Marty Matlock, PhD, PE, BCEE
Executive Director, Office for Sustainability
Professor , Biological and Agricultural Enginee...
Everything is Connected
2
Everything is changing
3
Security is an issue of Trust
1. Consumer attitudes
2. Social License – freedom to
operate
3. Criteria for legitimacy
4. M...
The Food Supply Chain
Production Processing
Distribution
RetailDirect Mktg Wholesale
Consumption
Safety
Security
Stability...
Trade is a Market Process
1. Demand for a product drive trade
2. Trade is tied to safe, secure, and
economical supply
3. B...
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050
Population(Billions)
Year
UN Population Projections...
Billions
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050
Less Developed Regions
More Developed Regions
Source: United...
Meat Consumption on the Rise
Animal Agriculture Benefits
• Animal Agriculture accounts for 40% of Ag
GDP.
• Currently employs 1.3 billion people.
• Of ...
Environmental Concerns over
Animal Agriculture
The argument goes something like this:
•As the numbers of farm animals rear...
12
• Grazing and pasture
lands account for the
70% of land used in
agricultural production
(30% of land on
Earth).
• Lives...
Land degradation: Restore damaged land
through soil conservation, silvo-pastoralism, better
management of grazing systems ...
FAO Recommendations for
Animal Agriculture Sustainability
Water pollution: Better management of animal
waste in industrial...
15
Livestock GHG emissions
are estimated at 7.1
gigatonnes CO2e per year.
This is 14.5 percent of
human-induced GHG
emissi...
16
Potential GHG emissions
reductions from nutrition,
manure, and husbandry
practices.
Increasing forage digestibility and...
Global emissions by sector
17
18
• Intensification of animal production is critical:
– Preserving land for other life,
– Providing critical scale for ef...
Life Cycle Assessment Case Study:
Carbon Equivalent GHG in Dairy
Production Processing
DistributionConsumption
20
Pork Supply Chain LCA
GHG emissions associated with
consumption of pork in the US.
23
It’s All About Improving Feed and
Reducing Manure
• Improving effective feed utilization
(conversion of feed into produ...
Measuring US Soybean
Sustainability Metrics
24
Measuring US Corn
Sustainability Metrics
25
trends indicating a slight increase in total annual erosion.
ase note: all res...
GMO Eco-Efficiency Over Time
26
Gustafson, D., M. Collins, J. Fry, S. Smith,
M. Matlock, D. Zilberman, J. Shryock, M.
Doan...
Productivity, Eco-Efficiency, and Yield
27Gustafson, D., M. Collins, J. Fry, S. Smith, M. Matlock, D. Zilberman, J. Shryoc...
US Corn Production
28
• In 2013 US produced 10.8 billion bushels
(273.8 million metric tons) of corn
• Almost 30% of globa...
GMO Corn Globally
29
Only 26% of the world's 2009 corn crop was genetically
modified, produced predominantly in the US (85...
30
• U.S. soybean farmers exported 1.7 billion bushels of
U.S. soy in the 2012-13 marketing year.
• The value of these exp...
GMO Soybeans Globally
31
Over 75% of the world's 2010 soybean crop was
genetically modified, a higher percentage than for
...
32
http://www.gmo-compass.org
European Union GMO Activities
GM maize in the EU: The first lines of GM
maize were approved ...
33
Cultivation 2009: Field area for Bt maize decreases
The field area for genetically modified plants in the
European Unio...
Persistent vs Important Issues
Persistent Issues Important Issues
Locally grown Water use efficiency
GMO crops Soil erosio...
Meeting Food Needs by 2050
Jason Clay
The role of
research
35
http://www.gmo-compass.org/
EU Scientists Call for GMO Policies and
Practices for Sustainable Agriculture
37
• There are many constraints in cultivating crops and trees
in Europe for which conventional breeding has limited
poten...
Building Trust Through Key Performance
Indicators of Sustainable Agriculture
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are
things ...
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Dr. Marty D. Matlock - Impacts of GMO Products on Food Security and Trade

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Impacts of GMO Products on Food Security and Trade - Marty D. Matlock, PhD PE BCEE, Executive Director, Office for Sustainability, Area Director, Center for Agricultural and Rural Sustainability, Professor, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas, from the 2014 NIAA Annual Conference titled 'The Precautionary Principle: How Agriculture Will Thrive', March 31 - April 2, 2014, Omaha, NE, USA.

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Dr. Marty D. Matlock - Impacts of GMO Products on Food Security and Trade

  1. 1. Marty Matlock, PhD, PE, BCEE Executive Director, Office for Sustainability Professor , Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department University of Arkansas Impacts of GMO Products on Food Security and Trade 2014 NIAA Annual Conference & NIAA/USAHA Joint Forum on Trichomoniasis Standards
  2. 2. Everything is Connected 2
  3. 3. Everything is changing 3
  4. 4. Security is an issue of Trust 1. Consumer attitudes 2. Social License – freedom to operate 3. Criteria for legitimacy 4. Market competitiveness 5.Reputational Risks!
  5. 5. The Food Supply Chain Production Processing Distribution RetailDirect Mktg Wholesale Consumption Safety Security Stability 5
  6. 6. Trade is a Market Process 1. Demand for a product drive trade 2. Trade is tied to safe, secure, and economical supply 3. Barriers to trade are almost always rooted in economical nationalism 4. Some barriers are ideological – cannot be broken with facts 5. Sustainability strategies based on performance data can open markets
  7. 7. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Population(Billions) Year UN Population Projections What we do in the next 10 years will shape Earth and Humanity for the next 100 years When technology and culture collide technology prevails, culture changes 7 Population is about Prosperity! Where the demand will come from…
  8. 8. Billions 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 Less Developed Regions More Developed Regions Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (medium scenario), 2005. Where the demand will come from… 8
  9. 9. Meat Consumption on the Rise
  10. 10. Animal Agriculture Benefits • Animal Agriculture accounts for 40% of Ag GDP. • Currently employs 1.3 billion people. • Of the 880 million rural poor people living on less than $1 per day, 70 percent are partially or completely dependent on livestock for their livelihoods and food security. • Global meat production is expected to more than double to 465 million tonnes by 2050. • Global milk production is expected to almost double to 1043 million tonnes by 2050.
  11. 11. Environmental Concerns over Animal Agriculture The argument goes something like this: •As the numbers of farm animals reared for meat, egg, and dairy production increase, so do emissions from their production. •By 2050, global farm animal production is expected to double from present levels. •The environmental impacts of animal agriculture require that governments, international organizations, producers, and consumers focus more attention on the role played by meat, egg, and dairy production. •Mitigating and preventing the environmental harms caused by this sector require immediate and substantial changes in regulation, production practices, and consumption patterns. Koneswaran, G., & Nierenberg, D. (2008). Global farm animal production and global warming: impacting and mitigating climate change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(5), 578. 11
  12. 12. 12 • Grazing and pasture lands account for the 70% of land used in agricultural production (30% of land on Earth). • Livestock accounts for 8 % of total human water use, largely from irrigation of crops.
  13. 13. Land degradation: Restore damaged land through soil conservation, silvo-pastoralism, better management of grazing systems and protection of sensitive areas. Greenhouse gas emissions: Sustainable intensification of livestock and feed crop production to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation and pasture degradation, improved animal nutrition and manure management to cut methane and nitrogen emissions. 13 FAO Recommendations for Animal Agriculture Sustainability Livestock's long shadow (FAO, 2006)
  14. 14. FAO Recommendations for Animal Agriculture Sustainability Water pollution: Better management of animal waste in industrial production units, better diets to improve nutrient absorption, improved manure management and better use of processed manure on croplands. Biodiversity loss: As well as implementing the measures above, improve protection of wild areas, maintain connectivity among protected areas, and integrate livestock production and producers into landscape management. 14 Livestock's long shadow (FAO, 2006)
  15. 15. 15 Livestock GHG emissions are estimated at 7.1 gigatonnes CO2e per year. This is 14.5 percent of human-induced GHG emissions.
  16. 16. 16 Potential GHG emissions reductions from nutrition, manure, and husbandry practices. Increasing forage digestibility and digestible forage intake will generally reduce GHG emissions from rumen fermentation and stored manure. Dietary lipids are effective in reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Supplementation with small amounts of concentrate feed to increase animal productivity
  17. 17. Global emissions by sector 17
  18. 18. 18 • Intensification of animal production is critical: – Preserving land for other life, – Providing critical scale for effective manure management, – Providing effective scale for diet management, – Insuring standardized practices for food safety, quality, and consistency. • Sustainability is about people, planet, and profit. – Unprofitable enterprises are not sustainable and tend create the most problems for people and planet. Sustainable Animal Agriculture
  19. 19. Life Cycle Assessment Case Study: Carbon Equivalent GHG in Dairy Production Processing DistributionConsumption
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Pork Supply Chain LCA
  22. 22. GHG emissions associated with consumption of pork in the US.
  23. 23. 23 It’s All About Improving Feed and Reducing Manure • Improving effective feed utilization (conversion of feed into product) reduces environmental metrics. • Feed mixture optimization is a key element for enhancing sustainability of animal agriculture sustainability: – Nutrient digestibility – Gut function – Immune system
  24. 24. Measuring US Soybean Sustainability Metrics 24
  25. 25. Measuring US Corn Sustainability Metrics 25 trends indicating a slight increase in total annual erosion. ase note: all results are for corn for grain; corn for grain includes corn for all purposes other than ge; corn for grain includes grain for ethanol. Average percent change values reported for the study period are based on a least squares trend analyses from 1980-2011.
  26. 26. GMO Eco-Efficiency Over Time 26 Gustafson, D., M. Collins, J. Fry, S. Smith, M. Matlock, D. Zilberman, J. Shryock, M. Doane, and N. Ramsey. 2013. Climate adaptation imperatives: global sustainability trends and eco-efficiency metrics in four major crops–canola, cotton, maize, and soybeans. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 1-18.
  27. 27. Productivity, Eco-Efficiency, and Yield 27Gustafson, D., M. Collins, J. Fry, S. Smith, M. Matlock, D. Zilberman, J. Shryock, M. Doane, and N. Ramsey. 2013. Climate adaptation imperatives: global sustainability trends and eco-efficiency metrics in four major crops–canola, cotton, maize, and soybeans. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 1-18.
  28. 28. US Corn Production 28 • In 2013 US produced 10.8 billion bushels (273.8 million metric tons) of corn • Almost 30% of global yield on 20% of corn planted area. • Roughly 7% of production was exported to more than 100 different countries. • Among them, Japan (37%), Mexico (24%), and China (13%) comprise the bulk of U.S. corn destinations.
  29. 29. GMO Corn Globally 29 Only 26% of the world's 2009 corn crop was genetically modified, produced predominantly in the US (85%), Canada (84%), Argentina (85%), and South Africa (63%). Europe is largely self- sufficient when it comes to maize production. The EU produce approximately 173 million tonnes of ensilage maize and 56 million tonnes of grain maize in 2009. An additional 10 million tonnes are imported predominantly from Argentina, where large-scale GM maize production is common.
  30. 30. 30 • U.S. soybean farmers exported 1.7 billion bushels of U.S. soy in the 2012-13 marketing year. • The value of these exports set a new record of $28 billion, a 19 percent increase from 2011-2012. • Includes more than 1.3 billion bushels of whole U.S. soybeans, the meal from 454 million bushels of U.S. soybeans and the oil from 186 million bushels. All told, these exports represent 56 percent of U.S. soybean production from last year. • China: 772 million bushels of U.S. soybeans • Mexico: 98 million bushels of U.S. soybean • Japan: 63 million bushels of U.S. soybeans US Soybean Production
  31. 31. GMO Soybeans Globally 31 Over 75% of the world's 2010 soybean crop was genetically modified, a higher percentage than for any other crop. http://www.gmo-compass.org/ Each year, EU Member States import ~ 40 million tonnes of soy material, primarily destined for use as cattle, swine, and chicken feed.
  32. 32. 32 http://www.gmo-compass.org European Union GMO Activities GM maize in the EU: The first lines of GM maize were approved in the EU in 1997. Spain became Europe’s first country to put it to use. Today, 79,269 hectares of Spanish maize production, is genetically modified. In addition, production is now taking place to a lesser extent in the Czech Republic, Portugal and Germany.
  33. 33. 33 Cultivation 2009: Field area for Bt maize decreases The field area for genetically modified plants in the European Union decreased further in 2009. In France and Germany, national cultivation bans for genetically modified Bt maize (MON810) were enacted in 2009. In the meanwhile, stricter co-existence regulations apply in almost all EU member states. http://www.gmo-compass.org European Union GMO Activities
  34. 34. Persistent vs Important Issues Persistent Issues Important Issues Locally grown Water use efficiency GMO crops Soil erosion Organic crops Soil organic carbon Natural Land use change – biodiversity loss From Jason Clay, WWF
  35. 35. Meeting Food Needs by 2050 Jason Clay The role of research 35
  36. 36. http://www.gmo-compass.org/ EU Scientists Call for GMO Policies and Practices for Sustainable Agriculture
  37. 37. 37 • There are many constraints in cultivating crops and trees in Europe for which conventional breeding has limited potential to provide adequate solutions, and for which biotechnological tools are already available or in an advanced stage of development. • Current GMO policies in the EU deprive farmers of potential benefits and of the freedom to choose in the 12 countries in which the survey was conducted there are farmers who wish to have the freedom to use the crops they find best suited for their needs, including approved GM crops. • Much public-sector biotechnology research for sustainable agriculture in Europe has been slowed, stopped or moved abroad, because of regulatory hurdles and costs to prevent destruction of field research. EU Scientists Call for GMO Policies and Practices for Sustainable Agriculture
  38. 38. Building Trust Through Key Performance Indicators of Sustainable Agriculture Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are things we measure to inform decisions. KPIs should be: 1. Outcomes Based 2. Science Driven 3. Technology Neutral 4. Transparent

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