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Dr. Rodger Main - PEDV's Emergence in the US: Status Report, Diagnostics, & Observations
 

Dr. Rodger Main - PEDV's Emergence in the US: Status Report, Diagnostics, & Observations

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PEDV's Emergence in the US: Status Report, Diagnostics, & Observations - Dr. Rodger Main, Iowa State University, from the 2014 Iowa Pork Congress, January 22-23, Des Moines, IA, USA. ...

PEDV's Emergence in the US: Status Report, Diagnostics, & Observations - Dr. Rodger Main, Iowa State University, from the 2014 Iowa Pork Congress, January 22-23, Des Moines, IA, USA.

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  • This campaign is an effort to establish best practices for preparedness across swine veterinarians & producers. Although participation is strongly encouraged, it is not required, and it does NOT include, infer, or give permission for data sharing by any party involved (an affiliate code is required to allow the VDL to share data with permissioned parties).
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Dr. Rodger Main - PEDV's Emergence in the US: Status Report, Diagnostics, & Observations Dr. Rodger Main - PEDV's Emergence in the US: Status Report, Diagnostics, & Observations Presentation Transcript

  • PEDV’s Emergence in US “Status Report, Diagnostics, & Observations” Iowa Pork Congress 1/22/2014 Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Faculty, Staff, & Students of ISU VDL ≈22 Faculty, 100 Technical Staff, & 20 Graduate Students/Residents Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Serving Food Animal Agriculture Comprehensive Diagnostic Service, Teaching, and Discovery (Iowa’s only Full-Service & Fully Accredited Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory) Processing 55,000+ cases/year from livestock producers Applying world-class technology to real-world problems Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • ≈ 75% Swine, 10% Bovine, 10% Poultry, + 5% Everything Else Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Where the Pigs Are Located in US ≈ 500,000 pigs/week imported to IA to be grown Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • What is PEDV ? “Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus” • Corona-virus • Villous atrophy • Malabsorptive diarrhea • Clinically Indistinguishable from TGE – Fecal-Oral Pathogen – ↑ Morality rates approaching 100% in naïve neonate populations – ↓ Mortality and severity of clinical disease in growing-finishing pigs • Not a Zoonotic Disease or Food Safety Concern Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • PEDV Historical Distribution – TGE-like outbreaks  England  1971 • Multiple European Countries » Most often in nursery/grow finish pigs » Reportedly of minimal significance today – More recently a disease of significance in SE Asia » China » South Korea – Severe epizootic outbreaks – Persists as endemic disease – Not Confirmed in North America Prior to May 2013 Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Cumulative Positive PEDv Cases by Farm Type 2500 # PEDv Positive Cases 2000 1500 Unknown Grow-Finish Sow 1000 500 0 Date by Week Rapidly spreading across US with more than 2,271 cases in 23 states Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Positive PEDv Cases per Week by Farm Type 250 # PEDv Positive Cases 200 150 Unknown Grow-Finish Sow 100 50 0 Date by Week Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • PEDV Positive Swine Cases Ascertained from Multiple VDLs Farm Type Week Total # of PEDv Positive Received Diagnostic Case Submissions Growing @ VDL (Premises) via PCR or IHC Sow Pig ? CA CO IA IL IN KS KY MD MI MN MO NC NE NY OH OK PA SC SD TN TX WI WY ? 4/15/13 4/22/13 4/29/13 5/6/13 5/13/13 5/20/13 5/27/13 6/3/13 6/10/13 6/16/13 6/23/13 6/30/13 7/7/13 7/14/13 7/21/13 7/28/13 8/4/13 8/11/13 8/18/13 8/25/13 9/1/13 9/8/13 9/15/13 9/22/13 9/29/13 10/6/13 10/13/13 10/20/13 10/27/13 11/3/13 11/10/13 11/17/13 11/24/13 12/1/13 12/8/13 12/15/13 12/22/13 12/29/13 1/5/14 Total 2 (1) 1 (1) 9 (6) 17 (13) 10 (9) 44 (43) 32 (29) 55 (52) 48 (42) 47 37 10 34 33 24 31 27 36 30 26 31 28 32 40 42 43 56 68 85 90 92 116 96 141 132 187 118 134 188 2272 0 0 1 4 5 7 6 13 11 18 8 4 12 8 6 12 18 26 14 15 10 20 12 16 14 19 24 41 40 24 20 40 24 40 31 46 29 40 37 715 1 1 5 7 3 33 22 34 24 18 20 6 20 20 10 15 10 11 14 8 18 8 15 17 21 22 25 22 44 56 64 59 38 62 73 93 56 59 85 1119 0 0 0 3 1 3 1 5 7 14 9 0 3 6 9 7 1 1 2 3 3 3 5 8 8 2 7 5 4 12 12 21 34 42 29 52 36 44 1 70 472 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 6 1 2 5 8 4 25 22 21 17 10 15 3 6 7 6 5 9 4 6 2 6 7 1 3 2 6 1 6 10 1 20 33 38 1 51 1 48 1 25 2 66 65 1 96 61 54 3 82 38 852 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 5 3 4 10 6 9 3 3 2 69 10 8 15 8 14 10 81 1 2 3 3 7 1 4 7 3 7 6 13 5 3 8 7 3 5 2 6 4 9 3 6 1 5 1 4 5 3 5 4 9 152 1 1 4 7 3 2 2 8 4 2 3 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 2 1 2 1 5 2 5 2 7 2 8 17 19 23 2 18 27 2 17 20 1 46 13 263 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 7 2 2 5 1 4 4 6 12 24 19 21 21 22 17 2 14 1 15 14 19 8 3 12 5 20 2 5 4 18 15 18 316 17 2 20 1 3 16 13 2 3 2 11 7 4 1 10 5 7 2 14 1 10 3 4 5 1 13 5 1 4 6 1 6 1 13 2 9 1 1 13 2 5 10 1 4 5 1 4 11 1 9 12 5 6 3 3 7 1 3 5 1 5 3 5 2 6 4 66 276 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 6 2 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 6 1 6 3 1 3 6 3 2 1 2 1 4 30 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 20
  • PEDV Diagnostics Diagnostic Specimens • • • • • Intestine (Fresh & Fixed) Feces Fecal Swabs Oral Fluids Serum (PEDV Antibody) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • • PEDV - PCR Real-Time PCR – Widely available – Same day testing – Highly sensitive… quickly transitioned to majority of testing being surveillance based testing • Learning Curve on Extraction Techniques • Sample types = Intestine, Feces, Fecal Swabs, & Oral Fluids Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • PEDV IFA test (Serum = PEDV Antibody) Development of IFA antibody over time 400 IFA antibody titer 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 7 14 21 28 35 Days post inoculation (Source: Yoon, Sun) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • PEDV IFA (Serology / PEDV Antibody Based Assay) Presently Offered As: – PEDV IFA as a screening assay = ( + or - @ 1/40 dilution) OR – PEDV IFA as a 4-dilution ( - or + 40, 80, 160, 320) Drs. Johnson, Yoon, Zhang et al Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Other Antibody Test Development • Multiple ELISA Development Efforts In-Process – Iowa State University – Kansas State University – South Dakota Sate – University of Minnesota – … & likely others • PEDV ELISA assays commercially available proved to be of very poor quality Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Use of PEDV IFA to Complement PEDV PCR Testing ? ‘s = Are these replacement females PEDV negative ? ?’s = What is the actual prevalence of PEDV in a region ? • Field reports suggest that the clinical presentation of PEDv infection in growing pigs can be variable in its severity and not readily distinguishable from the myriad of other causes of diarrhea in growing pigs. • Approach antemortem PEDv surveillance with the same rationale more commonly used in PRRSv surveillance that incorporates the use of both antigen and antibody based diagnostic tools. PCR on Oral Fluids &/or Fecal Samples ( PEDV shedding and/or presence in the environment) +++ PEDV IFA (Antibody-based assay to detect previous exposure / antibody development) Drs. Johnson, Yoon, Main, et al Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Virus Isolation (VI) Research Diagnostic Tool and Vaccine Development Purposes Control cells P2 (1 dpi) P1 (4 dpi) P3 (20 hpi) (Source: Hoang, Chen, Yoon, Zhang) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Sequencing To date ≈ Primarily Research Purposes PEDV Sequencing (S-Gene) is Now Available Epidemiological Purposes USA (2013) China (2011-2012) Belgium (1977) Korea (1998) China (1989-2008) Korea (2009) NOTE: The analysis is based on full genome sequences via NGS technique. (Source: Yoon, Zhang et al) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) 1 3 2 Late PEDv infection (~36 hrs PI): Severe villus atrophy & loss of absorptive epithelium Normal neonatal pig: 4 Healthy, long intestinal villi Early PEDv infection (~8 hrs PI): Late PEDv infection (~36 hrs PI): Infected cells (brown stain) line the villi Few infected cells remain (brown stain) & absorptive cells destroyed (Source: Schwartz, Madson, Magstad et al.) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • PEDV • Rapidly Spread Across Broad Regions – Role of Transport Vehicles, Lairage at Collection Points, & Animal Movement – Lowe et al..... PEDV negative trucks returning from plant positive (amplifier) – Turner, Battrell et al…..PEDV positive sow collection stations prior to PEDV in NC • Ability “Break-Through” Conventional Biosecurity Measures • Area Spread – Clear & Present Danger – Most apparent in areas of high breeding herd concentration • Concentrated areas of sow farms in panhandle OK/TX and SE NC...... & now IA, MN, et al Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) PEDV - Immediate Costs of Disease on Naïve Breeding Herds ≈ 4 weeks of weaned pigs losses + 1 more week of losses 18 – 20 weeks later ≈ 10% of affected sow units annual output…. 2.2 to 2.5+ PSY...... ≈ $150+/Sow Severity of Disease → Very age / stage of production dependent. • Clinical disease can be readily missed in growing pig populations Turner, Dufrense, Ackermann, et al Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • PEDV • Shedding • Amount of PEDV being shed is extraordinary – Ability to persist in the presence of protective maternal antibody • Controlled studies up to 35 days (Yoon, Madson, Bower, Magstad et al) • Commercial sow units taking at least 90 days to produce PEDV negative pigs • OF Samples staying PEDV positive for up to 6 – 8 weeks post-exposure • Mixed Response to TGE-Like Mgt Strategies – ?...≈70% Success rate…. ..≈30% recurring challenges – “Dose” in farrowing rooms seems to recurring theme • Endemic Phase of Disease ? – Singular largest & looming concern • PEDV on Fast-track to Become Endemic US Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Key Lessons Being Learned on Broader State of Preparedness Suppliers Of Health Products Producer Genetics Facilities / Environment Production Practicing Animal Veterinarian Medicine Veterinary Diagnostic Labs Nutrition Health Food Animal Agriculture Consumer Management Business / Finance Pathology Virology Bacteriology Serology Toxicology Pharmacology Epidemiology Strategic Alliances in Service, Teaching, & Research Regulatory Agencies Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Data courtesy of NPB & Dr. Steve Meyer Food Animal Industries → Changed Dramatically ↑ Demand Globally for High Quality Protein Based Diets ↑ Advances in Logistics Are we keeping pace to support them? Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Globalization ↑ Opportunities & Challenges of Our Time Opportunities: • ↑ US Animal Agriculture’s Role in High Quality Food to the World • ↑ Global Leaders in Advancing Systems of Food Production Challenges: • ↑ Risks associated with Transboundary Disease Introductions • ↑ Animal Health Management Infrastructure Needs – Sustain Market Access & a Competitive Production Environment --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Globalization of the Food Supply Chain Provides a Tremendous Opportunity to Advance Practice of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine. Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Preparedness at the VDL’s • High-Throughput Assays – PCR (Antigen) and Elisa (Assays) in place • High-Throughput / Ante-mortem Sample Types – Needs to be in a “Tube” • Serum / Whole-Blood / Oral Fluid / Swab / Scraping • Index Case Diagnostic Tools / Protocols – Vitally Important... but limited utility in response-phase in an outbreak situation High-Throughput Validated Assays & Sample Types Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Integrated Information Management Systems Veterinarians Across U.S. Submitting Cases to their VDL Service Providers in the NAHLN Submission All Dx Results Submission VDL VDL All Dx Results Submission All Dx Results VDL All Dx Results Submission VDL Standardized Messaging / Mechanisms for Information Transfer Seamless, Streamlined, Centralized Database Tools for Interpretation Area Regional Disease Management Tools Permissioned Users Area Regional Disease Management Tools Animal Health Officials & Active in Private & Public Sectors Area Regional Disease Management Tools Permissioned Users Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Systems of Response Required for Effective Containment (but not eliminate the food supply and industries we are trying to protect) • Swift, Calculated, Coordinated, and Firm – Built Around Continuity of Business Plans & Compartmentalization – To safely & securely enable movement and continuity within the supply chain) (e.g., Secure Egg, Milk, Turkey, & Pork Supply Plans) 1. Simple 2. Well Defined 3. Broadly Applicable 4. Active • Surveillance = Passive Today & Active Tomorrow Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • (Although Somewhat Daunting) Needs → Very Practical – Integrated & active information management systems • Submissions → Labs LIMS → Centralized Databases → Area Regional Mgt Tools – Public and Private Sector Applications • Swine Movement (Interstate, Intrastate, & Slaughter) – – – – Existing / Validated / High Throughput / Antemortem Diagnostics Robust / Real-Time Surveillance (Passive Today / Active Tomorrow) Broadly Applicable Business Continuity &/or Compartmentalization Plans Self-Serving Reason for Active Participation Throughout the Chain Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Premises ID Barcode Labels on VDL Submissions Working together to enhance preparedness and capabilities Using Premises ID #’s Is the Foundation Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Premises ID Barcode Labels Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • How to Order Premises ID Barcode Labels 1. Go to the ISU VDL website 2. Click “Premises ID Barcode Label Information” 3. Download “Premises ID Label Spreadsheet” 4. Populate fields 5. Email spreadsheet to isuvdlv@iastate.edu Veterinarian: Clinic Name: Clinic Address: Veterinarian: Clinic Name: Clinic Address: Premise ID Official Site Name/Code Owner Premise ID 00ABC12 00ABC13 00ABC14 00ABC15 00ABC16 00ABC17 00ABC18 00ABC19 Dr. Smith Smith's Vet Clinic 111 Main Street, Paradise, IA 55555 Official Site Name/Code Bob's Finisher Bob's Nursery Bob's Sow Bob's Farrowing Bill's Finisher Bill's Nursery Bill's Sow Bill's Farrowing Outcome: ISU VDL has bar-code labels pages printed at remote location and mails back to client Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University Owner Bob Bob Bob Bob Bob Bob Bob Bob
  • How to Use Premises ID Barcode Labels One sheet of Premises ID barcode labels per site will be designed, printed, and mailed to the address indicated in the email Place premises ID barcode label in the designated area on the submission form • One premises ID per submission form • Use premises ID barcodes on VDL submissions Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Premises ID Barcode Labels Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Take Home Message on Prem ID#’s • Premise ID #’s = Foundation for Preparedness – FAD / Program Disease Response – Continuity of Business Programs – Area Regional Disease Control • Producer Driven = Region, Practice, Production System • Premise ID # ≠ Data Sharing • “Affiliates” = Define Diagnostic Data Sharing • (Beyond Submitting Vet, Clinic, & Bill Party for Non-Reportable Diseases) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • Premises ID & Affiliate Code Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • *Revising paper based submission forms to enhance premise / lot / flow level information as well as currently developing an improved VDL web-submission tool that will incorporate use of Premises ID #’s and improved test selection format, etc.. Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University
  • PEDV’s Emergence in US “Status Report, Diagnostics, & Observations” Iowa Pork Congress 1/22/2014 Thank You Questions ? Many acknowledgments to ISU VDL faculty, staff, &clientele Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Iowa State University