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Dr. Sebastian E. Heath - Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Animal Agriculture and Public Opinion

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Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Animal Agriculture and Public Opinion - Dr. Sebastian E. Heath VetMB PhD, Branch Chief for Program Development - FEMA, from the 2013 NIAA Merging Values and Technology …

Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Animal Agriculture and Public Opinion - Dr. Sebastian E. Heath VetMB PhD, Branch Chief for Program Development - FEMA, from the 2013 NIAA Merging Values and Technology conference, April 15-17, 2013, Louisville, KY, USA.

More presentations at http://www.trufflemedia.com/agmedia/conference/2013-niaa-merging-values-and-technology

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  • 1. FMD, Animal AgricultureFMD, Animal Agricultureand Public Opinionand Public OpinionNIAA 2013 Annual ConferenceNIAA 2013 Annual ConferenceMerging Values and TechnologyMerging Values and TechnologySebastian E Heath, VetMB, PhDSebastian E Heath, VetMB, PhDWashington, DCWashington, DC
  • 2. Immediate devastationfrom stamping out isusually attributed to costof operations andpersonal lossHowever, in the long run,restructuring of industryand changing priorities forrural areas have a muchlarger impact
  • 3. The US has a Perfect TrackThe US has a Perfect TrackRecord of Successful ResponseRecord of Successful Responseto Foreign Animal Diseaseto Foreign Animal DiseaseOutbreaksOutbreaksSuccess measured in terms of:Success measured in terms of:EradicationEradicationCost ComparisonCost ComparisonDurationDurationCommand and ControlCommand and Control
  • 4. However, Technical Plans do not Address theHowever, Technical Plans do not Address theFull Spectrum of Impacts of an OutbreakFull Spectrum of Impacts of an Outbreak Traditional accounting in outbreaks uses talliesTraditional accounting in outbreaks uses tallies Interpreted as sum of direct and indirect costsInterpreted as sum of direct and indirect costs Agriculture is driven by economic efficiencyAgriculture is driven by economic efficiency Economist approach (cost categories)Economist approach (cost categories) Transaction costsTransaction costs Indirect cost/Lost RevenueIndirect cost/Lost Revenue Marginal costsMarginal costs Opportunity costsOpportunity costs Emergencies are economic disruptions (shocks)Emergencies are economic disruptions (shocks) Successful plans minimize disruptionSuccessful plans minimize disruption Either driven by or shape public opinionEither driven by or shape public opinion
  • 5. Tiers of Preparedness/PlanningTiers of Preparedness/Planning TacticalTactical Focus on managing personnel, equipment and resourcesFocus on managing personnel, equipment and resources Facilitates incident responseFacilitates incident response OperationalOperational Defines roles and responsibilities, tasks, integration andDefines roles and responsibilities, tasks, integration andactions required of jurisdictions, departments, agencies andactions required of jurisdictions, departments, agencies andprivate sectorprivate sector Facilitates unified responseFacilitates unified response StrategicStrategic Describes how jurisdiction wants to meet responsibilitiesDescribes how jurisdiction wants to meet responsibilitiesover the long-termover the long-term Driven by policy and (public) prioritiesDriven by policy and (public) priorities
  • 6. To Fully Understand the Impact of Animal Disease OutbreaksTo Fully Understand the Impact of Animal Disease OutbreaksIt Is Helpful to Study How Costs are DistributedIt Is Helpful to Study How Costs are DistributedCosts arising in emergencies:Costs arising in emergencies: Transaction costsTransaction costs Direct costsDirect costs Lost revenueLost revenue Indirect costsIndirect costs Marginal costsMarginal costs Cost of proving disease statusCost of proving disease status Opportunity costsOpportunity costs What else could have been done with theWhat else could have been done with thesame resources?same resources? Economic multiplier effectEconomic multiplier effectOperationalTacticalStrategicCosts Affected byPreparedness/Planning Efforts
  • 7. Transaction (Direct) CostsTransaction (Direct) Costs Commonly confused with tally of operationalCommonly confused with tally of operationaloutlaysoutlays E.g., “The FMD outbreak in the UK cost theE.g., “The FMD outbreak in the UK cost thelivestock industrylivestock industry £2.4 billion”£2.4 billion” Better: the additional cost of doing businessBetter: the additional cost of doing business ““The cost to administer operational outlays was …”The cost to administer operational outlays was …” 2005 FMD hoax in New Zealand: NZ$ 2M2005 FMD hoax in New Zealand: NZ$ 2M Federal compensation in US (non-indemnity)Federal compensation in US (non-indemnity) Interest on loansInterest on loans
  • 8. Transaction Cost Example:Transaction Cost Example:Moorlands Hotel, North York MoorsMoorlands Hotel, North York Moors In 2003 theIn 2003 theMoorlands Hotel inMoorlands Hotel inNorth York Moors,North York Moors,closed because ofclosed because ofover £25,000 in Bankover £25,000 in BankCharges on LoansCharges on Loansthat could not bethat could not berepaid after the FMDrepaid after the FMDOutbreakOutbreak
  • 9. Lost Revenue (Indirect Costs)Lost Revenue (Indirect Costs) Lost incomeLost income Livestock: Lost productionLivestock: Lost production Tourism income in the UKTourism income in the UK Affected by co-dependenciesAffected by co-dependenciesof systemof system Often cannot be foreseenOften cannot be foreseencompletelycompletely Should not be assumed toShould not be assumed toapply to all situationsapply to all situations
  • 10. Lost Revenue Example: Shambles, York, 2006Lost Revenue Example: Shambles, York, 2006“A combination of 9/11, the SARSand foot and mouth scares a fewyears ago, together with the floods,had a massive impact in reducing thenumber of tourists, particularly big-spending Americans.”http://www.yorkpress.co.uk/display.var.1333798.0.0.php
  • 11. Marginal CostsMarginal Costs The increase in cost needed to produce moreThe increase in cost needed to produce more For example:For example: In Veterinary Practice: Cost of staff overtime to seeIn Veterinary Practice: Cost of staff overtime to seemore clientsmore clients In Animal Disease Control Programs: Increased costIn Animal Disease Control Programs: Increased costof doing business, e.g., cost ofof doing business, e.g., cost of Active surveillance over existing (passive) surveillanceActive surveillance over existing (passive) surveillance US BSE surveillance programUS BSE surveillance program Operations (contracts)Operations (contracts) IndemnityIndemnity
  • 12. Marginal Cost ExampleMarginal Cost ExampleFederal Cost (non-indemnity) for Response to DiseaseFederal Cost (non-indemnity) for Response to DiseaseOutbreaks (23-89% of disbursements)Outbreaks (23-89% of disbursements)ENDCompensation25%Transportation1%Contracts58%Supplies16%BSECompensation37%Transportation6%Contracts31%Supplies26%WASCompensation89%Transportation3%Contracts5%Supplies3%GONCompensation23%Transportation0%Contracts57%Supplies20%
  • 13. Opportunity CostOpportunity Cost Cost of choosing one option over anotherCost of choosing one option over another Finite resources dictate that every option/choice occurs atFinite resources dictate that every option/choice occurs atthe expense of anotherthe expense of another Costs are determined by asking:Costs are determined by asking: What will not get done as a result of my choice?What will not get done as a result of my choice? Which option has greater cost (immediately vs. long term)?Which option has greater cost (immediately vs. long term)? Magnitude of opportunity cost driven inMagnitude of opportunity cost driven in Short term by size and distribution of affected stakeholderShort term by size and distribution of affected stakeholdergroupsgroups Long term by economic multiplier effect resulting fromLong term by economic multiplier effect resulting fromredistributionredistribution
  • 14. Opportunity Costs Resulting fromOpportunity Costs Resulting fromResponse to FMD in the UKResponse to FMD in the UK UK paid $263M less in subsidies in 2002 than inUK paid $263M less in subsidies in 2002 than in20012001 Approximately equal to cost of lost tradeApproximately equal to cost of lost trade By 2006 waste management at FMD burial sitesBy 2006 waste management at FMD burial siteshad become a lucrative businesshad become a lucrative business
  • 15. Opportunity Cost Example:Opportunity Cost Example:Carcass Disposal at Great Orton Airfield, CumbriaCarcass Disposal at Great Orton Airfield, Cumbria• In 2001, 466,312carcasses, comprising448,508 sheep, 12,085cattle and 5,719 pigswere buried in 26trenches.• £12M to build facility• In 2006, still disposing of240m3 leachate/week• £850,000/yr. tomaintain
  • 16. Opportunity Cost Example:Opportunity Cost Example:Ash Moor, Meeth, Devon, Burial SiteAsh Moor, Meeth, Devon, Burial Site In 2001, 174,660In 2001, 174,660carcassescarcasses buried £7.5M to£7.5M toconstructconstruct In 2003, “Ash MoorIn 2003, “Ash Moorsite to be restored tosite to be restored tofarmland”farmland” In 2006 £240,000/yr.In 2006 £240,000/yr.to maintain (security,to maintain (security,drainage,drainage,maintenance)maintenance)
  • 17. Opportunity Cost: Economic Multiplier EffectOpportunity Cost: Economic Multiplier Effect For every dollar by invested (incl. governmentFor every dollar by invested (incl. governmentspending) how much morespending) how much more Spending (demand) and employment (jobs) are generatedSpending (demand) and employment (jobs) are generated Agriculture vs. Industrial vs. Services vs. ConstructionAgriculture vs. Industrial vs. Services vs. ConstructionSectorsSectors Choices often driven by public interestsChoices often driven by public interestsFor exampleFor example Does paying for cleaning and disinfection after an FADDoes paying for cleaning and disinfection after an FADgenerate more economic growth and jobs if the work isgenerate more economic growth and jobs if the work isdone by federal employees or contractors?done by federal employees or contractors? Short term: Added income supports comparable increases inShort term: Added income supports comparable increases inspendingspending Long term: Contracts supports more jobsLong term: Contracts supports more jobs
  • 18. Long term outcome:Long term outcome:Moorlands Hotel, North York MoorsMoorlands Hotel, North York Moors By 2012 the hotelBy 2012 the hotelwas under newwas under newmanagement andmanagement andrated amongst therated amongst thebest hotels inbest hotels inYorkshireYorkshirehttp://www.britainsfinest.co.uk/bedandbreakfast/bedandbreakfast.cfm/searchazref/moorlands-country-househttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6722995.stm
  • 19. Economic Recovery from 2001 FMDEconomic Recovery from 2001 FMDShambles, YorkShambles, YorkThe Shambles, York, isnow a major touristdestination withinternational recognition
  • 20. Economic Recovery: Ash Moor, Meeth, Devon, Burial SiteEconomic Recovery: Ash Moor, Meeth, Devon, Burial Site• In 2010, “Landfill givesButterflies a Boost” … awarded£257,469 to help boost thefortunes of a number of fritillarybutterfly species on Dartmoor.• In 2013 “Ash Moor is a real ragsto riches story, which now has afar more positive future. WildlifeTrust is managing the woodlandand hedgerows and putting in aseries of pond and scrapes. Thesite is buzzing with wildlife … sohopefully lots for people to see”http://www.dartmoor-npa.gov.uk/__data/assets/image/0008/93950/20110516-DNPA-NB-Pearl-bordered-Fritillary-web.jpg
  • 21. To Fully Understand the Impact of Animal Disease OutbreaksTo Fully Understand the Impact of Animal Disease OutbreaksIt Is Helpful to Study How Costs are DistributedIt Is Helpful to Study How Costs are DistributedCosts arising in emergencies:Costs arising in emergencies: Transaction costsTransaction costs Direct costsDirect costs Lost revenueLost revenue Indirect costsIndirect costs Marginal costsMarginal costs Cost of proving disease statusCost of proving disease status Opportunity costsOpportunity costs What else could have been done with theWhat else could have been done with thesame resources?same resources? Economic multiplier effectEconomic multiplier effectOperationalTacticalStrategicCosts Affected byPreparedness/Planning Efforts
  • 22. Projected Impact of Stamping Out FMD on 60Projected Impact of Stamping Out FMD on 60Farms in a Single U.S. Rural CountyFarms in a Single U.S. Rural County Operational costsOperational costs $1.4 million/week$1.4 million/week 750 personnel750 personnel Local impactLocal impact Approx. $6.4 million per week to the Gross County ProductApprox. $6.4 million per week to the Gross County Product Lost jobs (1 year):Lost jobs (1 year): 752 from food manufacturing752 from food manufacturing 1,466 from retail1,466 from retail 1,128 from hospitality1,128 from hospitality 1,203 from health and social1,203 from health and social Stop movement estimated to cost over $700,000 in lostStop movement estimated to cost over $700,000 in lostrevenue to producers and owners of non-susceptible speciesrevenue to producers and owners of non-susceptible species
  • 23. Special Interests often Drive Strategic Choicesaffecting Opportunity Cost and the Impact ofEconomic Multipliers Public Opinion Challenges to Agriculture thatwill likely impact decisions during an FMDoutbreak Environment Animal Welfare Food Safety Economics Biotechnology
  • 24. Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:EnvironmentEnvironmentImage: Paul de Lhama on flickrhttp://www.extension.org/sites/default/files/w/b/be/Feature_for_eXtension_beef.jpgIn the Netherlands duringthe 2006 AI outbreakpublic concern arose overwhy so much pollution athome to support exportsabroadLittle discussion on use of marginalland and opportunity costs
  • 25. Impact of Environmental Lobby on TaiwanImpact of Environmental Lobby on TaiwanSwine Industry after FMD in 1998Swine Industry after FMD in 1998Taiwan EPA issued amoratorium on restockingswine ….. unless farmer coulddispose of manure in 3-stage sewer handlingfacility or relocate
  • 26. Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:Animal WelfareAnimal Welfarehttp://www.cattleandhuntranch.com/Uploads/76/68/17668/images/cowcalf.jpg http://www.tinksbeef.com/files/feedlot2.jpghttp://advocacy.britannica.com/blog/advocacy/wp-content/uploads/chickens-4.jpghttp://manhattaninfidel.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/chickens.jpghttp://gpvec.unl.edu/files/westernu/swine/2009%20Presentations/Danish%20gestation%20crates.JPGhttp://www.rightonsofshipston.co.uk/images/piglet_closeup_443.jpgPublic opinion onanimal welfaresupports animalsbeing able toroam free.But there is littleconsideration ofanimal husbandryon welfare indisasters
  • 27. Animal Welfare is a Major Concern inAnimal Welfare is a Major Concern inDisastersDisasters More animals suffer in disasters inMore animals suffer in disasters innatural settings than when housednatural settings than when housed E.g., floods, blizzard, heatE.g., floods, blizzard, heat Yet intensive agriculture is oftenYet intensive agriculture is oftencited as causecited as causehttp://assets.knowledge.allianz.com/img/dead_cow_rtr185c4_ah_1_50468.jpghttp://olsonfarlow.com/wp-content/themes/olson-farlow/scripts/timthumb.php?src=http://olsonfarlow.com/wp-content/uploads/Omo-River-Ethiopia-National-Geographic-126.jpg&w=780&q=80&a=t
  • 28. Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:Food SafetyFood Safetyhttp://sphotos-b.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/c213.0.403.403/p403x403/547019_10151248655940518_830595605_n.jpghttp://baby-boomer-depot.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Row-upon-row-of-Processed-Foods.jpgGrowing popular interest in locallysourced organic food with novelpreparation and retailLittle discussion on cost andaffordability of food, qualitycontrol and varietyhttp://www.washingtoncitypaper.com/blogs/youngandhungry/2010/09/15/vote-your-favorite-food-truck-into-the-inaugural-curbside-cook-off/
  • 29. Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks can TurnPublic Opinion in Disease Outbreaks can Turnon Food Safetyon Food Safety Loss of consumer confidenceLoss of consumer confidence Loss of value added jobsLoss of value added jobs Driven byDriven by Risk communicationRisk communication Killing animals to save animals is an inherently conflictedKilling animals to save animals is an inherently conflictedmessagemessage Assumption is that killing animals will protect public healthAssumption is that killing animals will protect public health Will the public accept this?Will the public accept this? Response optionsResponse options If the methods used for stamping out adversely affectsIf the methods used for stamping out adversely affectsconsumer confidenceconsumer confidence Why do we do it?Why do we do it?
  • 30. Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:EconomicsEconomics In it for the moneyIn it for the money Trade Protection is goodTrade Protection is goodVersusVersus Meat is in high demand worldwideMeat is in high demand worldwide Economic efficiency is key to sustainabilityEconomic efficiency is key to sustainability Innovation provides competitive advantageInnovation provides competitive advantage Disease free trade partners are better forDisease free trade partners are better forexportersexporters
  • 31. PER CAPITA MEAT CONSUMPTION vs. GNP(1971-95 country averages)0123454 5 6 7 8 9 11Log per capita GNPLogpercapitaMeatConsumptionLivestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution, a joint IFPRI, FAO, ILRI study.10ChinaIndiaTrendPhilippines
  • 32. The highest growth and demand from agriculture is forThe highest growth and demand from agriculture is foranimal derived productsanimal derived productsCommodity Growth rate per annum (%)Cereals 2.6Fruit 3.5Vegetables 4.8Fish 5.5Pork 6.3Poultry 7.7Projected Growth in Global Meat Demand,1997-2020Poultry40%Pork31%Beef24%Sheep/Goat5%FAO, IFPRI, 1999
  • 33. Changes in Livestock ProductionChanges in Livestock ProductionAsiaSSAWANACSAGrazingMixedIndustrial-505101520PercentAnnualGrowthRegionSystemAnnual Growth Rates of Meat ProductionSystems00.511.522.533.544.55AnnualGrowthRate(mean%)Grazing Livestock Mixed Farming Industrial ProductionFarming SystemAnnual Growth Rate of Livestock ProductionSystems (1985-90)
  • 34. 3,000.03,500.04,000.04,500.05,000.05,500.06,000.06,500.07,000.07,500.01991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004YearVolume(MMTX1,000)FMD OutbreakMean (1991-7): 6,526 MMTMean (1998-2004): 5,776 MMTDecrease by 11.5%Impact of FMD on Soy Imports (Pig Feed)(mostly US soy exports) to Taiwan
  • 35. Impact of Syria Becoming Free of FMD-2004006008001,0001,2001993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002YearUSFeedGrainsExports(MT)orSyrianCattlePopulation(X1,000)Mean: 219,000 MTMean: 662,000 MTCattle population (head)FMD-positive FMD-freeGrain Exports (MT)
  • 36. Trends in Uruguay Beef Exports¿¿¿¿u[u]u`ubueug¾ î M } -YearTons(X1,000)FMD positive FMD freeExports to FMD freecountriesExports to FMDinfected countries
  • 37. Destination of Uruguay Beef Exports0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%1990 2000YearPercentofTotalMercosurUSAIsraelOtherNAFTAOther than USAUSAOther than USA
  • 38. Global Livestock Populations, US Feed Exportsand Foot and Mouth Disease(5-year mean, 1997-2001)CattleCattlePigsPigsFeedgrainsFeedgrainsSoybeansandmealSoybeansandmeal0102030405060708090FMD-free FMD-infectedCountry FMD StatusGlobalLivestockPopulation(%#)orUSFeedgrainExports(%MT)N=84 N=86
  • 39. Narrow Views of the Economics of AnimalNarrow Views of the Economics of AnimalAgriculture Undermine Its Many BenefitsAgriculture Undermine Its Many Benefits Meat is a desirable food – worldwideMeat is a desirable food – worldwide Growing demand correlates with increased incomeGrowing demand correlates with increased income Meat adds value toMeat adds value to Pasture (developing countries)Pasture (developing countries) Feed grains (North America)Feed grains (North America) Value added agriculture productsValue added agriculture products Create jobs (processing, distribution, retail and export)Create jobs (processing, distribution, retail and export) Exports bring in foreign currencyExports bring in foreign currency A country’s animal disease status affects trade balanceA country’s animal disease status affects trade balance Every $1 million of value added through agriculture supportsEvery $1 million of value added through agriculture supportsapproximately 5,000 jobsapproximately 5,000 jobs
  • 40. Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:Public Opinion in Disease Outbreaks:BiotechnologyBiotechnologyhttp://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/files/2012/12/Transgenic-vs-non-transgenic-siblings-large.jpgPublic Opinion condonesterms such as“Frankenfoods” andquestions the value ofvaccinating childrenBut little discussionover progress madethrough science
  • 41. Reports on Science, Disasters andReports on Science, Disasters andUrban Myths are not well MatchedUrban Myths are not well Matched Media demand is for crises and sensationsMedia demand is for crises and sensations In response media supplies disproportionate number ofIn response media supplies disproportionate number ofreports on, e.g.,reports on, e.g., Vaccine and autismVaccine and autism GMO’s and safety concernsGMO’s and safety concerns Threat of diseases from animalsThreat of diseases from animals Growing resentment of vaccines in Pakistan, NigeriaGrowing resentment of vaccines in Pakistan, Nigeriaand in many North American familiesand in many North American families As progress is made will the public laud science orAs progress is made will the public laud science orremember incomplete and pseudo facts?remember incomplete and pseudo facts?
  • 42. Systems Mapping Helps Identify Interests andSystems Mapping Helps Identify Interests andContributions Before a Crisis StrikesContributions Before a Crisis Strikes Public Opinion can become a dominant driver ofPublic Opinion can become a dominant driver ofstrategic choices in a crisisstrategic choices in a crisis Interests of the public and agriculture are often veryInterests of the public and agriculture are often veryfocusedfocused Focused interests have merit but onlyFocused interests have merit but only contributecontribute totoquantity and quality of final productquantity and quality of final product Systems Mapping is an important tool forSystems Mapping is an important tool forshaping the future or, if ignored, allowingshaping the future or, if ignored, allowingspecial interests to determine the futurespecial interests to determine the future
  • 43. Systems Map: What’s for Dinner?Systems Map: What’s for Dinner?Each step is necessary but none are sufficient toput dinner on the table.A systems map is a strategic tool to identifyinterests that drive choices for the future
  • 44. Shocks to the System:Crisis or Opportunity Peter Löscher CEO of Siemens on Using a ScandalPeter Löscher CEO of Siemens on Using a Scandalto Drive Change:to Drive Change: … But as I always remind anybodywho is listening, never miss the opportunities thatcome from a good crisis—and we certainly didn’tmiss ours. The scandal created a sense of urgencywithout which change would have been much moredifficult to achieve, regardless of who was CEO.Siemens is a very proud company with a history ofinnovation and success. In the absence of a catalystlike this, people would have asked themselves, “Whyalter anything?” (Hired as the first outsider toanything?” (Hired as the first outsider tobecome the company’s top leader)become the company’s top leader) David King, Science Advisor to PM Tony Blairduring the 2011 FMD outbreak: At the Budget,we committed to raising science spendingfaster than the trend rate of growth of theeconomy. We can now announce that in total,the average annual growth rate for sciencefunding is 5.8 per cent in real terms.
  • 45. Public Opinion of Animal Agriculture HasPublic Opinion of Animal Agriculture HasSupported its Role in Scientific ProgressSupported its Role in Scientific Progress Disease eradicationDisease eradication RinderpestRinderpest VaccinesVaccines Encephalitis, clostridial diseasesEncephalitis, clostridial diseases Environmental healthEnvironmental health Field HospitalsField Hospitals Food SafetyFood Safety HACCPHACCP EpidemiologyEpidemiology Herd immunityHerd immunitywww.crops.orghttp://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/c/ca077.html
  • 46. The Future of Public Opinion of Animal AgricultureThe Future of Public Opinion of Animal AgricultureShould be Shaped as Supporting Scientific ProgressShould be Shaped as Supporting Scientific Progress Surveillance, early detection, rapid response andSurveillance, early detection, rapid response andrecovery from high consequence diseaserecovery from high consequence diseaseoutbreaksoutbreaks Tipping point for choice of interventionTipping point for choice of intervention Disease counter measures using informationDisease counter measures using informationtechnologytechnology Manage risks from greenhouse gas emissions,Manage risks from greenhouse gas emissions,water use, carbon sequestration, renewable andwater use, carbon sequestration, renewable andbio fuelsbio fuels Transformative Sustainable Agricultural SystemsTransformative Sustainable Agricultural Systems Human nutritionHuman nutrition
  • 47. Disease Outbreaks have led to a Restructuring of Rural EconomiesDisease Outbreaks have led to a Restructuring of Rural Economieshttp://www.farminguk.com/bsp/10130/ews.asp?DBID=103-281-013-081&iPage=1&id=5631Following the foot and mouth crisis of 2001he converted some buildings on his 150-acre farm into commercial units. As part ofthe “Devon Renaissance” Rexon CrossFarm became Wolf Valley Business Districtproviding an inspiring pastoral setting forbusinessAfter AI outbreaks in Asia and Italyand FMD in the UK there wassignificant consolidation of thelivestock industry, with many smallfarmers dropping out
  • 48. FMD, Animal Agriculture andFMD, Animal Agriculture andPublic OpinionPublic Opinionseheath@comcast.netseheath@comcast.netTHANK YOUTHANK YOU

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