Dr. R. Dean Boyd - Integrating Science into Practice and Getting it Right


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Integrating Science into Practice and Getting it Right - Dr. R. Dean Boyd, Technical Director – The Hanor Company, AASV 43rd Annual Meeting, March 10 - 13, 2012, Denver, CO, USA.

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Dr. R. Dean Boyd - Integrating Science into Practice and Getting it Right

  1. 1. Slide 1 AASV 43rd Annual Meeting, 2012 ‘Integrating Science, Welfare and Economics in Practice’ Practice Integrating Science into Practice and Getting it Right R. Dean Boyd, Ph D Technical Director – The Hanor Company Adjunct Professor of Animal Nutrition North Carolina State U.
  2. 2. A Tribute in Honor and Remembrance of – Dr. Howard W. Dunne, 1913-1974 1941 DVM – Iowa State U. 1951 Ph D – Michigan State U. 1953–1974 – Penn State U. 90 Scientific papers, Editor – Diseases of Swine
  3. 3. Slide 3 Presentation Addresses: The Integration of Science into Practice •Getting Science Applied Correct •Role of Technical Professionals in that Process •ID Problems to be Resolved in 5-8 Years
  4. 4. Science THEN – Science NOW Since the passing of Dr. Dunne, advances in Science have come like a Tsunami; almost everything has changed.
  5. 5. Genetics – Science of the 21st Century ? Advances during the past 2 decades alone have been so significant that this Field may be considered the Science of 21st Century. Sample Advances: Human Genome Mapped Recombinant DNA Technology e.g. Improve vaccine development for viruses Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA Map to define Pathogen Strain as Native, Foreign or ‘Evolved again’ Gene Microarray to ID DNA in Play
  6. 6. Some Discoveries – Not Quite as Imagined These Technologies are remarkable additions to Biological Science and Food Animal production. Viral strain ID, Viral vaccine and Drug production are among the most welcome outcomes. However, some Discoveries were not as Imagined. Ex. Human Gene ID Map Expected to be much smarter IF . . . Map. In Reality, do not know that much more because Gene Outcomes are all about the Interactions (Gene networks, ‘Environment’) Vast Obesity Genes Network
  7. 7. Science is Not Always Applied Correctly Nuances are Not Always Known – Sometimes Ignored Practical Studies are important to expose short-comings in how we are attempting to apply Science. Some of these are discussed in this Paper because what we Learned was so remarkable. 3 Examples – Early Wean Technology (immune ontogeny, epigenetic nuance) Increasing Littersize while Ignoring other Physiological Imperatives Robustness is Huge. Its Proof must be in the Field and routine monitored (nature of gene expression determined by Environment)
  8. 8. The Everyday Practice of Science – Cognitive Prejudice is Lethal to Correct Application of Science Common Disease among Researchers is Cognitive Prejudice. It is easy to be a bad decision-maker. Best way to make unbiased decisions is to rely heavily on Data. Bias can cause Scientists to cling to Concepts despite Contrary evidence. Dr. Frederick Grinnell – ‘Where Intuition and Passion meet Objectivity and Logic’
  9. 9. The Everyday Practice of Science – Research Often Throws a Curve Ball into Scientific Theories Discovery is a matter of ‘Seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought’ Albert Szent-Gyorgi, 1937 Nobel Prize in Physiology. A Fortuitous Curve Ball – Our Best findings have come when a Curve Ball appeared to Trash good Experiments. Cabrera et al. 2002 is Classic Curve Ball Recipients of an Unexpected, Seminal Find. Discovered that E-W Technology hurts ADG, Viability and Loin depth (See p. 15, middle column) See column Szent-Gyorgi NIH Appt. (Blecha et al., 1983 timid proposal was correct) (immune ontogeny or epigenetic)
  10. 10. Role of Technical Professionals in Getting Science Applied Correctly We are in a Unique Position to assist in getting Science understood and applied because we have Facilities and Financial means to Test prospective Technologies. State of Art Facilities Research Method in the Field with EU for Statistical Sensitivity Environment where Technology will employ Research Model is a powerful complement to Academia; comes at a time when their resources for Animal Research are dwindling.
  11. 11. Getting Science Right by Doing Research Well Science in Practice – Impressive array of highly skilled Animal and Veterinary Scientists with Facilities that are Unparalleled by any Prior Era. Research Imperatives – See Paper Competent Facilities – Personnel Competent Experimental Design (Familiar N-EQ) Completeness in Variables Measured * Students Educated beyond their Main Interest will make greater Contributions (e.g. Immunology, Molecular Genetics, Metabolism) * Adverse Reactions to Food, Brit. Nutrition Foundation 2002
  12. 12. Will We Always Get Science Applied Right ? NO – Not at First ! Science is so Complex and has so many Intricacies that it will continue to be an unfolding series of Discovery. BUT – Challenge the application of ‘isolated Science’ when proposed Outcomes are apt to have ‘unexpected’ down-sides. e.g. Extreme Litter-size without coincident increases in Uterine Capacity
  13. 13. Constraints that Most Limit Profit in N. America Transition: Dr. Dunne was all about Diagnosis and Resolution of Problems. With this in mind, the 2nd half of this presentation involves Identification of Problems that most Constrain or Threaten Profit in North American Pig Operations.
  14. 14. Probe For Most Differentiating Factors to Profit Among Producers Agri-Stats Records summary for Live Production, n=68 Firms Imperfect Tool Pig Viability was most Important Differentiating Factor Differentiating Factors ranked the same in Profit and Loss years (2,2) Performance Mean and Relative Advantage Metric Post-wean mortality Culled at barn close Pre-wean mortality Market price Total finish cost Wean pig cost Finish feed cost Unit % % % $/100 Lb $/100 Lb $/Pig $/Ton AVG 9.5 2.8 14.8 52.2 49.0 27.8 206.4 Top 25% 6.8 2.1 13.4 56.1 45.9 26.4 199.5 ADV 1.290 1.253 1.094 1.075 1.064 1.049 1.033 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weaned/mated sow Pigs 23.7 24.4 1.030 8 Caloric FCE, Finish Kcal ME/Lb 3874 3906 0.992 102 Outcome No. pigs No. pigs No. pigs Price Cost Cost Cost No. pigs Cost
  15. 15. Probe for Opportunities to Advance Profit within Our System using Financial Model Relative value of Factors was considered in an Internal Financial Model. Computed the amount a Metric would have to change in our System (Dec. 2011) to generate $1.50 Profit/pig. KEY Metric ID = (Deliverable ∆) x (Value, $), See Table 3 Metric Required ∆ Unit Value Assumption Full value weaned pigs 0.50 Pigs/litter Simplified using only wean pig cost Wean pig cost 1.45 $/pig W-F mortality assumed, 6.0% W-F mortality 1.00 % $75/Carcass Cwt Finish feed cost 5.00 $/ton 2.83 FCE (2.60 FCE, $4.25/ton if W–F) W-F FCE improvement 0.037 Feed : Gain $300/ton complete diet W-F ADG improvement 0.15 lbs/d $38 per pig space Carcass yield increase 0.70 % $75/Carcass Cwt Carcass value 0.71 $/Carcass Sow Turnover ? %
  16. 16. Slide 16 These Problems We Must Solve: Problems that limit Profit in a significant and persistent way for next 5-8 yrs. • • • • • Specific Evolving Disease (bullets 1-2 relate back to 2 prior slides Mortality Non-Specific Genome - Disease Constrained FCE Sow Life-time Productivity An Emerging Problem – Extreme Litter-size
  17. 17. These Problems We Must Solve 1. Specific Evolving Disease Diseases such as PRRS and SIV persist despite an Impressive array of Research Tools and Personnel, who are searching for a Solution. Solution to an evolving Virus is so complex that it brings to mind a statement by the late Dr. Laurence J. Peter – ‘Some problems are so complex that you have to be highly intelligent and well informed just to be undecided about them’
  18. 18. These Problems We Must Solve 2. Non-Specific Mortality Shown that the Top Firms are differentiating themselves by this Metric (-29%). There are known differences in Viability (Robustness) among Sire Lines, but we expect this to be no different for the Sow Line who composes 50% of the progeny. Principle: Viability can only be tested under conditions of Moderate to High Immune Stress. The Genome must be (1) challenged, and by a (2) variety of Field Pathogens to see how the animal is Programmed. Field Environments will tease out strengths and weaknesses that a Low Immune Stress environment will obscure.
  19. 19. These Problems We Must Solve 2. Non-Specific Mortality Ex. Field Validation of Sire Line is routine. This Figure illustrates a how the Progeny from a Maternal Line lived Post-wean (25 - 278 lbs). N = 986 each Line SEM 0.77, P<0.001
  20. 20. Important FCE Technology in ‘Suspension’ 3. Genome – Disease Constrained FCE Most Important Nutritional means to improve FCE is the Pellet. Health Control is essential because Pellets and poor Health can combine to cause death in near biblical proportion. Q How Much FCE Opportunity when Health is not a Factor ? Criterion Meal Pellet SEM Prob. P< No. Pens 89 89 -- -- Total No. Pigs Placed 1065 1086 -- -- Initial Weight, lbs 61.4 62.6 1.21 0.996 End Weight, lbs 270 278 0.78 0.001 Days on Feed 94.6 93.8 -- -- ADG, lbs/d 2.04 2.10 0.01 0.001 ADFI, lbs/d 4.75 4.45 0.03 0.001 FCE 2.72 2.50 0.01 0.001 Mortality + Removal, % 2.70 3.20 1.05 0.161 N. Williams and co-workers, 2005
  21. 21. Classic Genetic x Environment Interaction Figure 1 a. Low Immune Stress, (N=2839) (Full PCV-2 dose) NO better Illustration of the G x E Interaction than combining Pellets with Inflammatory disease (environment). There is a Genetic basis to Pelletrelated death and there is an unusual effect of Disease (SIV, MP, HPS).
  22. 22. Classic Genetic x Environment Interaction Figure 1 b. High Immune Stress, (N=3162) (1/2 PCV-2 dose) Sire Line A served as the Control since previously proved Resilient to an Immune challenge. Performed true for greater Robustness than Line B under both levels of Immune Stress, but neither performed adequately under High Immune Stress with Pellets.
  23. 23. These Problems We Must Solve 4. Sow Life-time Productivity Definition: Total Quality pigs weaned from Breed Eligible  Exit. Problem: SLP is not a Metric that is commonly benchmarked. Problem illustrated by about 42% of Females have 19 or fewer pigs, which agrees with the concern of getting a young female thru 2 reproductive cycles. Turnover ca. 50-60%. Q What is a Reduction In Replacement, 55% to 45% worth ?
  24. 24. These Problems We Must Solve 4. Sow Life-time Production (Retention, FVP weaned) NPB Task Force operates within Animal Science Committee Objective: 30% turnover decline 4.6 parity exit (3.3-3.6 present) 10-15 pigs/SL 3 Research Area’s . Gilt development – Young sow retention . Increase Quality Pigs weaned . Bioinformatics mechanism to benchmark 6 Projects Funded, 2011
  25. 25. These Problems We Must Solve 5. An Emerging Problem – Extreme Litter-size This Paper concludes with an emerging Concern – Extreme LS Frank Assessment – LS Science is not Complete Littersize is Increasing but Small Pigs are increasing 3 Concerns – More Small Pigs Litter Mortality Increase Disease Susceptibility ? Unclear what level PSY Born becomes a Liability (continuum)
  26. 26. The Problem of Extreme Litter-size I. Average Pig Birthweight Decline with Increasing LS Data collected on 6039 newborn pigs from Litter 1-7 sows. Linear decline, P<0.001. Y = -0.088 + 4.471 Unpublished internal study, 2001
  27. 27. The Problem of Extreme Litter-size Birthweight on Pre-Wean Mortality and Life-time Full-value % Data from 434 Litters and 5039 Pigs from 2 Dam Lines, common Sire Line Unpublished Internal Memo, 2009
  28. 28. 3. IUGR Program for Disease Susceptibility ? Q Evidence for Fetal Programmed Disease Susceptibility ? Fetal Programmed disease is supported by a significant body of Human and some Food Animal literature (sheep). Moderate to Dire IUGR of human Fetus was related to a myriad of diseases of Metabolic and Immunologic nature. Fetal Origins of Adult Disease, Barker et al. 2002 – Int. J. Epidem. Developmental Origins of Adult Disease, Barker et al. 2004, J. Nutr. Foetal Programming of Immune Competence, Cronje, 2003, Aus. J. Exp. Agri. Prenatal Programming . . . Health of Livestock. Bell, 2006 (P. Greenwood IUGR Lamb hypophagia) Biological Basis for Prenatal Programming of Postnatal Performance in Pigs, Foxcroft et al. 2006, J. Anim. Sci.
  29. 29. The Problem of Litter-size and Birth Size: Einstein’s Axiom for Mistaken Actions Problem is that we do not know what PSY balance to strike with Littersize. We do not know what the Financial Implication of more Small Pigs may be. One can imagine some steps to minimize the weaning of ‘too many’ small pigs but . . . This much is certain – ‘Problems cannot be solved at the same level of awareness that created them’ A. Einstein Physiological Imperatives to LS Technology Uterine Capacity increase to prevent Placenta Mass decline per Fetus and Milk Production, Nipple No. and Nipple placement
  30. 30. Meanwhile – Progressively More Challenging Industrial Approach to 48 h Pig Care is not Suitable 48 h Team to address Mortality Humane Euthanasia Nipple Structure (bend over) Small Pig Litters Supplemented Rescue decks Uterine Capacity measure ? (R. Johnson et al. 1999 concludes)
  31. 31. Returning to Where We Began – The Integration of Science into Practice Q What is the Take-home Message ? 1 Devolving Brain of: Boyd Loula Connors Harris Baker Henry
  32. 32. Slide 32 Most Important Take-Home Points Animal and Veterinary Scientists can be a Powerful Combination in Applying Technology. Gene Expression is all about the Interactions; among Genes and with the Environment. Field Research is a must for this Reason. Robustness is lacking in most modern Genotypes (Sow, Pigs). This is proven in Sow Replacement, Pig Viability and by our inability to use a major FCE Technology (Pellets). Litter-size increase that is not matched by increases in Uterine Capacity is fast-becoming counter-productive.
  33. 33. Finale – The Most Important Element of Creativity ‘Seeing what everybody has seen but Thinking what nobody has thought’ Albert Szent-Gyorgi e.g. How many have seen Mount Rushmore from the Canadian side ?