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Dr. Marty D. Matlock - Science-Based Metrics for Sustainable Outcomes in Agriculture
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Dr. Marty D. Matlock - Science-Based Metrics for Sustainable Outcomes in Agriculture

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Science-Based Metrics for Sustainable Outcomes in Agriculture - Marty D. Matlock, PhD, PE, BCEE, Executive Director, Office for Sustainability, Area Director, Center for Agricultural and Rural …

Science-Based Metrics for Sustainable Outcomes in Agriculture - Marty D. Matlock, PhD, PE, BCEE, Executive Director, Office for Sustainability, Area Director, Center for Agricultural and Rural Sustainability, Professor, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas, from the 2014 NIAA Annual Conference titled 'The Precautionary Principle: How Agriculture Will Thrive', March 31 - April 2, 2014, Omaha, NE, USA.

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  • Field to Market defines agricultural sustainability as meeting the needs of the present while improving the ability to meet future generations by increasing agricultural productivity while decreasing environmental impact; improving human health through access to safe, nutritious food, and improving social and economic well-being of rural communities.
    Meeting the needs of the present while improving the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
    Increasing productivity to meet future food and fiber demands
    Decreasing impacts on the environment
    Improving human health
    Improving the social and economic well-being of agricultural communities
  • Human Water Security (HWS) Threat: indicates areas that contain catchment disturbances, pollution, water resource development such as high dam density, river fragmentation, high consumptive water loss, human and agricultural water stress; as well as biotic factors such as non-native fishes, high fishing and aquaculture pressures. Each of these drivers is weighted and contributes to an overall score that represents the respective threat to human water security (Vorosmarty, et al. 2010).

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  • 1. Marty Matlock, PhD, PE, BCEE Executive Director, Office for Sustainability Professor , Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department University of Arkansas Science Based Metrics for Sustainable Outcomes In Agriculture 2014 NIAA Annual Conference & NIAA/USAHA Joint Forum on Trichomoniasis Standards
  • 2. Everything is Connected 2
  • 3. Everything is changing 3
  • 4. A.D. 2000 A.D. 1000 A.D. 1 1000 B.C. 2000 B.C. 3000 B.C. 4000 B.C. 5000 B.C. 6000 B.C. 7000 B.C. 1+ million years 8 7 6 5 2 1 4 3 Old Stone Age 9 10 11 12 A.D. 3000 A.D. 4000 A.D. 5000 1900 1950 1975 2000 2100 Future Billions Source: Population Reference Bureau; and United Nations, World Population Projections to 2100 (1998). World Population Growth In Context Time of our Parents and Grandparents 2010 Era of Monarchs Era of Democracy ? Time of our Children and Grandchildren 4
  • 5. Sustainability 2050: The Challenge 5
  • 6. Sustainability 2050: The Challenge 6
  • 7. Sustainability 2050: The Challenge 7
  • 8. Sustainability 2050: The Challenge What we do in the next 10 years will shape Earth and Humanity for the next 100 years When technology and culture collide technology prevails, culture changes 8
  • 9. Billions 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 Less Developed Regions More Developed Regions Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005. We are all in this together 9
  • 10. Elements of Sustainable Agriculture 10 PEOPLE PROFIT PLANET SUSTAINABLE BEARABLE EQUITABLE VIABLE
  • 11. Human Activities Dominate Earth Croplands and pastures are the largest terrestrial biome, occupying over 40% of Earth’s land surface 11
  • 12. Persistent vs Important Issues Persistent Issues Important Issues Locally grown Water use efficiency GMO crops Soil erosion Organic crops Soil organic carbon Natural Land use change – biodiversity loss From Jason Clay, WWF
  • 13. Meeting Food Needs by 2050 Jason Clay The role of research 13
  • 14. Key Sustainability Challenges for Agriculture 1. In order to meet projected demands for food, feed, fiber and fuel from the land we must increase production (output per year) by 50 to 100 percent in the next four decades. 2. If global production is not increased, US and European production must compensate by increasing even more. 3. If we want to preserve biodiversity and other land- based ecosystem services we must freeze the footprint of agriculture. 4. Thus yield (output per area) must more than double in the next 40 years in the US and Europe. 5. Energy scarcity will drive innovation while limiting expansion of productivity. 6. Water scarcity will limit productivity globally.
  • 15. The Food Supply Chain Production Processing Distribution RetailDirect Mktg Wholesale Consumption Safety Security Stability 15
  • 16. Sustainability Initiatives 16
  • 17. The Issue is TRUST 1. Consumer attitudes 2. Social License – freedom to operate 3. Criteria for legitimacy 4. Market competitiveness 5.Reputational Risks!
  • 18. (Re)Building Trust in the Food System
  • 19. Sustainability is Continuous Improvement 21 1. Define A. Define Sustainability for the Enterprise B. Define Key Performance Indicators C. Select Metrics for KPIs 2. Measure A. Benchmark KPI Metrics B. Set Goals for Each KPI C. Develop Strategy to Meet Goals 3. Implement A. Implement the Strategy B. Measure, Assess and Report Results C. Adapt Strategy to Improve Outcomes
  • 20. How We Define Sustainable Agriculture
  • 21. Breadth of Goal Vision Management Aspirational Strategic Operational Tactical PlanningHorizon Long Short Framework of Goals
  • 22. Criteria for Key Performance Indicators of Sustainable Agriculture Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are things we measure to inform decisions. KPIs should be: 1.Outcomes Based. 2.Science Driven. 3.Technology Neutral. 4.Transparent.
  • 23. Environmental Key Performance Indicators for Agriculture 25 • Greenhouse Gas Emissions • Energy Use • Water Use • Land Use • Water Quality • Nutrient Use Efficiency • Habitat/Biodiversity
  • 24. 26 KPIs: Sentinels for Threats
  • 25. 27 KPIs: Sentinels for Threats
  • 26. Human Water Security Threat Index 28 Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. C.J. Vorosmarty, P.B. McIntyre, M.O. Gessner, D. Dudgeon, A. Prusevich, P. Green, S. Glidden, S.E. Bunn, C.A. Sullivan, C. Reidy Liermann, and P.M. Davies. Nature 467, 555-561 (30 September 2010) doi:10.1038/nature09440 http://riverthreat.net/
  • 27. Persistent vs Important Issues Persistent Issues Important Issues Locally grown Water use efficiency GMO crops Soil erosion Organic crops Soil organic carbon Natural Land use change – biodiversity loss From Jason Clay, WWF
  • 28. 30 Livestock GHG emissions are estimated at 7.1 gigatonnes CO2e per year. This is 14.5 percent of human-induced GHG emissions.
  • 29. 31 Potential GHG emissions reductions from nutrition, manure, and husbandry practices. Increasing forage digestibility and digestible forage intake will generally reduce GHG emissions from rumen fermentation and stored manure. Dietary lipids are effective in reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Supplementation with small amounts of concentrate feed to increase animal productivity
  • 30. Global emissions by sector 32
  • 31. Field to Market The Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture
  • 32. Field to Market Membership 34
  • 33. Measuring US Soybean Sustainability Metrics 35
  • 34. US Ag Sustainability Initiatives
  • 35. ISO Standard for LCA 37 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14044 First edition 2006-07-01 Environmental management — Life cycle assessment: Requirements and guidelines Reference number: ISO 14044:2006(E) ISO 14044 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, Subcommittee SC 5, Life cycle assessment. This first edition of ISO 14044, together with ISO 14040:2006, cancels and replaces ISO 14040:1997, ISO 14041:1998, ISO 14042:2000 and ISO 14043:2000, which have been technically revised.
  • 36. Phases of a Life Cycle Assessment Interpretation Goal and Scope Definition Direct Applications: •Process Improvement •Product Assessment •Policy Analysis •Strategic Planning •Risk Management Inventory Analysis Impact Assessment Life Cycle Assessment Framework
  • 37. ISO Standard for LCA 39 The International Organization for Standards (ISO) is a network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. On the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. http://www.iso.org/
  • 38. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to Understand and Manage Supply Chain Processes 40
  • 39. LCA allows for impact assessment from cradle to grave Raw Material A Raw Material A Raw Material B Raw Material B Product 1 Product 1 41
  • 40. LCA allows for impact assessment from cradle to grave Raw Material A Raw Material A Raw Material B Raw Material B Product 1 Product 1 Boundaries matter 42
  • 41. Life Cycle Assessment Allocation 43 By Mass? = + + + By Value? Kg CO2e per kg
  • 42. Benchmark KPIs for GHG • National Life Cycle Carbon Footprint Study for the Production of US Swine – Carbon Footprint – 2.48 lb CO2e per serving – Emission Contributions • Sow Barn: 9.6%, including feed and manure handling • Nursery to Finish: 52.5%, including feed and manure handling • Processing and Packaging: 6.9% • Retail: 7.54% • Consumer: 23.5%
  • 43. Benchmark KPIs for GHG
  • 44. • Life Cycle Analysis of Alternative Pork Management Practice – Anesthesia during castration or tail docking – Immuno-Castration Methods – Removal of Ractopamine as a feed additive – Removal of Antimicrobials to prevent disease and promote growth – Pen Gestation Housing Benchmark KPIs for GHG
  • 45. Benchmark KPIs for GHG
  • 46. Benchmark KPIs for Water
  • 47. • A Life Cycle Analysis of Water Use in U.S. Pork Production – 19-144 gal water per pound boneless pork – 75% from feed irrigation – 20% for drinking water Benchmark KPIs for Water
  • 48. Benchmark KPIs for Water
  • 49. Benchmark KPIs for Water
  • 50. Benchmark KPIs for Water
  • 51. Sustainability Framework 53 1. Define A. Define Sustainability for the Enterprise B. Define Key Performance Indicators C. Select Metrics for KPIs 2. Measure A. Benchmark KPI Metrics B. Set Goals for Each KPI C. Develop Strategy to Meet Goals 3. Implement A. Implement the Strategy B. Measure, Assess and Report Results C. Adapt Strategy to Improve Outcomes
  • 52. Breadth of Goal Vision Management Aspirational Strategic Operational Tactical PlanningHorizon Long Short Framework of Goals