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Dr. Ted Funk - Solid Solutions For Your Pit

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Solid Solutions For Your Pit - Dr. Ted Funk, Ted Funk Consulting, from the 2014 Missouri Pork Expo , February 11 - 12, 2014, Columbia, MO, USA. …

Solid Solutions For Your Pit - Dr. Ted Funk, Ted Funk Consulting, from the 2014 Missouri Pork Expo , February 11 - 12, 2014, Columbia, MO, USA.

More presentations at http://www.swinecast.com/2014-missouri-pork-expo

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  • 1. Solid Solutions for Your Pit Sponsored by Elanco Animal Health Ted Funk, PhD, PE Funktioneering.com
  • 2. Introduction  What’s a “deep” pit and why should I care?  What could possibly go wrong?  How can I make my pits work better?  How can I maintain biosecurity for my buildings with pits?  How can I maximize the fertilizer benefits from my pits?  Some new pit construction booboos
  • 3. A “deep pit” is:  A container for a liquid that must be regarded as a potential pollutant  A reservoir that allows for timely placement of nutrients on cropland  A conservation component that preserves the quality and quantity of manure nutrients for use by crops  A structure that acts as a foundation for building floors and walls  A component of a building’s ventilation system
  • 4. “Timely” placement? Who’s asking?
  • 5. Conserving nutrients…?
  • 6. Foundation for…what? Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 7. Slats showing their age? Not like diamonds…they don’t last forever. Slat end cracks Flaking or spalling Slat Cracks exposing reinforcing steel Beam Beam ledge failure
  • 8. Pit ventilation?—I’ll get back to you on that…
  • 9. The bigger the reservoir, the bigger the problem, if…. Sure, this is a dairy, but the issues apply to us all.
  • 10. Priorities in pit management Safety & indoor air quality • Protect animals and workers from toxic gases, maintain good atmosphere in building Environmental protection • Inspect pits, monitor levels, manage capacity Best use of nutrients • 4 R’s of nutrient management: Right type, right amount, right time, right placement
  • 11. Safety issues  Good ventilation of deep pits  Agitation and gas emissions  Foaming pits
  • 12. Pit ventilation: How good is it?  Practical limits to fan “reach”—15 feet?  Structure limits on fan placement  Ventilation stages may limit number of fans running  Variable speed fans are REALLY variable…and unpredictable  Underfloor ducts—impractical? …bottom line: pit ventilation is not really that efficient. Put in plenty.
  • 13. Pit ventilation—the critical times Low contribution to whole vent rate • Small pigs, cold weather Manure level high, close to floor • Near time to pump out pit Very high concentrations of toxic and/or combustible gases • Pit agitation prior to, during pumping • Also possible when there is deep foam present
  • 14. Death by pit gas: We study and study, but still lose animals every year…. Zhao et al., 2005. Ventilating Confined Manure Storages: Progress Report, ASABE Paper No. 055019.
  • 15. Agitation and Pumping     Keep people out of building Ignition sources off Gas supply turned off Ventilate properly          Fans on 20-30 cfm/pig Curtains closed if wind not blowing Ceiling inlets open Pumpouts sealed Mixing fans if available No agitation . . . if possible No agitation until manure is 2’ below slats If possible, agitate intermittently No rooster tailing
  • 16. Foaming pits—an old problem, and a whole ‘nuther topic
  • 17. Foam contains biogas. Go ahead—try this at home!
  • 18. …so where’s your pit ventilation now?
  • 19. Tough luck, poor planning, whatever…. The pit’s full, and it’s August. What’s your plan?
  • 20. Biosecurity measures  Well, we thought we were pretty good at biosecurity. Then PEDV….
  • 21. Biosecurity—general information  Biosecurity Guide for Pork Producers  National Pork Board website
  • 22. Details: Manure pit pumpout port. Management during manure removal? Sealed lid, liquid trap panel at wall
  • 23. Manure samples info  Best sampling done during land application  Stratification of solids, nutrients: why not sample the pit without agitating it? top middle bottom Phosphorus as P2O5, lb/1000 gal 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0
  • 24. Pit level monitoring and management  Water management—see NPB study “Water Consumption and Conservation Techniques Currently Available for Swine Production”, NPB #09-128  80% of the water used in a building is drinking water, so–  Use good drinkers  Stop the leaks  Save big $$ on manure spreading costs
  • 25. Pit level monitoring and management  Electronic liquid level—what are you using?  Mechanical liquid level  Weekly level monitoring required by regulation (US EPA)—how are you doing that?  Water meters and what they can do for you
  • 26. Recordkeeping  Water metering—not just for noting leaks  Decreased intake: Onset of disease in the building?  Insufficient intake with large pigs, hot weather: Indications of plumbing restrictions? Photo: www.edcheung.com
  • 27. Why ASSUME you have room in the pit?  Check water meters daily and log the readings  Measure manure depth in pit weekly, and record  AFTER pumpdown, check for solids & unrecoverable liquids remaining
  • 28. Tools for updating and managing your NMP  Smart phone apps?  UMO nutrient management software and MMP extensions
  • 29. Manure nutrient economics: Valuing liquid manure  Fertilizer component replacement?  Target field fertility requirements—don’t count $$ for something that is not needed  Use realistic haul & apply cost credits  http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G9330
  • 30. Pit additives? Claims: Reduce manure odor Reduce manure toxic gases Manage solids and crust Retain nutrients and make more plant available Show me.
  • 31. New construction  What can go wrong with pouring a pit?  Construction—see Illinois Dept of Ag examples  Perimeter tiles  Wall penetrations  Water stops
  • 32. Concrete mix and placement quality control—choose your contractor carefully Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 33. Honeycombing Prevent by vibrating or rodding during placement Use proper mix Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 34. Waterstop “Blowout” Exposed Waterstop Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 35. Improper installation:Expandable waterstops placed in standing water Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 36. Pouring in the rain – Standing Water. They’ll probably get to do this one over. Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 37. Debris in a poured wall—Guess who gets to dig this one out! 2x4 Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 38. Cold Weather / Snow Plan for conditions Proper Mix Protect Pour Blankets Leave Forms Speed up the curing process Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 39. Floor Caps—If at first you don’t succeed…. Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 40. Perimeter Drainage Tubing— required in some situations Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 41. Perimeter Drainage Tubing Sampling port Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 42. Floor cracked by heavy equipment. “Secure” liquid container? Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 43. Penetration by water pipe. Don’t look now, but that grout is going to disappear, and then…so is the manure! Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 44. Proper Backfill—one of the required details, sign of a good contractor Photo credit: Illinois Department of Agriculture
  • 45. But enough about construction. Back to managing what you have:
  • 46. Summary—your priorities for deep pit management Safety & indoor air quality • Protect animals and workers from toxic gases, maintain good atmosphere in building Environmental protection • Inspect pits, monitor levels, manage capacity Best use of nutrients • 4 R’s of nutrient management: Right type, right amount, right time, right placement
  • 47. Last words  Be safe  Track freeboard  Have a contingency plan for land application  Take credit for nutrients Sponsored by Elanco Animal Health