Food/Pork Safety AnalysisFood/Pork Safety Analysis
Marcos H. Rostagno, DVM, MPVM, PhD
USDA-ARS
West Lafayette, Indiana
WPX...
Contemporary ChallengesContemporary Challenges
in Animal Agriculturein Animal Agriculture
• Food Security
• Food Safety
• ...
Food SecurityFood Security
Global Food DemandGlobal Food Demand
20002000ss 20502050 60-70%60-70%
19701970ss – 1990– 1990...
 $$$ =$$$ =  ConsumptionConsumption
Global Production Increase
from 2001 to 2011
USDA (2011)
Total Global Production
(2011)
Beef  56.8 M ton
Poultry  81.0 M...
Agricultural illiteracyAgricultural illiteracy Technology rejectionTechnology rejection
Priorities driving consumer food choices
(Center for Food Integrity, 2012)
Safe
Affordable
Nutritious
(56.87%)
Productivit...
Availability + Safety of the food supplyAvailability + Safety of the food supply
Food Safety Issues:
 Chemical hazards
 ...
Pork Safety - Biological HazardsPork Safety - Biological Hazards
((PathogensPathogens))
Bacterial Pathogens:
Salmonella en...
Scallan et al. (2011)
According to USDA-ERSAccording to USDA-ERS
$2.3 billion (in 1998 U$)$2.3 billion (in 1998 U$)
Medica...
Incidence of foodborne pathogens in the U.S.
Healthy People 2010
Salmonella (6.8)
Campylobacter (12.3)
E. coli O157 (1.0)
...
SalmonellaSalmonella: a food safety priority for the pork industry!: a food safety priority for the pork industry!
Attribu...
Positive Salmonella tests in the PR/HACCP verification
testing program from 1998 to 2011
(Market hogs - All sizes)
www.fsi...
From Pig to PorkFrom Pig to Pork
SalmonellaSalmonella Prevalence and Levels in the GI tractPrevalence and Levels in the GI...
Salmonella enterica prevalence:
First pull versus close out groups of market pigs
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Bacteri...
Effect of transport and lairage
on Salmonella prevalence
(Field Study)Prevalence(%)
a,b,c: P<0.05
Rostagno & Richert (2010)
Ctr: Control
FW: Feed Withdrawal (12 h)
T: Transport (2 h)
FWT: Feed Withdrawal + Transport
a
b
a
b
a a
a
b
a a a a
IleumI...
Effect of stress on the susceptibility
of market-age pigs to Salmonella
(Transport and/or mixing)
Rostagno & Lay (in prepa...
www.fsis.usda.gov
Pork Safety - Biological HazardsPork Safety - Biological Hazards
((Antimicrobial ResistanceAntimicrobial Resistance))
What...
Antimicrobial Resistance: Food AnimalsAntimicrobial Resistance: Food Animals  HumansHumans
Phillips et al.(2004)Phillips...
ResiduesResidues
Resistant PathogensResistant Pathogens
Resistant CommensalsResistant Commensals
EnvironmentalEnvironmenta...
USDA – NARMS (2010)
CDC – NARMS (2010)
CDC – NARMS (2010)
““Alternative” Pork Production SystemsAlternative” Pork Production Systems
Assumption: Happy Pigs = Safe PorkAssumption: H...
“Alternative” Production Systems
Key changes:
 Housing facilities/conditions
 Management practices
Effects onEffects on
...
Foodborne (bacterial) PathogensFoodborne (bacterial) Pathogens
 Limited data available
 No clear pattern (Conventional x...
Pathogen Location Sample source Indoor Outdoor
Salmonella* Farm Feces 99.6% 0.4%
Slaughter Carcass pre-evisceration 10.4% ...
Antimicrobial ResistanceAntimicrobial Resistance
Quintana-Hayashi & Thakur (2012)
Tadesse et al. (2011)
Biological Hazards: PathogensBiological Hazards: Pathogens
Taenia solium
Toxoplasma gondii
Trichinella spiralis
ParasitesP...
Helminth Outdoor* Indoor (Extensive)** Indoor (Intensive)***
Ascaris + + +
Oesophagostomum + + (+)
Trichuris + + (+)
Stron...
Reference Production Stage Prevalence
Davies et al.(1998) Free-range 19%
Total confinement 0.01%
Wang et al. (2002) Sows (...
Pork-associated outbreaks???
Oh, yeah!Oh, yeah!
I’m safe!!!I’m safe!!!
Complexity = Risk of Unintended ConsequencesComplexity = Risk of Unintended Consequences
Does the pork industry have a problem???Does the pork industry have a problem???
Yes!Yes!
But, it’s not about safety!!!But...
Where does the consumer getWhere does the consumer get
information from???information from???
The (mis)information era!!!T...
““Super Bugs”Super Bugs”
““Super Bacteria”Super Bacteria”
““Antibiotic Apocalypse”Antibiotic Apocalypse”
““Factory Farm”Fa...
SCIENCESCIENCE
(Facts & Data)(Facts & Data)
CONSUMERCONSUMER
(Perception)(Perception)
The world is changing…
Consumer education is urgently needed!!!Consumer education is urgently needed!!!
“Given the central role
that food plays in
human welfare and
national stability, it is
shocking – not to
mention short-sig...
AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements
USDA-ARS Scientists
Purdue University Faculty
Gary Nowling
Rita Lockeridge
Lots of Studen...
Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Food Safety Analysis
Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Food Safety Analysis
Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Food Safety Analysis
Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Food Safety Analysis
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Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Food Safety Analysis

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Food Safety Analysis - Dr. Marcos Rostagno, USDA/ARS, from the 2013 World Pork Expo, June 5 - 7, 2013, Des Moines, IA, USA.

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Dr. Marcos Rostagno - Food Safety Analysis

  1. 1. Food/Pork Safety AnalysisFood/Pork Safety Analysis Marcos H. Rostagno, DVM, MPVM, PhD USDA-ARS West Lafayette, Indiana WPX – Pork Academy – Des Moines, IA (06/06/2013)
  2. 2. Contemporary ChallengesContemporary Challenges in Animal Agriculturein Animal Agriculture • Food Security • Food Safety • Animal Welfare • Environmental Impact
  3. 3. Food SecurityFood Security Global Food DemandGlobal Food Demand 20002000ss 20502050 60-70%60-70% 19701970ss – 1990– 1990ss::  50%50% Options:Options:  ProductivityProductivity (Technology)(Technology)  Area/landArea/land Combination of bothCombination of bothUnited Nations, FAO (2009)
  4. 4.  $$$ =$$$ =  ConsumptionConsumption
  5. 5. Global Production Increase from 2001 to 2011 USDA (2011) Total Global Production (2011) Beef  56.8 M ton Poultry  81.0 M ton Pork  101.1 M ton Pork has beenPork has been the meat productthe meat product most consumed andmost consumed and produced, since 1979!produced, since 1979!
  6. 6. Agricultural illiteracyAgricultural illiteracy Technology rejectionTechnology rejection
  7. 7. Priorities driving consumer food choices (Center for Food Integrity, 2012) Safe Affordable Nutritious (56.87%) Productivity Profitability (8.12%) Environment Welfare (35.01%)
  8. 8. Availability + Safety of the food supplyAvailability + Safety of the food supply Food Safety Issues:  Chemical hazards  Physical hazards  Biological hazards . Pathogens . Antimicrobial Resistance Quality assurance Complex challenges On-farm (pre-harvest) focus
  9. 9. Pork Safety - Biological HazardsPork Safety - Biological Hazards ((PathogensPathogens)) Bacterial Pathogens: Salmonella enterica Campylobacter coli Listeria monocytogenes Yersinia enterocolitica Emerging Pathogens: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clostridium difficile Hepatitis E virus Caliciviruses Noroviruses Parasites: Taenia solium Trichinella spiralis Toxoplasma gondii
  10. 10. Scallan et al. (2011) According to USDA-ERSAccording to USDA-ERS $2.3 billion (in 1998 U$)$2.3 billion (in 1998 U$) Medical costs and productivity lossesMedical costs and productivity losses Frenzen et al.(1999)
  11. 11. Incidence of foodborne pathogens in the U.S. Healthy People 2010 Salmonella (6.8) Campylobacter (12.3) E. coli O157 (1.0) Source: www.cdc.gov/foodnet/data/reports.html
  12. 12. SalmonellaSalmonella: a food safety priority for the pork industry!: a food safety priority for the pork industry! Attribution: Pork productsAttribution: Pork products  5-30% Human salmonellosis5-30% Human salmonellosis US (6-9%)US (6-9%) EU (15-25%)EU (15-25%) Salmonella prevalence + levels in the GIT (Determinants of the pork safety risk) Berends et al.(1996): Infected pig  Harvest line = 3 - 4x risk of Salmonella-contaminated carcass SalmonellaSalmonella contamination of pork occurs within abattoirscontamination of pork occurs within abattoirs (Harvest and processing line)(Harvest and processing line) Infected pigs (“carriers”)Infected pigs (“carriers”)
  13. 13. Positive Salmonella tests in the PR/HACCP verification testing program from 1998 to 2011 (Market hogs - All sizes) www.fsis.usda.gov
  14. 14. From Pig to PorkFrom Pig to Pork SalmonellaSalmonella Prevalence and Levels in the GI tractPrevalence and Levels in the GI tract Salmonella Salmonella contamination risk contamination risk FarmFarm TransportTransport LairageLairage Harvest &Harvest & ProcessingProcessing
  15. 15. Salmonella enterica prevalence: First pull versus close out groups of market pigs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Bacteriology Serology Prevalence(%) First Pull Close Out 43/405 (10.6%, 95%C.I. 6.03–15.2%) vs. 80/405 (19.8%, 95%C.I. 11.3–28.2%) 85/450 (18.9%, 95%C.I. 12.7–25.1%) vs. 226/450 (50.2%, 95%C.I. 12.7–25.1%) 9.2% P<0.05 31.3% P<0.05 Rostagno et al. (2009)
  16. 16. Effect of transport and lairage on Salmonella prevalence (Field Study)Prevalence(%) a,b,c: P<0.05 Rostagno & Richert (2010)
  17. 17. Ctr: Control FW: Feed Withdrawal (12 h) T: Transport (2 h) FWT: Feed Withdrawal + Transport a b a b a a a b a a a a IleumIleum CecumCecum RectumRectum Log10CFU/gofsample a,b:a,b: PP<0.05<0.05 Salmonella levels in market-weight pigs subjected to feed withdrawal and/or transport Rostagno et al. (2012)
  18. 18. Effect of stress on the susceptibility of market-age pigs to Salmonella (Transport and/or mixing) Rostagno & Lay (in preparation) a b b,c c aaa b a,b,c:a,b,c: PP<0.05<0.05 a,b:a,b: PP<0.05<0.05 C = Control M = Mixing w/ unfamiliar pig (6 h) T = Transport (1 h) T+M = Transport + Mixing
  19. 19. www.fsis.usda.gov
  20. 20. Pork Safety - Biological HazardsPork Safety - Biological Hazards ((Antimicrobial ResistanceAntimicrobial Resistance)) What???
  21. 21. Antimicrobial Resistance: Food AnimalsAntimicrobial Resistance: Food Animals  HumansHumans Phillips et al.(2004)Phillips et al.(2004)
  22. 22. ResiduesResidues Resistant PathogensResistant Pathogens Resistant CommensalsResistant Commensals EnvironmentalEnvironmental ContaminationContamination Potential Routes of Antimicrobial ResistancePotential Routes of Antimicrobial Resistance Transmission From Pigs to HumansTransmission From Pigs to Humans
  23. 23. USDA – NARMS (2010)
  24. 24. CDC – NARMS (2010)
  25. 25. CDC – NARMS (2010)
  26. 26. ““Alternative” Pork Production SystemsAlternative” Pork Production Systems Assumption: Happy Pigs = Safe PorkAssumption: Happy Pigs = Safe Pork
  27. 27. “Alternative” Production Systems Key changes:  Housing facilities/conditions  Management practices Effects onEffects on ecology and epidemiologyecology and epidemiology of pathogensof pathogens ?????? ““All Natural”All Natural” ““Free-Range”Free-Range” ““Organic”Organic”  Outdoor accessOutdoor access
  28. 28. Foodborne (bacterial) PathogensFoodborne (bacterial) Pathogens  Limited data available  No clear pattern (Conventional x Alternative) However…However…
  29. 29. Pathogen Location Sample source Indoor Outdoor Salmonella* Farm Feces 99.6% 0.4% Slaughter Carcass pre-evisceration 10.4% 89.6% Slaughter Carcass post-evisceration 14.1% 85.9% Slaughter Carcass post-chill 37.5% 62.5% Campylobacter** Farm Feces 55.7% 44.3% Slaughter Carcass pre-evisceration 9.4% 90.6% Slaughter Carcass post-evisceration 44.2% 55.8% Slaughter Carcass post-chill 0% 100% Proportion of Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates recovered from pigs originating from indoor and outdoor production systems Adapted from Gebreyes et al. (2005)** and Thakur et al. (2007)*.
  30. 30. Antimicrobial ResistanceAntimicrobial Resistance Quintana-Hayashi & Thakur (2012) Tadesse et al. (2011)
  31. 31. Biological Hazards: PathogensBiological Hazards: Pathogens Taenia solium Toxoplasma gondii Trichinella spiralis ParasitesParasites
  32. 32. Helminth Outdoor* Indoor (Extensive)** Indoor (Intensive)*** Ascaris + + + Oesophagostomum + + (+) Trichuris + + (+) Strongyloides + +   Hyostrongylus + (+)   Metastrongylus +     Stephanurus (+) (+)   Ascarops (+)     Physocephalus (+)     Macracanthorhynchus (+)     Trichinella (+) (+)   Taenia (+)     Schistosoma (+)     Fasciola (+)     Dicrocoelium (+)     Occurrence of helminths in different types of pork production systems Adapted from Nansen and Roepstorff (1999)
  33. 33. Reference Production Stage Prevalence Davies et al.(1998) Free-range 19% Total confinement 0.01% Wang et al. (2002) Sows (Not confined) 20.2% Sows (Confined) 11.6% Market hogs (Not confined) 4.4% Market hogs (Confined) 2.3% Gebreyes et al. (2008) Outdoor 6.8% Indoor 1.1% Toxoplasma gondiiToxoplasma gondii in the U.S.in the U.S.
  34. 34. Pork-associated outbreaks??? Oh, yeah!Oh, yeah! I’m safe!!!I’m safe!!!
  35. 35. Complexity = Risk of Unintended ConsequencesComplexity = Risk of Unintended Consequences
  36. 36. Does the pork industry have a problem???Does the pork industry have a problem??? Yes!Yes! But, it’s not about safety!!!But, it’s not about safety!!!
  37. 37. Where does the consumer getWhere does the consumer get information from???information from??? The (mis)information era!!!The (mis)information era!!!
  38. 38. ““Super Bugs”Super Bugs” ““Super Bacteria”Super Bacteria” ““Antibiotic Apocalypse”Antibiotic Apocalypse” ““Factory Farm”Factory Farm”
  39. 39. SCIENCESCIENCE (Facts & Data)(Facts & Data) CONSUMERCONSUMER (Perception)(Perception) The world is changing…
  40. 40. Consumer education is urgently needed!!!Consumer education is urgently needed!!!
  41. 41. “Given the central role that food plays in human welfare and national stability, it is shocking – not to mention short-sighted and potentially dangerous – how little money is spent on agricultural research.” Bill Gates
  42. 42. AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements USDA-ARS Scientists Purdue University Faculty Gary Nowling Rita Lockeridge Lots of Students!!! Thank you!!!Thank you!!!

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