Ms. Susan Vaughn Grooters - Consumer Perceptions-Superbugs In Our Food Supply

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Consumer Perceptions-Superbugs In Our Food Supply - Ms. Susan Vaughn Grooters, Food Safety Research & Policy, Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), from the 2013 NIAA Symposium Bridging the Gap Between Animal Health and Human Health, November 12-14, 2013, Kansas City, MO, USA.

More presentations at http://www.trufflemedia.com/agmedia/conference/2013-niaa-antibiotics-bridging-the-gap-animal-health-human-health

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Ms. Susan Vaughn Grooters - Consumer Perceptions-Superbugs In Our Food Supply

  1. 1. Consumer PerceptionSuperbugs in the Food Supply National Institute for Animal Agriculture Susan Vaughn Grooters, MPH Research and Policy Associate Kansas City, MO November 13th 2013
  2. 2. Center for Science in the Public Interest - CSPI CSPI is a bi-national consumer advocacy organization founded in 1971 by Michael Jacobson, Ph.D. Focuses on nutrition, health, and food safety Publishes the award-winning Nutrition Action Healthletter Approaching 1 million subscribers in the United States and Canada Accepts no government or industry funding
  3. 3. CSPI Reports and Research
  4. 4. CSPI Activities Strong Food Safety Laws • FSMA Petitions for Government Action • USDA – Salmonella Comments on Food Regulations Collaborative work • Safe Food Coalition • Make Our Food Safe • Keep Antibiotics Working
  5. 5. CSPI’s Research Policy Advocacy
  6. 6.  Study of 55 Outbreaks in the U. S. 1973-2011 Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Outbreaks CSPI Report  does not include the two Foster Farms assoc. outbreaks  Analyzes:     Food Vehicle Etiology WHO categories Multi-drug resistance  Outlier – 1985 Samonella Typhimurium outbreak in pasteurized milk in which 16,659 were sickened, 2,777 were hospitalized, and 18 died
  7. 7.  Aminoglycosides  Streptomycin  Carbapenems  Cephalosporins (3rd and 4th generation World Health Organization’s List of Critically Important Antibiotics  Ceftriaxone  Macrolides  Fluoro- and other Quinolones  Ciprofloxacin  Nalidixic acid  Glycopeptides  Vancomycin  Penicillins (natural aminopenicillins and antipseudomonals)     Amocicillin/claulanic acid Ampicillin Carbenicillin Penicillin Source: http://apps.who.int
  8. 8.  Amphenicols  Chloramphenicol  Cephalosporins (1st and 2nd generation) and Cephamycins World Health Organization’s List of Highly Important Antibiotics  Cephalothin  Cefoxitin  Lincosamides  Streptogramins  Sulfonamides, et al.  Sulfamethoxazole  Sulfisoxazole  Tetracyclines Source: http://apps.who.int
  9. 9. Drug Resistance Profiles by WHO categories 50 47 45 40 36 35 # of Outbreaks Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Foodborne Outbreaks 39 30 25 25 20 19 15 15 17 14 10 10 5 15 2 1 3 4 1 10 5 3 0 Critically Important Highly Important Not classified on WHO's list 4 1
  10. 10. Year Location Bacteria Food/Source Cases Hosp Death Resistances 1973 ME S. Typhimurium Eggs 32 NR NR unknown 1975 MD, FL, CO S. Newport Ground beef 27 NR NR 1979 CA, OR S. Dublin Raw milk 39 NR NR NR NR critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline highly important ampicillin penicillin critically important penicillin critically important kanamycin penicillin streptomycin tetracycline 3 aminoglycosides carbenicillin Raw milk streptomycin sulfamethoxazole S. Typhimurium WHO Status tetracycline 1977 KY Drug Family aminoglycosides penicillin aminoglycosides tetracycline highly important critically important critically important highly important unknown ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 1970s
  11. 11. Year Location Bacteria Food/Source 1980 MT S. Typhimurium Raw milk 1983 AZ S. Typhimurium Raw milk 1987 GA S. Havana Chicken 16659 73 2777 36 18 1 tetracycline highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important aminoglycosides critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline highly important ampicillin penicillin critically important aminoglycosides highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline Pasteurized milk critically important sulfamethoxazole S. Typhimurium penicillin streptomycin IL 2 critically important kanamycin 1985 22 penicillin tetracycline 298 highly important ampicillin sulfamethoxazole Ground beef highly important tetracycline streptomycin S. Newport unknown 1 0 sulfonamides kanamycin CA NR NR 45 critically important chloramphenicol 1985 715 highly important aminoglycosides streptomycin Salad bar highly important aminoglycosides tetracycline S. Typhimurium amphenicol carbenicillin OR Resistances 1 critically important tetracycline 1984 Death 11 penicillin sulfonamide* 18 ampicillin streptomycin Ground beef WHO Status kanamycin MN, SD, NE, IA S. Newport Hosp NR 12 Drug Family chloramphenicol 1983 Cases tetracycline highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 1980s
  12. 12. Year Location Bacteria 1994 WI ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 1990s 1997 sulfonamides * ampicillin penicillin critically important amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline highly important NR amoxicillin/clavulanat penicillin e critically important ampicillin 13 0 highly important penicillin critically important amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline Mexican-style 79 cheese (raw milk) 5 tetracycline sulfamethoxazole S. Typhimurium DT104 Mexican-style 89 soft cheese (queso fresco) (raw milk) aminoglycosides highly important streptomycin CA S. Typhimurium DT104 0 kanamycin chloramphenicol 0 aminoglycosides critically important chloramphenicol 1997 WA Unknown, 19 chocolate milk suspected highly important tetracycline S. Typhimurium DT104 NR highly important sulfonamides sulfonamide* NE 5 tetracycline streptomycin 1996 Alfalfa sprouts 19 critically important trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole S. Stanley NR penicillin tetracycline AZ NR ampicillin streptomycin 205 WHO Status sulfisoxazole E. coli O153:H45 Unknown, (ETEC) banquet food Drug Family tetracycline 1995 Food/Source Cases Hosp Death Resistances tetracycline highly important ampicillin penicillin critically important chloramphenicol amphenicol highly important streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important
  13. 13. 1997 ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 1990s cont. 1998 KS S. I 4,[5],12:i- Campylobacter jejuni Unknown, 86 dinner reception multiple foods suspected Unknown, 128 gravy, potato, pineapple suspected 2 0 0 tetracycline highly important ampicillin penicillin critically important amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline highly important ampicillin penicillin critically important streptomycin 31 aminoglycosides critically important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline NY NR highly important aminoglycosides highly important sulfonamide* 1998 1 tetracycline kanamycin tetracycline 9 highly important sulfamethoxazole Raw milk sulfonamides streptomycin S. Typhimurium 2 highly important aminoglycosides critically important chloramphenicol VT NR amphenicol tetracycline 1997 706 chloramphenicol streptomycin Pork NR critically important tetracycline S. Heidelberg 14 penicillin sulfonamide* MD S.Typhimurium var Mexican-style 31 Copenhagen cheese (raw DT104b milk) ampicillin streptomycin 1997 CA tetracycline highly important sulfonamides * fluoroquinolone critically important tetracycline highly Important trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole ciprofloxacin tetracycline
  14. 14. Year Location Bacteria Food/Source 2000 TN Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Pork, barbeque, 3 vegetable salad, cole slaw 0 0 2000 PA, NJ S. Typhimurium Pasteurized milk 6 0 12 0 * ampicillin penicillin critically important aminoglycosides highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline highly important amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important cefoxitin ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 2000s Italian-style soft 27 cheese (raw milk) penicillin tetracycline S. Newport methecillin sulfamethoxazole CT WHO Status streptomycin 93 Drug Family kanamycin 2001 Cases Hosp Death Resistances cephamycin highly important ceftiofur cephalosporin (3G) * cephalothin cephalosporin (1G) highly important chloramphenicol amphenicol highly important streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important sulfamethoxazole sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important tetracycline highly important 2001 WI E. coli O169:H41/ST Quesadilla, (ETEC) fajitas, nacho chips, beans 21 0 0 tetracycline 2002 NY, MI, PA, OH, CT S. Newport 47 17 1 amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important cefoxitin cephamycin highly important ceftiofur cephalosporin * cephalothin cephalosporin (1G) highly important chloramphenicol amphenicol highly important streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important sulfamethoxazole sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important kanamycin (2/3 resistant) ceftriaxone (2) aminoglycosides highly important Ground beef cephalosporin (3G) critically important
  15. 15. 2002 OR E. coli O27:H7/ST Chicken (ETEC) lasagna 2003 sulfonamides highly important tetracycline highly important tetracycline highly important Ground beef 56 11 0 ampicillin penicillin critically important amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline highly important ampicillin penicillin critically important amphenicol highly important nalidixic acid quinolone critically important streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important sulfisoxazole sulfonamides highly important trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole S. Newport tetracycline chloramphenicol CA 0 tetracycline 2004 2 sulfamethoxazole E. coli O6:H16 (ETEC) 41 streptomycin NV Catfish, coleslaw chloramphenicol ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 2000s cont. 9 states S. Typhimurium DT104 2004 E. coli O169:H49 (ETEC) 0 aminoglycosides critically important tetracycline TN 0 streptomycin sulfamethoxazole 2003 49 sulfonamides * Shrimp Pasteurized milk 130 100 0 5 0 0 amoxicillin/clavulanat penicillin e critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important cefoxitin cephamycin highly important ceftiofur cephalosporin (3G) * ceftriaxone cephalosporin highly important chloramphenicol amphenicol highly important streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important
  16. 16. 2004 cephalosporin highly important amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important tetracycline 0 * streptomycin 6 highly important cephalosporin (3G) kanamycin 24 NR cephamycin chloramphenicol Sandwich, turkey NR critically important ceftriaxone ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 2000s cont. 2 penicillin ceftiofur S. Agona Unknown critically important cefoxitin MN S. Newport amoxicillin/clavulanat penicillin e ampicillin 2004 IL tetracycline highly important 2004 NY S. Istanbul Chicken 42 14 0 tetracycline tetracycline highly important 2005 MN S. Heidelberg Chicken 4 1 0 gentamicin streptomycin sulfonamide* aminoglycosides aminoglycosides sulfonamides critically important critically important highly important 2005 TN S. Heidelberg Unknown 19 2 0 gentamicin aminoglycosides critically important nalidixic acid quinolone critically important streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important tetracycline tetracycline highly important ampicillin penicillin critically important gentamicin aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important 2005 IN, MI, S. Braenderup MO, OH Tomato 84 8 0
  17. 17. 2005 cephalosporin highly important amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important chloramphenicol amphenicol highly important streptomycin ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 2000s cont. 0 highly important cephalosporin (3G) * streptomycin 0 0 cephamycin chloramphenicol 25 1 critically important ceftriaxone Sushi 100 penicillin ceftiofur S. Typhimurium S. Unknown critically important cefoxitin CO S. Typhimurium Newport amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin ampicillin 2005 CO aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole sulfonamides * tetracycline tetracycline highly important 2006 AR S. I 4,[5],12:i- Unknown 14 4 0 nalidixic acid quinolone critically important 2006 PA S. Typhimurium Queso fresco, 20 unpasteurized; raw milk 2 0 amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important cefoxitin cephamycin highly important ceftiofur cephalosporin (3G) * ceftriaxone cephalosporin highly important chloramphenicol amphenicol highly important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important 2006 UT S. Typhimurium Root vegetable 3 NR NR amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important chloramphenicol amphenicol highly important streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important
  18. 18. 2006 ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 2000s cont. 2006 2007 TN S. Hadar CA, AZ, ID, S. Newport NV Mexican-style 96 cheese (cotija), (raw milk) Unknown Ground beef 9 43 1 15 highly important highly important amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin critically important penicillin critically important cephamycin cephalosporin (3G) highly important * cephalosporin amphenicol aminoglycosides highly important highly important critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline highly important amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin critically important ampicillin 36 sulfonamides tetracycline penicillin critically important cephamycin cephalosporin (3G) highly important * amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfamethoxazole tetracycline S. highly important highly important critically important streptomycin S. Newport Meleagridis cephalosporin amphenicol aminoglycosides chloramphenicol IL highly important * cefoxitin ceftiofur 2006 cephamycin cephalosporin (3G) tetracycline 3 critically important sulfonamide* 9 penicillin ceftriaxone chloramphenicol streptomycin Unknown highly important critically important cefoxitin ceftiofur S. Newport cephalosporin penicillin ampicillin IL * ceftriaxone amoxicillin/clavulanate sulfonamide* tetracycline NR highly important cephalosporin (3G) ceftriaxone chloramphenicol streptomycin 24 critically important cephamycin cefoxitin ceftiofur Multiple foods 0 critically important ampicillin S. Newport 6 penicillin ceftiofur 2006 Unknown penicillin cefoxitin CA S. Schwarzengrund amoxicillin/clavulanate ampicillin 2006 PA 0 sulfonamides tetracycline highly important highly important 0 streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important 0 tetracycline amoxicillin/clavulanate tetracycline penicillin highly important critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important cefoxitin cephamycin highly important ceftiofur cephalosporin (3G) * ceftriaxone cephalosporin critically important chloramphenicol amphenicol highly important streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamide* sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important NR 0 0
  19. 19. 2007 ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 2000s cont. critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfonamides highly important tetracycline highly important amphenicol highly important aminoglycosides critically important sulfamethoxazole sulfonamides highly important tetracycline NR cephalosporin (1G) highly important streptomycin NR highly important cephalosporin (3G) * chloramphenicol 2 critically important cephamycin cephalothin Ground beef penicillin ceftiofur S. Newport critically important cefoxitin AZ amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin ampicillin 2009 0 highly important aminoglycosides tetracycline 4 highly important tetracycline sulfamethoxazole 68 sulfonamides streptomycin Ground beef critically important chloramphenicol 14 states S. Newport highly important aminoglycosides streptomycin 2009 amphenicol tetracycline 0 highly important cephalosporin (3G) * sulfamethoxazole 6 0 cephamycin streptomycin 14 0 critically important chloramphenicol Ground beef 11 penicillin ceftiofur S. Typhimurium DT104 Unknown critically important cefoxitin 7 states S. Newport amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin ampicillin 2009 MN tetracycline highly important amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin critically important ampicillin penicillin critically important cefoxitin cephamycin highly important ceftiofur cephalosporin (3G) * cephalothin cephalosporin (1G) highly important chloramphenicol amphenicol highly important streptomycin aminoglycosides critically important sulfamethoxazole sulfonamides highly important tetracycline tetracycline highly important
  20. 20. 2011 10 states S. Hadar S. Typhimurium Ground beef 20 0 37 1 8 0 penicillin penicillin cephalosporin penicillin aminoglycosides critically important critically important critically important critically important tetracycline highly important gentamicin 2011 7 states 3 ampicillin amoxicillin/clavulanate ampicillin streptomycin tetracycline 2011 34 states S. Heidelberg Ground turkey 12 (Jennie-O Ground turkey 136 (Cargill) aminoglycosides critically important amoxicillin/clavulanate penicillin ampicillin penicillin ABR Foodborne Outbreaks 2010s critically important critically important
  21. 21. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Foodborne Outbreaks NUMBER OF OUTBREAKS OUTBREAKS BY FOOD CATEGORY 14 13 10 7 4 2 1 1 3
  22. 22. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Foodborne Outbreaks Number of Outbreaks OUTBREAKS BY ETIOLOGY 19 16 15 5 * Multiple Salmonella serotypes implicated in two outbreaks 1 1
  23. 23. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Foodborne Outbreaks Number of Outbreaks Individual Drug Resistances per Outbreak 20 15 10 5 0 Number of Ineffective Drugs
  24. 24. Risk Management Concepts  Hazard resonably likely to occur (foundation of HACCP-based controls)  Known safety risk of a particular food (FDA FSMA)  Performance standards (contaminant specific and science-based); appropriate to reduce the risk of serious illness or death to humans or animals (FDA FSMA)
  25. 25. Prevention / Crisis Communication  What we are AIMING for : “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”  What we too often HIT “Don’t let a good crisis go to waste”
  26. 26.  Anticipating BSE’s emergence in North America started in 1996; emergence in the early 2000s Planning a response  Result:  Well researched risk communication strategy and a clear statement of the risk in relation to other hazards in consumers’ diets resulted in only short term declines in consumer consumption of beef
  27. 27. The Alternative: Consumer Confidence in Freefall Source: University of Minnesota Food Industry Center; Louisiana State University AgCenter
  28. 28.  The interactive exchange of information and opinions concerning risk and risk management among risk assessors, risk managers, consumers, and other interested parties Risk Communication  Transparency is a key objective and its importance can not be overemphasized  Involvement of stakeholders can contribute to issue identification and characterization, provide data and other inputs for risk assessment, provide alternatives for options assessment, develop consensus or provide an outlet for public concern
  29. 29. Relation of Data Gathering to Risk Management & Communication  The data collection function of AGISAR will generate information of interest to multiple parties, including risk managers, the food industry, retailers and consumers  Producers may be concerned about disclosure of information about practices that they are not prepared to address  Consumers may be concerned that the results demonstrate that their food is highly contaminated  Risk managers must be prepared to address concerns of stakeholders at any point during the data collection process
  30. 30.  World Health Day Focus with WHO/ FAO/OIE Risk Management: WHO/OIE even USDA  Core actions for antimicrobial use in food producing animals:  Provide national leadership and collaboration  Create and enforce regulatory framework  Strengthen surveillance and monitoring  Promote education and training on antimicrobial use in food-producing animals  Reduce the need for antimicrobials through better animal husbandry  U.S. Department of Agriculture “Animals, when exposed to antimicrobial agents, may serve as a significant reservoir of resistant bacteria that can transmit to humans through the food supply.” “The economic impact of antimicrobial resistance is significant. Insufficient or failed treatment … is a huge human cost.” June 10, 2011 Food Safety Research Information Office
  31. 31. Table 1. Antimicrobial Drugs Approved for Domestic Use in Humans and Food-Producing Animals*. Sales and Distribution Data Reported to FDA by Drug Class. 2009 Animal Annual Totals (LBS) 2010 Animal Annual Totals (LBS) 2011 Animal Annual Totals(LBS) Aminoglycosides 748,862 442,675 473,762 Critically / highly Cephalosporins 91,113 54,207 58,667 Critically / highly 8,246,671 8,424,167 9,090,230 Ionophores Lincosamides WHO Status Not ranked Antibiotic Sales Data Animal and Human by WHO Status 255,377 340,952 419,101 Macrolides 1,900,352 1,219,661 1,284,933 Critically Penicillins 1,345,953 1,920,112 1,940,427 Critically / highly Sulfas 1,141,715 1,116,020 817,959 Highly 10,167,481 12,328,521 12,439,744 Highly Tetracyclines Other (Not Independently Reported (NIR))** Total 4,910,501 3,345,398 3,330,241 28,808,024 29,191,712 29,855,066 2009 Human Annual Total (LBS) Aminoglycosides Cephalosporins Ionophores Important 2010 Human Annual Total (LBS) 2011 Human Annual Total (LBS) WHO Status 20,682 15,413 14,297 Critically / highly 1,101,465 1,107,957 1,095,499 Critically / highly 0 0 0 Lincosamides 153,744 152,637 157,531 Important Macrolides 388,626 362,239 361,620 Critically Penicillins 3,217,027 3,174,502 3,219,677 Critically / highly Sulfas 1,039,352 1,057,081 1,061,887 Highly 289,108 284,800 250,957 Highly 1,102,567 1,074,121 1,089,921 7,312,570 7,228,750 7,251,390 Tetracyclines Other (Not Independently Reported (NIR))** Total * For all classes except aminoglycosides and ionophores, data includes antimicrobial drug products which are approved and labeled for use in both food- and non-food- producing animals. ** NIR is used for antimicrobial classes with fewer than three sponsors actively marketing products. This category includes fluoroquinolones and streptogramins. *** Human drug use data is based on data from the IMS Health, IMS National Sales Perspectives. Not ranked
  32. 32. Government Monitoring & Reporting
  33. 33. What’s in the meat we eat?
  34. 34. NARMS Salmonella & Resistance
  35. 35. NARMS Salmonella & Resistance
  36. 36. NARMS Salmonella & Resistance
  37. 37. Petition
  38. 38. Regulations ADUFA Sec. 105
  39. 39.  On April 11, FDA issued new guidelines intended to curb the non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animal production.  This first step: Guidance for Industry 209 & 213 VFD  Voluntarily seeks to ban the use of antibiotics to grow animals faster.  Moves all over the counter (OTC) uses under veterinary supervision. Concerns with the guidances:  Do not outline how FDA will monitor the effectiveness of the guidelines.  Do not clearly outline what uses are considered prevention
  40. 40. Litigation
  41. 41. PAMTA (Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act) HR 1150: Rep. Slaughter PARA (Prevention of Antibiotic Resistance Act) S. 1256: Endorsed by: • American Medical Association • American Nurses Association • American Academy of Pediatrics • American Public Health Association • More than 400 other organizations!
  42. 42. Consumer advocates’ understanding Antibiotics are important in human medicine Antibiotics treat infections Antibiotics don’t work on the Flu, Colds – e.g. Viral infections
  43. 43. Consumer Logic Consumer advocates’ understanding  People take antibiotics when they are sick.  Antibiotics are only available with medical consult from a clinician.  Antibiotics only available with a prescription.  Giving antibiotics to animals must mean they’re sick, too.  When consumers learn that antibiotics are given preventatively, for animals that aren’t sick – lack of understanding.  Lack of consistent veterinary oversight different from human medicine.
  44. 44. Consumer advocates’ understanding Giving antibiotics to healthy animals in low doses, helps speed along the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. People can get sick with antibiotic resistant infections when food is contaminated.
  45. 45. Consumers want alternatives
  46. 46. Media Messaging
  47. 47. Media Messaging
  48. 48. Danielle Wadsworth, Salmonella Typhimurium survivor
  49. 49. The Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics Antibiotic Resistant bacteria generate $16.6 billion - $26 billion annually in extra costs to the US Healthcare system
  50. 50.  Antibiotic Resistance  Antibiotics are losing their effectiveness due in part to overuse in food animal production  Consumer Interest Fighting Antibiotic Resistance  Preserving effective medicines for fighting infections  Resistant bacteria associated with foodborne diseases  Residue issues (allergens, side effects)  Recommendation  Adopt EU policy banning non therapeutic use  Remove critically important human drugs from animal food chain
  51. 51. Susan Vaughn Grooters, MPH Research and Policy Associate Center for Science in the Public Interest 1220 L St. NW, Suite 300 Washington, DC 20005 THANK YOU! Phone: 202.777.8377 Email: sgrooters@cspinet.org On the Internet: www.cspinet.org www.FoodDay.org

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