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Dr. Scott Dee - New Information on the Aerobiology and Biosecurity of PRRSV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
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Dr. Scott Dee - New Information on the Aerobiology and Biosecurity of PRRSV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

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New Information on the Aerobiology and Biosecurity of PRRSV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae - Dr. Scott Dee, D.V.M , University of Minnesota, at the Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Health …

New Information on the Aerobiology and Biosecurity of PRRSV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae - Dr. Scott Dee, D.V.M , University of Minnesota, at the Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Swine Health Seminar, August 15, 2009, Carolina Beach, North Carolina, USA.

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  • 1. New Information on the Aerobiology and Biosecurity of PRRSV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. S Dee, A Pitkin, S Otake, S Oliveira, J Deen, P Davies, S Pohl G Spronk, D Reicks, P Ruen
  • 2. Disclosure and Acknowledgements  USDA NRI PRRS CAP 1 and 2  National Pork Board  MN Pork Board  MN Rapid Agricultural Response Fund  Boehringer-Ingelheim  Genetiporc  Preserve International  MN Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory  Midwest Microtek  Filtration Systems, Inc.
  • 3. SDEC partners  Corporate members  Practice members  PIC  Pipestone Vet Clinic  Genetiporc  Fairmont Vet Clinic  Boehringer-Ingelheim  Swine Vet Center  Pfizer  Clinique Demeter  Novartis  Vet Provisions  Noveko  Camfil Farr  Bayer  Japanese Association of Swine Veterinarians
  • 4. Disclosure  I do not  Receive royalties or commissions on the sales of filters or filtration equipment.  Hold any patents on filtration inventions.  Have research contracts or consulting agreements/retainers with filtration/equipment companies.  Use monetary contributions from filtration companies to conduct filtration-based research
  • 5. Agenda for today  1. Transmission and biosecurity of PRRSV and M hyo (Yr 3)  2. Long distance airborne transport of PRRSV and M hyo  3. Evaluation of air filtration in large sow herds in swine dense regions  4. New developments in air filtration equipment and technology
  • 6. Project 1: Transmission and biosecurity of PRRSV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Year 3)  Modifications from year 2  Mechanical filter facility  Substitute MERV 14 (EU8) for MERV 16 (EU9)  75% efficient vs. 95% efficient  33% cost reduction  Better airflow  Antimicrobial filter facility  Chemicals impregnated into filter fabric  Operates on “contact kill” principle
  • 7. Year 3: Production Region Model Source Population PRRSV MN-184 M hyo 232 120 m Treatmen Treatmen Control t t 1 2
  • 8. Year 3: 9 month summary  MERV 14  No airborne transport or transmission detected  183 air samples collected: all PCR negative for both agents  Antimicrobial  PRRSV and M hyo airborne transport detected in 17/183 air samples  12 PRRSV PCR (+) samples  5 M hyo PCR (+) samples  No transmission observed  Non-filtered  Airborne transport and transmission detected in 7/9 replicates  Replicate 14: negative  Replicate 15: PRRSV  Replicate 16: M hyo  Replicate 17: PRRSV & M hyo  Replicate 18: PRRSV  Replicate 19: PRRSV & M hyo  Replicate 20: PRRSV  Replicate 21: negative  Replicate 22: PRRSV
  • 9. Meteorological data (means) recorded during detection of PRRSV and M hyo in the air Parameter PRRSV (37 days) M hyo (20 days) Pressure (hPa) 982 982 Temp (C) -3.0 -5.0 RH (%) 86 82 Wind speed/gusts (m/s) 2.0/3.0 1.0/1.0 Wind direction 2680 2940 Solar (watts) 64 107 Solar (photons) 178 294
  • 10. Preliminary observations  The “region” is under heavy challenge.  Both types of filters are preventing infection.  The study will conclude in 11/09.  New Assessment (1/09-6/10):  MERV 11  2-year old antimicrobial
  • 11. 952 days down, 259 days to go!
  • 12. Project 2: Long distance airborne transport of PRRSV and M hyo  Objective  Provide evidence of PRRSV and M hyo in air samples collected at long distances from an infected source population.  Hypothesis:  Long-distance airborne transport of both organisms can occur given the proper conditions.
  • 13. Sampling area landscape
  • 14. T ½ of PRRSV in aerosols (Hermann, Vet Res, 2009)  Use equation to predict whether an aerosol could transport infectious virus 4.7 km:  At 7.10 C and 89% RH:  The T1/2 of PRRSV in an aerosol would be 74 minutes  At 3 m/s wind velocity:  The virus-laden aerosol would travel the 4.7 km distance in 26 minutes
  • 15. Conclusions  1. Airborne transport of PRRSV and M hyo was documented out to 4.7 km.  2. The organisms recovered were homologous to those present in the source population.  3. Infectious PRRSV was present at 4.7 km.
  • 16. Project 3: Efficacy of air filtration in large sow herds in swine-dense regions  Project Participants:  UMN, SDSU, PVC, FVC, SVC  Selection criteria:  > 2400 sows  > 3 external virus introductions over the past 4 years  > 4 pig sites within 4.7 km radius of candidate herd  Industry standard biosecurity  Duration of study:  4 years  Outcomes measured:  External virus introduction  Cost-benefit
  • 17. Year 1: 9/08-8/09  1. Team building  Universities, practices, financing program established  2. Selection of farms  10 treatment farms & 21 control farms at this time  3. Installation of filtration systems  4 farms under 100% filtration since 9/2008  6 farms to filter this summer  4. Monthly biosecurity audits and diagnostic testing to assess external virus introduction  PCR and ORF 5 sequencing
  • 18. Characteristics of filtered and non-filtered farms  Treatments (n=10)  Controls (n=21)  BH Inventory  BH Inventory  Mean = 2721 sows  Mean = 3329 sows  Range = 2402-3827  Range = 2506-5578  External virus introduction  External virus introduction  Mean = 1 every 13.1 mths  Mean = 1 every 12.8 mths  Range = 1 every 8-15 mths  Range = 1 every 11-13 mths  # sites within 4.7 km  Mean = 8  # sites within 4.7 km  Range = 4-17  Mean = 8  Range = 4-13
  • 19. Ceiling inlets after filtration boxes installed
  • 20. Observations: 9/08-8/09  1. No external virus introductions in any of the 4 filtered farms.  2. External virus introductions in 13 of 21 control farms.  3. Improved performance.
  • 21. Kaplan-Meier plot of survival of herds between PRRS breaks Filtered Control Prefiltered Months
  • 22. 4. New developments  1. A new filter candidate on the market  2. A tool to reduce the risk of back drafting of air through idle fans  3. The effect of filter damage on virus penetration
  • 23. Dual chamber model (Dee et al, Vet Microbiol, 2009)
  • 24. 1. New filter candidate  Clarcor  Electrostatic charged polypropylene media  MERV 16 rating  Virus challenge  Tests as MERV 16 when charged  Tests as MERV 14 when discharged  Air flow  Tests as MERV 14 when discharged  (S. Pohl, SDSU)
  • 25. 2. Back drafting: AP Dual shutter
  • 26. 3. Effect of filter damage on virus penetration  Occurs during installation  4 degrees of damage  Mild  Shallow finger depressions  Moderate  Laceration  Severe  Deep finger depressions  Rodent  Holes
  • 27. Take Home Messages  1. PRRSV can be transported over long distances via the airborne route.  2. Air filtration is an effective tool for the control of airborne diseases in swine-dense regions.  Technological advancements have been made.  3. For the first time in 20+ years we actually can prevent PRRSV transmission between farms.