doctor suggested his patient not to stop smoking. - Trong ngữ pháp Anh-Anh trước động từ ở mệnh đề thứ 2 thường có should, người Anh chỉ b should khi sau nó là động từ to be nhưng ngữ pháp Anh-Mỹ không dùng should cho toàn bộ động từ ở mệnh đề thứ 2. 2.3 Dùng với tính từ. - Một số các tính từ đòi h i mệnh đề sau nó phải ở dạng giả định, trong câu bắt buộc phải có that và động từ sau chủ ngữ thứ 2 ở dạng nguyên thể không to. advised recommended important required mandatory suggested vital desirable necessary urgent obligatory imperative proposed essential imperative advisory Lưu ý: trong bảng này có một số tính từ là phân từ thứ 2 cấu tạo từ các động từ ở bảng trên. Nếu muốn cấu tạo phủ định đặt not sau chủ ngữ thứ 2 trước nguyên thể không to. It + be + adj + that + S + [verb in simple form] It is necessary that he find the books. It is necessary that he not find the books. - Nếu b that đi thì chủ ngữ thứ 2 sẽ biến thành tân ngữ sau giới từ for, động từ trở về dạng nguyên thể có to và câu mất tính chất giả định trở thành dạng mệnh lệnh thức gián tiếp. It is necessary for him to find the books. It is necessary for him not to find the books. Lưu ý:  Câu giả định dùng với 2 loại trên thường được dùng trong các văn bản hoặc thư giao dịch diễn đạt lời đề nghị từ phía A -> B mà không có tính bắt buộc. Địa chỉ: 92 Nguyễn Đình Chiểu – P. ĐaKao – Q.1 – Tp. HCM Điện thoại: (08) 36.016.768 – 0908.348.745 (Th. Nam) trang: 53 Email: qsc45com@gmail.com Website:www.qsc45.com
  • 2. Trung tâm Luyện thi Đại học CLC QSC-45  Giảng viên: LÝ SIÊU HẢI Không chỉ có động từ và tính từ mới được dùng theo dạng này, tất cả các danh từ xuất phát từ những động từ và tính từ trên đều buộc mệnh đề sau nó phải ở dạng giả định, nếu như nó diễn đạt các yếu tố trên. There is suggestion from the doctor that the patient stop smoking. It is recommendation that the vehicle owner be present at the court 2.4 Dùng với cụm từ chỉ thời gian “it + to be + time”  It's time (for sb) to do smt: đã đến lúc ai phải làm gì (Thời gian vừa vặn, không mang tính giả định). It's time for me to get to the airport: Đã đến lúc tôi phải ra sân bay.  It's time (high time / about time) (for sb) did smt: đã đến lúc mà (thời gian đã trễ, mang tính giả định) It's time I got to the airport It's high time the city government did something to stop the traffic jam. 3. Cấu trúc câu giả định quá khứ (Past subjunctive) - The ordinary verb: to go -> went - The modal verb: - Special verb: can -> could be: were (tất cả các ngôi) Câu giả định với dạng thức quá khứ thường đi với dạng câu “wish” hoặc “If only” - Wish (ước gì, ao ước, ước muốn): thường diễn đạt một điều ước không có thật trong thực tế I wish I had a car (I don‟t have a car now) - If only (giá mà, giá như): được dùng như “wish” nhưng mang sắc thái biểu cảm hơn. If only you were here with me (I really want you here with me but you aren‟t) If only I hadn‟t met you before (I so regret that I met you before)  In the future: wish + S + would / could + V I wish I could go to the party tomorrow (but I can‟t go) She wishes you would be there with her next week. (but you won‟t be there with her next week)  In the present: wish + S + past subjunctive (Past Simple / Past continuous) I wish I got the first prize lottery. (I don‟t have any tickets) I wish I were / was a teacher (I‟m not a teacher now) We wish it weren‟t / wasn‟t raining now (It is raining now)  In the past: wish + S + Past perfect / Perfect conditional I wish I hadn‟t gone to the party. (but I went there) I wish you would have told me the truth (but you didn‟t) They wish he could have joined tha trip with them (but he didn‟t) 4. Các giả định trong một số trường hợp đặc biệt khác  Dùng để diễn đạt một ước muốn hoặc một lời nguyền rủa, thường bao hàm các thế lực siêu nhiên. God be with you = Good bye. Curse this toad: Chết tiệt cái con cóc này.  Dùng với động từ May trong một số trường hợp đặc biệt sau: o Come what may = Dù thế nào chăng nữa, dù bất cứ chuyện gì. Come what may we will stand by you. o May as well not do sth ….if …. = Có thể đừng….. nếu không. You may as well not come if you can‟t be on time o May / Might (just) as well do smt = Chẳng mất gì mà lại không, mất gì của họ. Since nobody wants that job, we might (just) as well let him have it o May diễn đạt một lời đề nghị mà người nói cho rằng chưa chắc nó đã được thực hiện: The sign on the lawn says clearly that people may not walk on the grass. (không dung should trong trường hợp này). o May + S + link verb + adj hoặc May + S + verb + complement (Cầu chúc cho). May you both very happy: Chúc các bạn bách niên giai lão. May the conference be successful: Chúc hội nghị thành công rực rỡ. Long may she live to enjoy her good fortune: Chúc cho nàng sống lâu để hưởng vận may của nàng. Địa chỉ: 92 Nguyễn Đình Chiểu – P. ĐaKao – Q.1 – Tp. HCM Điện thoại: (08) 36.016.768 – 0908.348.745 (Th. Nam) trang: 54 Email: qsc45com@gmail.com Website:www.qsc45.com
  • 3. Trung tâm Luyện thi Đại học CLC QSC-45  Giảng viên: LÝ SIÊU HẢI If need be = If necessary = Nếu cần If need be, we can take another road.  Dùng với động từ to be, b to sau if để chỉ một sự giả định chưa được phân định rõ ràng là đúng hay sai.  Let it be me: Giả sử đó là tôi, giá phải tay tôi. If that be right, then it would be no defence for this man to say he‟s innocent. - Husband: Let it be me. - Wife (suddenly appearing): If that be you, what would you do.  Be that as it may… = whether that is true or not… = Cho dù là phải thế hay không.  Then so be it: Cứ phải vậy thôi. Be that as it may, you have to accept it. If we have to pay $2,000, then so be it (thì cứ phải trả thôi) *************************************************************** A. Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences with the Present Subjunctive. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Susan‟s doctor insists ............................ for a few days. A. her resting B. that she rest C. her to rest D. that she is resting It is imperative ............................ what to do when there is a fire. A. that everyone know B. he must know about C. that he knew D. we knew Do you like your new job? – Yes, but my employer insisted that I ............................ on time. A. was B. am C. have been D. be Did he make any comments? – Yes, he said it was imperative that we ............................ on time tomorrow. A. had been B. were C. have been D. be I suggest he ............................ here at 8:30 tomorrow morning. A. comes B. should come C. will come D. can come I suggested ............................ to the party with the family. A. him in going B. to make him go C. that he go D. him to go It is necessary that an employee ............................ his work on time. A. finish B. finishes C. finishing D. finished The U.S postal service policy for check approval includes a requirement that two pieces of identification ..................... A. must present B. presented C. be presented D. for presentation They recommend that a hotel ............................ on the edge of the lake. A. should be built B. must be built C. was built D. could build The teacher suggested that her students ............................ experiences with ESP. A. write a composition on their B. to write composition about the C. wrote some compositions of his or her D. had written any compositions for his The doctor insisted that his patient ............................ A. that he not work too hard for three months B. take it easy for three months C. taking it easy inside of three months D. to take some vacations for three months The recommendation that all people affected by the storm ............................ immediately was approved. A. must be evacuated B. be evacuated C. ought to be evacuated D. had to be evacuated It‟s essential that he ............................ accepting responsibility. A. starts B. starting C. to start D. start I insist that she regularly ............................ us of her whereabouts. A. should inform B. would inform C. had informed D. would have informed It was suggested that they ............................ the distance in very short time. A. cover B. would cover C. had covered D. covered The lawyer demanded that the prisoner ............................ A. would be freed B. be freed C. was freed D. had been freed The coach insisted that the athlete ............................ training a month. A. should start B. start C. starting D. A & B are correct The chairman proposed that the question ............................ to vote. A. was B. be put C. would be D. being put Why do you insist that he ............................ the task on his own? A. do B. would do C. does D. did Địa chỉ: 92 Nguyễn Đình Chiểu – P. ĐaKao – Q.1 – Tp. HCM Điện thoại: (08) 36.016.768 – 0908.348.745 (Th. Nam) trang: 55 Email: qsc45com@gmail.com Website:www.qsc45.com
  • 4. Trung tâm Luyện thi Đại học CLC QSC-45 Giảng viên: LÝ SIÊU HẢI 20. It is necessary that you ............................ present at the meeting A. will be B. are C. should be D. were 21. It is desirable that the plane ............................ as light as possible. A. was B. be C. is D. were 22. The chairman requested that ............................ A. the members studied more carefully the problem B. the problem was more carefully studied C. the members study the problem more carefully D. with more carefulness the problem could be studied 23. His advice is that it ............................ at once is reasonable. A. will be done B. can be done C. may be done D. be done 24. The law requires that everyone ............................ his car checked at least once year. A. has B. had C. have D. will have 25. It is important that he ............................ with Dr. Baker immediately. A. speak B. spoke C. will speak D. speaks B. Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences with the Past Subjunctive. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Yesterday I met a very beautiful girl u really want to see her again but I don‟t know how to go about it. I wish ................ A. I didn‟t meet her yesterday B. I dad known her address C. I knew her address D. I will meet her tomorrow I wish you ............................ to me before you went and bought that car. A. spoke B. have spoken C. had spoken D. would have spoken I wish I ............................ that Gary was ill. I would have gone to see him. A. had known B. know C. knew D. have known If only he ............................ harder, he wouldn‟t have lost his job. A. worked B. would work C. had worked D. has worked He always talks as though he ............................ a public meeting. A. addressing 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. B. addresses C. were addressing D. is addressing He talks as if he ............................ all the work himself, but in fact Tom and I did most of it. A. was doing B. had done C. did D. has done If only we ............................ a car I‟m tired of the bad service of public transport. A. were B. had C. have D. are If only we ............................ more time, we could have seen more of the country. A. would have had B. have had C. had had D. had She treats us as if we ............................ all idiots. A. are B. had been C. have been D. were The cheese looks as if rats ............................ it. A. nibbled B. were being nibbled C. had nibbled D. nibbling I wish I ............................ so much money when I was in town yesterday. A. wouldn‟t have spent B. hadn‟t spent C. wouldn‟t spend D. didn‟t spend You talk as though it ............................ a small thing to leave your country forever. A. is B. were C. will be D. would be Everybody feels sorry for him and says that “if only he ............................ more time revising.” A. should have spent B. would have spent C. has spent D. spent He looks as though he ............................ a square meal in his life, but in fact his wife feeds him very well. A. has never got B. never gets C. never got D. had never got If only he ............................ accept some help with the work instead of trying research. A. can B. may C. would D. were If only he ............................ told us the truth in the first place, things wouldn‟t have gone so wrong. A. had B. has C. would have D. should have I wish I ............................ to rewrite my essay. I only made it worse. A. wouldn‟t have tried B. wouldn‟t try C. hadn‟t tried D. didn‟t try I wish I ............................ you some money for your rent, but I‟m broke myself. A. can lend B. would lend C. could lend D. will lend Địa chỉ: 92 Nguyễn Đình Chiểu – P. ĐaKao – Q.1 – Tp. HCM Điện thoại: (08) 36.016.768 – 0908.348.745 (Th. Nam) trang: 56 Email: qsc45com@gmail.com Website:www.qsc45.com
  • 5. Trung tâm Luyện thi Đại học CLC QSC-45 Giảng viên: LÝ SIÊU HẢI 19. Last year the potato harvest was very disappointing but this year it looks ............................ we shall have a better crop. A. as though B. like that C. like D. to be that 20. That man has brought us nothing but trouble. I wish I ............................ eys in him. A. would never have set B. had never set C. would have never set D. would have set. C. Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences with the suitable Subjunctive Mood. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Trees won‟t grow ............................ there is enough water. A. if B. when C. unless D. as ............................ she agreed, you would have done it. A. if B. had C. should D. would If he hadn‟t wasted too much time, he ............................ in his examination. A. would fail B. wouldn‟t fail C. wouldn‟t have failed D. won‟t fail If I had taken that English course, I ............................ much progress. A. had made B. would have made C. made D. would make If I were in your place, I ............................ a trip to England. A. make B. had made C. would make D. made You ............................ disappointed if there ............................ no snow for this winter holiday? A. Would be / was B. will be / is C. will be / are D. could be / is If she ............................ yesterday, she would come here with us tomorrow night. A. finished it B. finishes it C. had finished it D. has finished it If your father weren‟t the president of the company, you ............................ here. A. don‟t work B. won‟t work C. wouldn‟t be working D. wouldn‟t have worked If I ............................ for an accounting firm, I would be working in a post-office. A. wasn't working B. worked C. hadn't worked D. weren't working What would you have done if you ............................ a lot of money? A. had B. will C. had had D. have had If we had known that you were there, we ............................ you a letter. A. would write B. would have write C. would have written D. had written If we had checked the petrol before we started, we ............................ here. A. wouldn't stop B. wouldn't have stopped C. would have stopped D. would stop “Did he study yesterday?” “No, but if he ........................... he would have done better on today‟s test.” A. had B. has C. will study D. had done My sister ............................ you the technique of weaving if you ask her. A. would show B. shows C. will show D. showed She would be happy if we ............................ her a bunch of flowers. A. had sent B. sent C. would send D. send If you don‟t feel well, you ............................ better take a rest. A. are B. would C. had D. have What would you have done if you ............................ a lot of money? A. had B. had had C. have had D. have The movie was sad and she wept. If it ............................ sad, she ............................. A. hadn‟t been/ wouldn‟t have wept B. wasn‟t/ wouldn‟t weep C. wasn‟t/ would weep D. had been/ would have wept I‟ll be very disappointed if you ............................ the exam. A. don‟t pass B. won‟t pass C. aren‟t passing D. wouldn‟t pass If he ............................ harder, the results would be better. A. has worked B. works C. will work D. worked If I had had free time, I ............................ shopping. A. would have gone B. can go C. will go D. will have gone ............................ if you take the map with you. A. You will get lost B. You won‟t get lost C. You get lost D. You got lost If you had come to the party, you ............................ her. A. would meet B. had met C. would have met D. met I‟m not tired enough to go to bed yet. I wouldn‟t sleep if I ............................ to bed now. A. go B. went C. had gone D. would go Địa chỉ: 92 Nguyễn Đình Chiểu – P. ĐaKao – Q.1 – Tp. HCM Điện thoại: (08) 36.016.768 – 0908.348.745 (Th. Nam) trang: 57 Email: qsc45com@gmail.com Website:www.qsc45.com
  • 6. Trung tâm Luyện thi Đại học CLC QSC-45 Giảng viên: LÝ SIÊU HẢI 25. If I were you, I ............................ that shirt. It‟s much too expensive. A. won‟t buy B. don‟t buy C. am not going to buy D. wouldn‟t buy 26. I decided to stay at home last night. I would have gone out if I ............................ so tired . A. wasn‟t B. weren‟t C. wouldn‟t have been D. hadn‟t been 27. "Did he lose?" "Yes, but if he had tried harder, he ............................ won." A. might B. might have C. might of D. might has 28. What will I do if no one ............................ me at the airport? A. meet B. will meet C. meets D. met 29. Jean gets very agitated if her daughter ............................ her once a week. A. doesn't ring B. didn't ring C. not ring D. don't ring 35. 30. ......................................................................................................................................... A. People will die if there is no water and air. B. If there were no water and air, people would die. C. will not die if there is no water and air. D. If there were no water and air, people would not die. 31. If you ............................ that plane, you ............................ dead now. A. catch / will be B. caught / would be C. had caught / would be D. had caught / would have been 32. I would have said "good bye" to your brother if he ............................ there. A. could be B. had been C. will be D. will have been 33. If you ............................ what Nam is doing, you ............................ very surprised. A. had known / would be B. knew / would be C. knew / will be D. knew / would have been 34. I ............................ very happy if there ............................ a good film on channel 9 last night. A. would be / had been B. would have been / would be C. would have been / had been D. had been / had been 35. If you see Tom, ............................ you mind ............................ him to get in touch with me? A. will / reminding B. will / to remind C. would / reminding D. would / to remind 36. If I ............................ the same problem you had as a child, I might not have succeeded in life as well as you have. A. have B. would have C. had had D. should have 37. ............................ then what I know today, I would have saved myself a lot of time and trouble over the years. A. had I known B. did I know C. If I know D. If I would know 38. Do you think there would be less conflict in the world if all people ............................ the same language? A. spoke B. speak C. had spoken D. will speak 39. If you can give me one good reason for your acting like this, ............................ this incident again. A. I will never mention B. I never mention C. will I never mention D. I don‟t mention 40. I didn‟t know you were asleep. Otherwise, I ............................ so much noise when I came in. A. didn‟t make B. wouldn‟t have made C. won‟t make D. don‟t make 41. Unless you ............................ all of my questions, I can‟t do anything to help you. A. answered B. answer C. would answer D. are answering 42. Had you told me that this was going to happen, I ............................ it. A. can‟t believe B. don‟t believe C. hadn‟t believed D. would have never believed 43. If Jake ............................ to go on the trip, would you have gone? A. doesn‟t agree B. didn‟t agree C. hadn‟t agree D. wouldn‟t agree 44. I wish I ............................ you some money for your rent, but I‟m broke myself. A. can lend B. would lend C. could lend D. will lend 45. If someone ............................ in to the store, smile and say, “May I help you?” A. comes B. came C. would come D. could come 46. “Here‟s my phone number”. “Thanks! I‟ll give you a call if I ............................ some help tomorrow” A. will need B. need C. would need D. needed 47. If I weren‟t working for an accounting firm, I ............................ in a bank. A. work B. will work C. have worked D. would be working 48. The death rate would decrease if hygienic conditions ............................ improved. A. was B. is C. were D. had been 49. If there ............................ the rice, the fields could have been more productive. A. had been enough water B. were enough water C. would be enough water D. are enough water 50. The patient could not recover unless he ............................ an operation. A. had undergone B. would undergo C. underwent D. was undergoing ****************************************************** Địa chỉ: 92 Nguyễn Đình Chiểu – P. ĐaKao – Q.1 – Tp. HCM Điện thoại: (08) 36.016.768 – 0908.348.745 (Th. Nam) trang: 58 Email: qsc45com@gmail.com Website:www.qsc45.com

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