Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Pre-Harvest Risk Factors for Salmonella in Pork Production - PIP
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Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Pre-Harvest Risk Factors for Salmonella in Pork Production - PIP

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Pre-Harvest Risk Factors for Salmonella in Pork Production - Dr. Marcos H. Rostagno, Research Animal Scientist/Adjunct Faculty, USDA-ARS / Purdue University, from the 2013 Boehringer Ingelheim Swine ...

Pre-Harvest Risk Factors for Salmonella in Pork Production - Dr. Marcos H. Rostagno, Research Animal Scientist/Adjunct Faculty, USDA-ARS / Purdue University, from the 2013 Boehringer Ingelheim Swine Health Seminar, August 16-18, 2013, Wrightsville Beach, NC, USA.

More presentations at http://www.swinecast.com/2013-boehringer-ingelheim-carolina-swine-health-seminar

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Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Pre-Harvest Risk Factors for Salmonella in Pork Production - PIP Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Pre-Harvest Risk Factors for Salmonella in Pork Production - PIP Presentation Transcript

  • Pre-Harvest Risk Factors forPre-Harvest Risk Factors for SalmonellaSalmonella in Pork Productionin Pork Production Marcos H. RostagnoMarcos H. Rostagno, DVM, MPVM, PhD, DVM, MPVM, PhD Research Animal Scientist / Adjunct FacultyResearch Animal Scientist / Adjunct Faculty USDA-ARS / Purdue UniversityUSDA-ARS / Purdue University BIVI – NC Swine Health – August/2013
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  • How important is food safety???How important is food safety??? The world is changing…The world is changing… ……and so is “our world”!and so is “our world”! Animal ProductionAnimal Production  Food ProductionFood Production
  • Priorities driving consumer food choicesPriorities driving consumer food choices (Center for Food Integrity, 2012)(Center for Food Integrity, 2012) SafetySafety AffordabilityAffordability NutritionNutrition (56.87%)(56.87%) ProductivityProductivity ProfitabilityProfitability (8.12%)(8.12%) EnvironmentEnvironment WelfareWelfare (35.01%)(35.01%)
  • Food Security + SafetyFood Security + Safety Food Safety Issues:Food Safety Issues:  Chemical hazardsChemical hazards  Physical hazardsPhysical hazards  Biological hazardsBiological hazards . Pathogens. Pathogens . Antimicrobial Resistance. Antimicrobial Resistance Quality assurance Complex challengesComplex challenges On-farm (pre-harvest) focusOn-farm (pre-harvest) focus SalmonellaSalmonella
  • How important isHow important is SalmonellaSalmonella?????? How important isHow important is SalmonellaSalmonella in pork???in pork??? ??
  • Scallan et al. (2011)
  • According to USDA-ERSAccording to USDA-ERS $2.3 billion (in 1998 U$)$2.3 billion (in 1998 U$) Medical costsMedical costs ++ Productivity lossesProductivity losses Frenzen et al.(1999) Hoffmann et al.(2012)
  • Incidence of foodborne pathogens in the U.S. Healthy People 2010 Salmonella (6.8) Campylobacter (12.3) E. coli O157 (1.0) Source: www.cdc.gov/foodnet/data/reports.html
  • SalmonellaSalmonella: a food safety priority for the pork industry!: a food safety priority for the pork industry! Attribution: Pork productsAttribution: Pork products  5-30% Human salmonellosis5-30% Human salmonellosis US (6-9%)US (6-9%) EU (15-25%)EU (15-25%) Salmonella prevalence + levels in the GIT (Determinants of the pork safety risk) Berends et al.(1996): Infected pig  Slaughter line = 3 - 4x risk of Salmonella-contaminated carcass Salmonella contamination of pork occurs within abattoirs (Slaughter and processing line) Infected pigs (“carriers”)Infected pigs (“carriers”)
  • Positive Salmonella tests in the PR/HACCP verification testing program from 1998 to 2011 (Market hogs - All sizes) www.fsis.usda.gov
  • www.fsis.usda.gov
  • From Pig to PorkFrom Pig to Pork SalmonellaSalmonella Prevalence and Levels in the GI tractPrevalence and Levels in the GI tract Salmonella Salmonella contamination risk contamination risk FarmFarm TransportTransport LairageLairage Harvest &Harvest & ProcessingProcessing ??????
  • What do we know aboutWhat do we know about SalmonellaSalmonella infection in swine???infection in swine???
  •  Transmission: fecal-oral + aerosolsTransmission: fecal-oral + aerosols  Rapid dissemination throughout the gastrointestinal tract, withRapid dissemination throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with fecal shedding within only 2 hours post-infectionfecal shedding within only 2 hours post-infection  Disease is very difficult to reproduce experimentally; interactionDisease is very difficult to reproduce experimentally; interaction of dose x serovar x immune statusof dose x serovar x immune status  Contaminated environment with low numbers (10Contaminated environment with low numbers (1022 -10-1033 cfu) ofcfu) of SalmonellaSalmonella enough to infect exposed pigsenough to infect exposed pigs  Infected pigs can carry (with no clinical symptoms)Infected pigs can carry (with no clinical symptoms) SalmonellaSalmonella in the intestinal tract and associated lymph nodes, and excretein the intestinal tract and associated lymph nodes, and excrete high numbers ofhigh numbers of SalmonellaSalmonella in feces intermittently orin feces intermittently or continuously for several weeks (serovar x dose x immune status)continuously for several weeks (serovar x dose x immune status)
  • Hurd et al.(2001) SalmonellaSalmonella rapid infectionrapid infection in market-age pigsin market-age pigs Environmental exposure dose: 4.2 x 102 – 2.2 x 104 cfu/g
  • Rostagno et al.(2011) SalmonellaSalmonella infection in finishing pigsinfection in finishing pigs
  • On-Farm Risk FactorsOn-Farm Risk Factors A variety of potential risk factors have been investigatedA variety of potential risk factors have been investigated  Conflicting findings/reports are very commonConflicting findings/reports are very common It’s more complicated than we think!It’s more complicated than we think!
  • Jones & Richardson (2004)
  • Jones & Richardson (2004) Mash Pellet P value Enterobacteriaceae counts 4.01 log10 cfu/g 1.97 log10 cfu/g ND Salmonella frequency 16/178 (9%) 21/451 (4.7%) 0.0375
  • 4.8%4.8% 4.9%4.9% 3.5%3.5% Torres et al.(2011)
  • Torres et al.(2011)
  • Rajic et al.(2007)
  • Additional On-Farm Risk Factors to Consider:Additional On-Farm Risk Factors to Consider:  Occurrence of clinical salmonellosisOccurrence of clinical salmonellosis  Occurrence of other infections/diseasesOccurrence of other infections/diseases -- PRRSvPRRSv -- Lawsonia intracellularisLawsonia intracellularis -- PCV2vPCV2v -- ParasitesParasites  Continuous flow x All-in/all-out systemsContinuous flow x All-in/all-out systems  Nose-to-nose contact between pensNose-to-nose contact between pens  Number of pig suppliers (or number of sources)Number of pig suppliers (or number of sources) -- Breeding herd & GrowersBreeding herd & Growers  Biosecurity + Hygiene and disinfectionBiosecurity + Hygiene and disinfection -- Facilities & EmployeesFacilities & Employees
  • Gebreyes et al.(2008) Alternative x Conventional Production SystemsAlternative x Conventional Production Systems
  • From the farm to the abattoir...From the farm to the abattoir... ““Peri-marketing” or “Peri-harvest”Peri-marketing” or “Peri-harvest” management practicesmanagement practices  On-farmOn-farm TransportationTransportation AbattoirAbattoir ??
  • Rostagno et al.(2003) AbattoirAbattoir Holding Pens as aHolding Pens as a Source ofSource of SalmonellaSalmonella
  • Rostagno et al.(2005)
  • SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella SalmonellaSalmonella
  • Lots of potential stressors!Lots of potential stressors! Lots of potential stressors!Lots of potential stressors!  Salmonella ???Salmonella ??? Does pre-slaughter stress affect pork safety risk?Does pre-slaughter stress affect pork safety risk?
  • Salmonella entericaSalmonella enterica prevalence:prevalence: First pull versus close out groups of market pigsFirst pull versus close out groups of market pigs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Bacteriology Serology Prevalence(%) First Pull Close Out 43/405 (10.6%, 95%C.I. 6.03–15.2%) vs. 80/405 (19.8%, 95%C.I. 11.3–28.2%) 85/450 (18.9%, 95%C.I. 12.7–25.1%) vs. 226/450 (50.2%, 95%C.I. 12.7–25.1%) 9.2% P<0.05 31.3% P<0.05 Rostagno et al. (2009)
  • Effect of transport and lairageEffect of transport and lairage onon SalmonellaSalmonella prevalenceprevalence (Field Study)(Field Study)Prevalence(%) a,b,c: P<0.05 Rostagno & Richert (2010)
  • Ctr: Control FW: Feed Withdrawal (12 h) T: Transport (2 h) FWT: Feed Withdrawal + Transport a b a b a a a b a a a a IleumIleum CecumCecum RectumRectum Log10CFU/gofsample a,b:a,b: PP<0.05<0.05 SalmonellaSalmonella levels in market-weight pigslevels in market-weight pigs subjected to feed withdrawal and/or transportsubjected to feed withdrawal and/or transport Rostagno et al. (2012)
  • Effect of stress on the susceptibilityEffect of stress on the susceptibility of market-age pigs toof market-age pigs to SalmonellaSalmonella (Transport and/or mixing)(Transport and/or mixing) Rostagno & Lay (2012) a b b,c c aaa b a,b,c:a,b,c: PP<0.05<0.05 a,b:a,b: PP<0.05<0.05 C = Control M = Mixing w/ unfamiliar pig (6 h) T = Transport (1 h) T+M = Transport + Mixing
  • The effect of stress on microbial populations in the intestinal tract ofThe effect of stress on microbial populations in the intestinal tract of swine isswine is specific to some bacteriaspecific to some bacteria, and dependent on its, and dependent on its intensity/typeintensity/type,, and on the portion of the GI tractand on the portion of the GI tract where the bacteria is locatedwhere the bacteria is located.. This is way tooThis is way too complicated!!!complicated!!! Pre-slaughter stress increases shedding prevalencePre-slaughter stress increases shedding prevalence and levels ofand levels of Salmonella entericaSalmonella enterica in market-pigsin market-pigs Increased risk of carcass contaminationIncreased risk of carcass contamination  Increased pork safety risk !Increased pork safety risk !
  • CumulativeCumulative SalmonellaSalmonella fecal shedding frequencyfecal shedding frequency at 6 h post-challengeat 6 h post-challenge 41.7%b 25%a,b 0%a a,b: P<0.05 DDGS xDDGS x SalmonellaSalmonella Rostagno et al. (unpublished)
  • CumulativeCumulative SalmonellaSalmonella fecal shedding frequencyfecal shedding frequency at 21 d (3 wks) and 35 d (5 wks) post-challengeat 21 d (3 wks) and 35 d (5 wks) post-challenge a,b: P<0.05 40%a 25%b a,b: P<0.05 DDGS xDDGS x SalmonellaSalmonella 80%a 50%b Rostagno et al. (unpublished)
  • SalmonellaSalmonella ecology and epidemiologyecology and epidemiology in swine populations is very dynamic!!!in swine populations is very dynamic!!!
  • It changes over time and between cohortsIt changes over time and between cohorts Longitudinal sampling and testing is required for proper monitoring!Longitudinal sampling and testing is required for proper monitoring! Rostagno et al.(2012) Variable PrevalenceVariable Prevalence
  • Bacteriology x SerologyBacteriology x Serology Rostagno et al.(2012) Correlation (Spearman's rho) between fecal bacteriologic culture and serology prevalence estimates was moderate (0.59).
  • Investigation of On-FarmInvestigation of On-Farm SalmonellaSalmonella Risk Factors:Risk Factors: Some Critical Issues to ConsiderSome Critical Issues to Consider  Differences and Inconsistencies Observed…Differences and Inconsistencies Observed… -- Sampling Source (farm x abattoir)Sampling Source (farm x abattoir) -- Sampling Design (size, selection, type)Sampling Design (size, selection, type) -- Diagnostic Approach (bacteriology x serology)Diagnostic Approach (bacteriology x serology) -- Diagnostic Method (sensitivity and specificity)Diagnostic Method (sensitivity and specificity)  Differences Between Production Systems…Differences Between Production Systems…
  • What can we do about it???What can we do about it???
  • SalmonellaSalmonella Control Strategy:Control Strategy: Pre-harvest x Post-harvestPre-harvest x Post-harvest Post-harvest interventions seem to be more efficient.Post-harvest interventions seem to be more efficient. However…However… Pre-harvest interventions contribute to the effectiveness ofPre-harvest interventions contribute to the effectiveness of post-harvest interventions!post-harvest interventions! Pre-harvest interventions:Pre-harvest interventions: Strict Biosecurity and Hygiene/Disinfection ProgramStrict Biosecurity and Hygiene/Disinfection Program   Risk of exposure to infection sourcesRisk of exposure to infection sources  Persistence of the pathogen in the environmentPersistence of the pathogen in the environment ++ Peri-harvest transportation and lairage measuresPeri-harvest transportation and lairage measures From breeding herd to finishers!From breeding herd to finishers!
  • Targeted InterventionsTargeted Interventions In-feed or water:In-feed or water: ProbioticsProbiotics PrebioticsPrebiotics Organic acidsOrganic acids Essential oilsEssential oils Etc, etc, etc...Etc, etc, etc... Which one?Which one? When?When? ManipulationManipulation of theof the gastrointestinalgastrointestinal microbialmicrobial ecosystemecosystem There is no “silver bullet” to controlThere is no “silver bullet” to control SalmonellaSalmonella!!!!!! It must be done with a program!!!It must be done with a program!!!
  • Concluding Thought...Concluding Thought... ““The Salmonella challenge”The Salmonella challenge” Everyone has a critical role...Everyone has a critical role... Producers, processors, retailers, and consumers!Producers, processors, retailers, and consumers! Everyone must be committed,Everyone must be committed, or we won’t make progress!!!or we won’t make progress!!!
  •  USDA-ARS-LBRUUSDA-ARS-LBRU . Scientists. Scientists Dr. Donald LayDr. Donald Lay Dr. Susan EicherDr. Susan Eicher . Gary Nowling. Gary Nowling . Rita Lockeridge. Rita Lockeridge . Kim McMunn. Kim McMunn  Purdue UniversityPurdue University . Dr. Brian Richert. Dr. Brian Richert . Dr. Paul Ebner. Dr. Paul Ebner  Iowa State UniversityIowa State University . Dr. Scott Hurd. Dr. Scott Hurd . Dr. James McKean. Dr. James McKean  Undergraduate & Graduate StudentsUndergraduate & Graduate Students AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements