Dr. Paul Hauer - National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) Update
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Dr. Paul Hauer - National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) Update



National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) Update - Dr. Paul Hauer, USDA/APHIS/NVSL, from the 2012 Annual Conference of the National Institute for Animal Agriculture, March 26 - 29, Denver, CO, ...

National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) Update - Dr. Paul Hauer, USDA/APHIS/NVSL, from the 2012 Annual Conference of the National Institute for Animal Agriculture, March 26 - 29, Denver, CO, USA.

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Dr. Paul Hauer - National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) Update Dr. Paul Hauer - National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) Update Presentation Transcript

  • Safeguarding Animal Health National Veterinary Services Laboratories Update
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Director Elizabeth Lautner Diagnostic Virology Laboratory Director Beverly Schmitt Equine + Ovine Viruses Eileen Ostlund NAHLN Barbara Martin Program & Administrative Services Carl Nagle Laboratory Resources Unit Lorie Walsh Avian Viruses Vacant Bovine, Porcine + Aquaculture Viruses Sabrina Swenson Diagnostic Bacteriology Laboratory Director Matthew Erdman Mycobacteria + Brucella Suelee Robbe-Austerman Serology David Kinker Bacterial Identification Vacant Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory Director Vacant Diagnostic Services Fernando Torres-Velez Reagents + Vaccine Services Wei Jia Proficiency + Validation Services Mike McIntosh Pathobiology Laboratory Director Arthur Davis Pathology, Parasitology + Entomology Section S. Mark Hall Chemistry + Analytical Services Walter Hyde Associate Director Paul Hauer Chief of Staff Beth Harris Administrative Unit Michael Sibert Quality Manager Tina Buffington Parasitology Sub-section Jack Schlater Technicians Sub-section Bruce Thomsen Reagents Sub-section Randy Capsel NVSL Structure
  • Safeguarding Animal Health NVSL Mission • To safeguard U.S. animal health and contribute to public health by ensuring that timely and accurate laboratory support* is provided by a nationwide animal health diagnostic system.  Reference and confirmatory laboratory for USDA FY 2011 (Oct 2010 – Sept 2011): 66,800 accessions and 533,400 tests approved. * Includes both domestic and foreign animal diseases
  • Safeguarding Animal Health NVSL Activities • Conduct diagnostic testing • Supply reference reagents to other laboratories  Exchange diagnostic reagents with other laboratories to standardize and harmonize testing • Provide training in diagnostic techniques  State, university, private and foreign government laboratory personnel  APHIS or other agency personnel • Conduct proficiency testing of other laboratories • Consult on agents/techniques • Conduct developmental projects to improve diagnostic techniques for diseases of significance • Participate in World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Centre for the Diagnosis of Animal Diseases and Vaccine Evaluation in the Americas – CVB, ISU • Serve as OIE reference laboratory  high pathogenicity avian influenza, anthrax, pseudorabies, bluetongue, contagious equine metritis, equine encephalomyelitis, equine infectious anemia, leptospirosis, Newcastle disease, swine influenza, vesicular stomatitis and West Nile encephalitis • Serve as FAO reference center for vesicular diseases, classical swine fever, African swine fever 4
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Diagnostic Virology Laboratory • Dr. Bev Schmitt, Director • Dr. Sabrina Swenson, BPA Section Head • Dr. Eileen Ostlund, EO Section Head • [Vacant], Avian Section Head 5
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Schmallenberg Virus Update • First identified in Europe in August, 2011 • Affects sheep, goats, cattle, possibly other ruminants. • Impact on wild ruminants unknown at this time. • Fever, anorexia, diarrhea, and decreased milk production seen in adult cattle • Clinical signs non-specific; fetal malformations in sheep, goats or cattle 6
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Schmallenberg Virus - Agent • Closely resembles viruses in the genus Orthobunyavirus. • Other closely related viruses are Shamonda, Aino and Akabane viruses. • Not considered a human disease risk by CDC at this time. • Vaccine development underway; not available at this time. 7
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Schmallenberg Virus – Vector Range • Most likely transmitted by biting midges, thus transmission occurs during seasons when insects are most active. Fetus affected when dam infected during early pregnancy. • Belgian study – identified positive pools of Culicoides obsoletus and C. dewulfi • C. dewulfi not recorded in North America • C. obsoletus occurs in most of the U.S. and southern Canada 8
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Schmallenberg Virus – U.S. Response • Has not been found in the U.S. at this time • APHIS has issued an import alert which requires specific collection conditions for semen, embryos and other genetic material from the EU. • Trade restrictions are in addition to those already in place for the EU because of BSE. • USDA developed general information sheets to share with stakeholders and general public. • www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_health/ 2012/schmallenberg_virus.pdf 9
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Schmallenberg Virus – Laboratory Capacity • NVSL has obtained the virus, protocols and reagents for PCR testing from Germany. • Have ability to conduct diagnostic tests (PCR, VI and VN) for Schmallenberg at NVSL (Ames and Plum Island). • NVSL-Ames can accept samples to test for Schmallenberg; work with AVIC and State Veterinarian, call NVSL for information on sampling procedures 10
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Schmallenberg Virus – Sampling Criteria for Submission to NVSL • Submit cases in ruminants where more than one dam produces fetus or neonate displaying signs of arthrogryposis hydranencephaly syndrome: stillbirths, mummies, muscle atrophy, joint malformations, etc. • Differential diagnostic testing for other causes of reproductive problems should be handled by local diagnostic laboratory.  Ames will only test for Schmallenberg virus and Cache Valley Fever virus 11
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Schmallenberg Virus – Submitting Samples • Initially requesting samples associated with reproductive signs  Fetal tissues: brain, heart blood, serum  Dam: serum ONLY • Submit to NVSL-Ames on our 10-4 submission form; indicate “Schmallenberg virus” as exam requested • Contact the VS AVIC and State Animal Health Official when submitting • If case is a FAD suspect, handle as FAD investigation as per VS Memo 580.4 12
  • Safeguarding Animal Health 2011 Q Fever: Washington & Montana 4/2011 99 goats tested QF CFT 73/99-74% positive 99 goats tested QF ELISA 77/99-78% positive Tested at NVSL submitted by owner Noted by owner 14 does aborted from Dec 2010 6/2011 Epi-Aid request to CDC for assistance Request from a state begin process Rapid and focused action on trace outs 567 goats tested QF ELISA 62/567-11% positive Tested at NVSL submitted by CDC Farms in WA/MT/OR purchased goats from index
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Swine Influenza Update 14 • Investigation of suspected pig lineage influenza in humans; H3N2v • Collaboration with NAHLN labs to identify and obtain isolates H3N2 isolates as part of SIV surveillance program • Full genome sequencing from repository of SIV isolates using new Ion Torrent method
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Avian Influenza Update Wild Birds: 420 specimens received for confirmation and identification from individual state wildlife service surveillance programs, research, etc. • No HPAI H5N1 detected • LPAI H5N1 (North American lineage) detected in 4 states (ID, OH, MN and WA) • LPAI H5N2 – Predominate subtype (52 isolations) • LPAI H7N3 – Predominate subtype (27 isolations) • Other subtypes detected  H1(4), H2 (3), H3 (36), H4 (38), H5 (62), H6 (29), H7 (49), H8 (1), H9 (1), H10 (5), H11 (35), H12 (4), H13 (1), H14 (3)  The H14 isolation represents the first isolation of H14 in North America. Previous to this H14 avian influenza was isolated one time and that is from the Caspian Sea in 1982. Commercial Poultry: Two cases reported to OIE in FY 2011
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Live-bird Market Surveillance – FY11 State NJ PA MA MD NY RI CT FL OH WA NH NE Specimens 3580 26 125 8 19 49 28 18 200 22 4 318 Submissions 544 22 29 7 11 11 7 4 46 5 1 74 761 (8.8% pos) 4,397 (2.6% pos)Total - 12
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Diagnostic Bacteriology Laboratory 17 • Dr. Matt Erdman, DBL Director • Dr. Suelee Robbe- Austerman, MB Section Head • Dr. Dave Kinker, Serology Section Head • [Vacant]: BI Section Head
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Diagnostic Bacteriology Laboratory • Implemented ovine tissue matching and sex determination microsatellite assays. • Harmonized NVSL TB genotyping (VNTR) to match CDC genotyping protocols for human isolates. • Initiated a whole genome sequencing project on Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella spp to improve epidemiological traces. • Provided Proficiency tests for CEM • Proficiency tests for Group D Salmonella in poultry, Salmonella serotyping, and general bacteriology will be distributed in April and May 2012 • Leptospira MAT proficiency test and training course planned for summer 2012 • Implemented new testing scheme and PCR for Campylobacter spp identification • Implemented luminex xMAP Salmonella Assay for molecular serotyping of Salmonella isolates 18
  • Safeguarding Animal Health • Collaborated with Ohio State University to screen Salmonella isolates for antimicrobial resistance • Successfully completed initial large scale production of TB tuberculin bulks. • Continuing Caudal Fold Tuberculin distribution in multiple fill volumes to accommodate multiple herd size testing (10 ml, 5 ml, and 1 ml) • Brucellosis Reagents - Large volume production of Card, RAP, and BAPA antigen. Smaller volume production of Tube, Plate, and Rivanol antigens. • Successful production of Dourine CF antigen, Glander’s CF antigen, Anaplasma CF antigen, and various control serum. Diagnostic Bacteriology Laboratory
  • Safeguarding Animal Health • TB Cervid Stat-Pak Project: 1654 serum samples from Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer were tested on the Cervid Stat-Pak. The goal of this project is to develop sensitivity and specificity values so that this test could potentially be used as a screening test or official test instead of the skin test for bovine TB. This project is ongoing and will continue in FY2012. • Samples provided by NVSL Serum Bank : ~ 425 Cervid samples ~ 250 Bovine samples 3734 Cervid samples and 2891 Cattle samples in bank 20 Diagnostic Bacteriology Laboratory
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Pathobiology Laboratory • Dr. Art Davis, Director • Dr. Walter Hyde, CAS Section Head • Dr. Mark Hall, PPE Section Head 21
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Pathobiology Laboratory 22 • The Pathobiology group receives approximately 10,000 samples annually for histopathological examination in support of the USDA Bovine Tuberculosis eradication program. Of these samples approximately 85-90% are from slaughter surveillance stream. • Also a participant in the evaluation of Permethrin for use in dip vat solutions against cattle fever ticks. • Conducting ongoing evaluation of three IHC TSE testing platforms (Ventana, BioCare, Leica) for use in VS Programs.
  • Safeguarding Animal Health CWD Rectal Biopsy Study • Test sensitivity for the rectal biopsy samples was approximately 70% compared to the gold standard of CWD testing on brain and or lymph nodes samples • Test sensitivity was influenced by animal genotype and stage of disease  RB test sensitivity is highest in prion protein codon 96 GG deer, with lower RB test sensitivity in 96GS and 96SS deer  Deer later in the course of the disease (as defined by increasing amounts of prion protein in the brain) have the greatest likelihood of a positive RB test  Conversely, deer early in the course of the disease that lack prion in the brain or have low amounts of prion, more frequently have false negative RB results
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory • [Vacant], Director • Dr. Fernando Torres-Velez, DSS Section Head • Dr. Mike McIntosh, PVS Section Head • Dr. Wei Jia, RVS Section Head 24
  • Safeguarding Animal Health FADDL - International Collaborations Dx Assistance & Capacity Building • Ecuador  Characterization of O/ECU FMD strain • Dominican Republic  Low pathogenic CSF  PTV-1 • Haiti  PTV-1 • Mexico  Reference lab Capacity building (CSF) • Mongolia  OIE twinning program (FMD) International Transboundary Animal Disease Course FY 10 FY 11 FADD Trained 19 23 • Harmonization  US/Mexico CSF Dx harmonization  Proficiency panels (Canada) 9
  • Safeguarding Animal Health FADDL: Emerging Disease Investigations • October 2011  Vesicular-like to ulcerative disease among Ringed seals in the northwest Alaska Arctic region  Animals from Canada and Russia also reported with same symptoms  FADDL provided support through conventional and state of the art diagnostic techniques to rule out vesicular diseases  The etiologic agent still unknown as of January 2012
  • Safeguarding Animal Health FADDL: CSF Surveillance in the Americas • 2011 – CSF outbreak in Guatemala near MX border FADDL monitoring the “re- emergence” of Classical Swine Fever in Guatemala for possible low virulence strain variations We provided molecular characterization and phylogeny analysis to complement the field clinical observations. Mexico Guatemala Belize
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Diagnostic Development Projects Assay Development • FMD 3ABC ELISA • FMD 3D ELISA (DIVA) • FMD LPBE • CSF Competitive ELISA • Isothermal LAMP assay*  Pan-mycoplasma  Capripox  Lumpy skin disease • Panviral microarrays • Multiplex platforms *not DHS funded Assay Validation • FMD Penside test (SVANODIP® FMDV-Ag) • Detection of FMDV in bulk tank milk • Sample preservation & transport in FTA paper (CSF & FMD) • Ropes for collection of oral fluid (Dx CSF & FMD) Reagent Development & Production • Vesicular Ag ELISA reagent production • Monoclonal production  ASF • FMD antisera bank 28
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Assay Validation: • Evaluation of FMD Penside Dx Assays-Lateral Flow Device Investigate performance characteristics of a penside FMD assay pending licensing in the USA • Bulk Tank Milk PCR for Foot-and-Mouth Disease  FMD PCR in Milk: Inter-laboratory Comparison study (currently underway)  FMD PCR in Milk: Negative Cohort study (to begin in Summer 2012)
  • NAHLN- A State and Federal Partnership to Safeguard Animal Health
  • Safeguarding Animal Health NAHLN Strategic Planning February 2011 - NAHLN structure options were discussed during Coordinating Council Meeting July 2011 – Structure options provided to USAHA/AAVLD Joint NAHLN Committee for input August 2011 – Edits discussed by Coordinating Council and proposed model document finalized. • 4 models based on: state, region, function, or geographic area August 2011 – AAVLD Executive Committee solicited input from stakeholder groups including laboratory personnel, industry, SAHOs, and VS. • 138 individuals responded September 2011 – Coordinating Council developed concept paper shared at USAHA/AAVLD • “A Vision for National Animal Health Laboratory Network Structure- Current Thinking” February 2012– All comments on concept paper received and shared with NAHLN Coordinating Council May 2012– Concept paper to be finalized and laboratory related policies reviewed for finalization • This is an important step to codification of NAHLN in the 9CFR
  • Safeguarding Animal Health NAHLN Surveillance Update– Highlights SIV Report testing numbers October 2010 January 2012 • 6855 Total samples submitted under program • 2733 accessions (approximate number of herds) • 1058 Matrix positive accessions • 171 accessions positive for pN1 gene • Total of 629 isolates sequenced  Sequences deposited in Gen Bank for reference for vaccine development researchers • Currently in process of changing the testing algorithm to a broader focus of swine influenzas and emerging virus strains by removing N1 PCR and adding standardized subtyping PCRs.  Expected to implement in the next few weeks • Since 2008, VS has been collaborating with CDC on SIV by regularly sharing isolates mainly for human vaccine development purposes, and also sharing SOPs methods and molecular expertise. 32
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Upcoming NAHLN Training • May 2012– Planned QMS training in collaboration with AAVLD and International Services • August 2011 – NAHLN IT messaging training with 20 participants from NAHLN labs and VS OCIO • February and March 2012– Funding mechanism webinar series for NAHLN labs • May 2012– VS Memo 580.4 implementation training for laboratory and field staff
  • Safeguarding Animal Health NVSL Proficiency Tests 2011 • African Swine Fever • Anaplasmosis • Avian Influenza (rRT-PCR and AGID) • Bacteriology • Bluetongue • Bovine Leukosis • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy • Brucellosis • Classical Swine Fever • Contagious Equine Metritis • Equine Infectious Anemia • Equine Viral Arteritis • Foot and Mouth Disease • Johne’s Disease (organism, serum, milk) • Leptospira • Newcastle Disease • Pseudorabies (serology, latex aggulation, gI ELISA, gB ELISA) • Rinderpest • Salmonella Type D • Scrapie/Chronic Wasting Disease • Vesicular Stomatitis 34
  • Safeguarding Animal Health NVSL Scientific Publications • (NVSL Authors: Ostlund E and Emery M) 2011. Notes from the field: Q fever outbreak associated with goat farms--Washington and Montana, Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Oct 14;60(40):1393. • Scoles GA, Hutcheson HJ, Schlater JL, Hennager SG, Pelzel AM, Knowles DP. 2011. Equine piroplasmosis associated with Amblyomma cajennense Ticks, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. Oct;17(10):1903-5. • Miller M, Terrell S, Lyashchenko K, Greenwald R, Harris B, Thomsen BV, Fontenot D, Stetter M, Neiffer D, and Fleming G. 2011. Mycobacterium kansasii Infection in a Bontebok (Damaliscus pygaragus dorcas) Herd: Diagnostic Challenges in Differentiating from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. J Zoo Wildl Med 42(3):468-472. • Donahue BC, Petrowski HM, Melkonian K, Ward GB, Mayr GA, Metwally S. 2012. Analysis of clinical samples for early detection of classical swine fever during infection with low, moderate, and highly virulent strains in relation to the onset of clinical signs. J Virol Methods. Jan;179(1):108-15. Epub 2011 Oct 20. 35
  • Safeguarding Animal Health NVSL Scientific Publications • Nolting J, Fries, AC, Courtney C, Hines N, Pedersen J, Killian ML. Recovery of H14 influenza A virus isolates from sea ducks in the Western Hemisphere [Internet]. Version 5. Knol. 2011 Dec 13. Available from: http://knol.google.com/k/jacqueline-nolting/recovery-of-h14-influenza-a- virus/1gl1uoak9qgic/1 • Killian ML, Zhang Y, Panigrahy B, Trampel D, Yoon KJ. 2011. Identification and Characterization of H2N3 Avian Influenza Virus from Backyard Poultry and Comparison with Novel H2N3 Swine Influenza Virus. Avian Dis. 55(4):611-619. • Carleton RE, Mertins JW, Yabsley MJ. 2012. Parasites and Pathogens of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis): A Field Survey of a Population Nesting Within a Grass-Dominated Agricultural Habitat in Georgia, U.S.A., with a Review of Previous Records. Comp Parasit. 79(1):30-43. • Short MA, Clark CA, Harvey JW, Wenzlow N, Hawkins IK, Allred DA, Knowles DP, Corn JL, Grause JL, Hennager SG, Kitchen DL, Traub-Dargatz JL. 2012. Outbreak of equine piroplasmosis in Florida. JAVMA 240(5):588-595. • Deng,MY, Millien M, Jacques-Simon R, Flanagan JK, Bracht AJ, Carrillo C,Barrette RW, Fabian A, Mohamed F, Moran K, Rowland J,Swenson SL , Jenkins-Moore M, Koster L, Thomsen BV, Mayr G, Pyburn D, Morales P, Shaw J, Burrage T, White W, McIntosh MT, and Metwally S. 2012. Diagnosis of porcine teschovirus encephalomyelitis in the Republic of Haiti. J Vet Diagn Invest, Vol. 24, Number 4, in press. 36
  • Safeguarding Animal Health Websites • National Veterinary Services Laboratories www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/lab_info_services • National Animal Health Laboratory Network www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/nahln